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Week 9

7-8 An 8.00 kg package in a mail-sorting room slides 2.00 m down a chute that is inclined at 53.0

below the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the package and the chutes

surface is 0.40. Calculate the work done on the package by (a) friction, (b) gravity, and (c)

the normal force. (d) What is the net work done on the package?

SetUp:Use W FPs F cos f s tocalculatetheworkdoneineachofparts(a)through(c).In

part(d),thenetworkconsistsofthecontributionsduetoallthreeforces,or

Wnet Wgrav Wn W f

Solve:(a)Asthepackageslides,workisdonebythefrictionalforcewhichactsat f 1808tothe

displacement.Thenormalforceis mg cos 53.08. Thusfor mk 0.40,

W f FPs f k cos f s mk n cos f s mk mg cos 53.08

0.40 8.00 kg 9.80 m/s 2 cos 53.08

cos1808 s

cos1808 2.00 m

38 J

(b)Workisdonebythecomponentofthegravitationalforceparalleltothedisplacement.

f 908 538 378andtheworkofgravityis:

Wgrav mg cos f s 8.00 kg 9.80 m/s 2 cos 37.08

2.00 m 125 J

(c) Wn 0 sincethenormalforceisperpendiculartothedisplacement.

(d)Thenetworkdoneonthepackageis:

Wnet Wgrav Wn W f 125 J 0.0 J 38 J 87 J

7.11

A boxed 10.0 kg computer monitor is dragged by friction 5.50 m up along the moving

surface of a conveyor belt inclined at an angle of 36.9 above the horizontal. If the

monitors speed is a constant 2.1 cm/s, how much work is done on the monitor by (a)

friction, (b) gravity, (c) the normal force of the conveyor belt?

SetUp:Sincethespeedisconstant,theaccelerationandthenetforceonthemonitorarezero.Use

thisfacttodevelopexpressionsforthefrictionforce, f k , andthenormalforce,n.Thenuse

W FPs F cos f s tocalculateW.

Solve:(a)Summingforcesalongtheincline,

g F ma 0 f k mg sin u

giving f k mg cos u, directeduptheincline.Substituting,

10.0 kg 9.80 m/s 2 sin 36.98

cos 08 5.50 m

324 J

(b)Thegravityforceisdownwardandthedisplacementisdirecteduptheinclineso f 126.98.

Wgrav 10.0 kg 9.80 m/s 2 cos126.98 5.50 m 324 J

(c)Thenormalforce,n,isperpendiculartothedisplacementandthusdoeszerowork.

Reflect:Frictiondoespositiveworkandgravitydoesnegativework.Thenetworkdoneiszero.

7.14

Adult cheetahs, the fastest of the great cats, have a mass of 70 kg and have been clocked at

72 mph (32 m/s). (a) How many joules of kinetic energy does such a swift cheetah have? (b)

By what factor would its kinetic energy change if its speed were doubled?

Solve:(a) K

1

2

70 kg 32 m/s

3.6 3 10 4 J

7.19

The driver of an 1800 kg car (including passengers) traveling at 23.0 m slam on the brakes,

locking the wheels on the dry pavement. The coefficient of kinetic friction is typically 0.70.

(a) Use the work-energy principle to calculate how far the car will travel before stop. (b)

How far would the car travel if it were going twice as fast? (c) What happened to the cars

original kinetic energy?

duetofriction, Fnet s f k s mk mgs. Also,sincethecarstops, K f 0.

Solve:(a) Wnet K f K i Fnet s gives 12 myi 2 mk mgs. Solvingforthedistance,

23.0 m/s

y2

s i

38.6 m

2mk g 2 0.700 9.80 m/s 2

2

m.

(c)Theoriginalkineticenergywasconvertedintothermalenergybythenegativeworkoffriction.

Reflect:Tostopthecarfrictionmustdonegativeworkequalinmagnitudetotheinitialkinetic

energyofthecar.

7-21 You throw a 20 N rock into the air from ground level and observe that, when it is 15.0 m high,

it is traveling upward at 25 m/s. Use the work-energy principle to find (a) the rocks speed

just as it left the ground and (b) the maximum height the rock will reach.

SetUp:Fromtheworkenergyrelation, W Wgrav DK rock or FPs K f K i . Astherockrises,the

gravitationalforce, F mg , doesworkontherock.Sincethisforceactsinthedirectionoppositeto

themotionanddisplacement,s,theworkisnegative.

Solve:(a)Applying FPs K f K i weobtain:

mgh 12 myf 2 12 myi 2

Dividingbymandsolvingfor yi , yi yf 2 2 gh . Substituting h 15.0 m and yf 25.0 m/s,

yi

25.0 m/s

(b)Solvethesameworkenergyrelationforh.Atthemaximumheight yf 0.

mgh 12 myf 2 12 myi 2

yi 2 yf 2 30.3 m/s 0.0 m/s

h

46.8 m

2g

2 9.80 m/s 2

2

Reflect:Notethattheweightof20Nwasneverusedinthecalculationsbecausebothgravitational

potentialandkineticenergyareproportionaltomass,m.Thusanyobject,thatattains 25.0 m/s ata

heightof15.0m,musthaveaninitialvelocityof 30.3 m/s. Astherockmovesupwardgravitydoes

negativeworkandthisreducesthekineticenergyoftherock.

7.23

A 61 kg skier on level snow coasts 184 to a stop from a speed of 12.0 m/s. (a) Use the workenergy principle to find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the skis and the snow. (b)

suppose a 75 kg skier with twice the starting speed coasted the same distance before

stopping. Find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the skiers skis and the snow.

Solve:(a)Settingthetwoexpressionfornetworkequal, Wnet mk mgs 12 myi 2 . Solvingforthe

coefficientofkineticfriction,

12.0 m/s

y2

mk i

3.99 3 102

2 gs 2 9.80 m/s 2 184 m

2

constantthen mk increasesbyafactorof4; mk 0.160.

Reflect:Tostoptheskierfrictiondoesnegativeworkthatisequalinmagnitudetotheinitialkinetic

energyoftheskier.

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