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Frame and grid in FME

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FiniteElementAnalysis(ENGR455)

Dr.AndreasSchiffer

AssistantProfessor,MechanicalEngineering

Tel:+971(0)24018204

andreas.schiffer@kustar.ac.ae

Introduction

Many structures such as buildings and

bridges are composed of frame and/or

grid systems.

In this chapter we develop the finite

element equations of plane frames and

grids.

First, we will develop the stiffness matrix

for a beam element arbitrarily oriented

in a plane.

Then, we will include the axial nodal

displacement degree of freedom in the

local beam element stiffness matrix.

PlaneFrameDefinition

A rigid plane frame is defined as a series of beam elements

arbitrarily oriented in a plane and rigidly connected to each

other at their joints.

This means that the original angles made between elements at their

joints remain unchanged after the deformation.

Furthermore, forces AND moments are transmitted from one element

to another at the joints. Hence, moment continuity exists at the rigid

joints.

FBD

2

1

2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement

We can derive the stiffness matrix for an arbitrarily oriented beam element,

in a manner similar to that used for the bar element.

The local axes are located along the beam element and transverse to the

beam element, respectively; the global axes, x and y, are located to be

convenient for the total structure.

Recall the transformation between global and local coordinates

2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement

For the beam element, we can relate local nodal degrees of freedom to

global degree of freedom as follows. In the global system, each node has

3 DOFs instead of 2 DOFs:

transformation matrix

Notice that the rotations are not affected by the orientation of the beam.

Substituting the above transformation into the general form of the stiffness

matrix gives

[k] depends on

E, I, L, and .

2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement

Lets now consider the effect of an axial force in the beam transformation

Combining the axial effects with the shear force and bending moment

effects, in local coordinates gives

f k d

2DArbitrarilyOrientedBeamElement

Now, since the element has 6 DOFs instead of 4, the transformation matrix

becomes a square matrix (6 x 6)

matrix becomes

[k] depends on

E, A, L, I and .

transformation matrix

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)

Consider the following plane frame.

= 120 in

Let E = 30 x 106 psi and A = 10 in2 for all elements, and let I = 200 in4 for elements 1

and 3, and I = 100 in4 for element 2.

Element 1: The angle between x and x is 90

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)

Element 2: The angle between x and x is 0

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)

Now assemble the global stiffness matrix and apply the BCs:

[K] =

[K]

10

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)

Solve the reduced system of

equations for the unknown DOFs:

The results indicate that the top of the frame moves to the right with negligible vertical

displacement and small rotations of elements at nodes 2 and 3.

The element forces can now be obtained using

nodal DOFs in

local coordinates

Stiffness matrix in

local coordinates

11

PlaneFrameExamples(5.1)

Repeat this procedure for Elements 2 and 3.

Free-body diagrams of the three elements:

12

StressesinPlaneFrames

The stresses in a frame element can be computed from the nodal displacements and

rotations in the local coordinate system. In general, two types of stresses are induced:

(a) Stresses in the x-direction due to bending, xb

Superposition

of xb and xa:

fx

fx

13

StressesinPlaneFrames

First, compute the bending stress, xb. The relationship between the stresses

and nodal displacements for a beam are

in local coordinates!

modulus of elasticity

where

[B] =

and

In order to find the maximum bending stress, evaluate the above stress formula at

the extreme fiber y = ymax.

Then, calculate the axial (bar) stress, xa. Here, we can use the

stress/displacement relationship for a bar element

modulus of elasticity

where

and

in local coordinates!

14

StressesinPlaneFrames

Finally combine both stress fields and compute the maximum tensile and

compressive stress.

Superposition of xb and xa:

x,max

y=R

y=0

R

y = -R

x,min

15

Example

In example 5.1, the nodal displacements for element 1 in local coordinates were

calculated as

axial effect

=

bending effect

Assume a circular cross-section of radius = 1.78 in. Then, the bending stress at

y = 1.78 in is

xb = - 1.78 E

= 3333 psi

xa = E

= 370 psi

x,min = -3333 + 370 = -2963 psi

16

PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)

Consider the frame shown in the figure below.

The frame is fixed at nodes 1 and 3 and subjected to a distributed load of 1,000 lb/ft applied

along element 2.

Let E = 30 x 106 psi and A = 100 in2 for all elements, and let I = 1,000 in4 for all elements.

First we need to replace the distributed load with a set of equivalent nodal forces and

moments acting at nodes 2 and 3.

For a beam subjected to a uniform distributed load, w, the equivalent nodal forces and

moments are (Appendix D):

17

PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)

For the sake of simplicity, we consider only the parts of the stiffness matrix associated with the

three degrees of freedom at node 2 (nodes 1 and 2 fixed, zero displacement and rotation). This

reduces the size of the elements stiffness matrices to 3 x 3.

Element 1: = 45

18

PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)

Element 2: = 0

19

PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)

Superimposing the stiffness matrices of the elements using the nodal forces and moments at

node 2 (node 3 fixed) and solving the equations yields

Local forces for Element 1: = 45

20

PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)

Local forces for Element 2: no transformation required since = 0

For Element 2 we need to subtract from the above result the equivalent nodal forces used to

replace the distributed load.

21

PlaneFrameExamples(5.2)

Free-body diagrams of the two elements

22

PlaneFrameExamples(5.4)

The frame shown below is fixed at nodes 2 and 3 and subjected

to a concentrated load of 500 kN applied at node 1. For the bar,

A = 1 x 10-3 m2, for the beam, A = 2 x 10-3 m2, I = 5 x 10-5 m4, and

L = 3 m. Let E = 210 GPa for both elements.

Again, for brevitys sake, since nodes 2 and 3 are fixed, we keep

only the parts of the parts of the elements stiffness matrices that

are needed to obtain the global [K]-matrix necessary for solution

of the nodal degrees of freedom.

Bar element: = 45

23

PlaneFrameExamples(5.4)

We now assemble the stiffness matrix for the whole structure, apply the loading and write the

system of governing equations for node 1 only:

[K]

Force at node 1:

24

PlaneFrameExamples(5.4)

Calculate the forces and moments in the Beam Element for node 1:

Free-body diagram

25

GridAnalysis

A grid is a structure on which loads are

applied perpendicular to the plane of the

structure, as opposed to a plane frame, where

loads are applied in the plane of the structure.

Due to the out-of-plane loading, both torsional and

bending moment continuity are maintained at each

node in a grid element.

Typical grid structures include floors of buildings

and bridge decks.

26

GridElementStiffnessMatrix

We will now develop the stiffness element of a grid element.

The grid element can also support torsional moments; therefore, the torsional rotation needs

to be considered in the stiffness equation.

The DOFs are: vertical displacement diy (normal to the grid), torsional rotation

x-axis, and a bending rotation

about the

For the sake of simplicity, any effects of axial displacement are ignored (no dix); hence, our

grid elements do not resist axial loading.

27

GridElementStiffnessMatrix

Step 1: Consider the sign convention for torsional rotation

Note that the choice of a linear polynomial was not arbitrary. Since there are two rotational DOFs on

the grid element, a linear polynomial provides the right number of unknown coefficients a1 and a2.

Applying the boundary conditions and solving for the unknown coefficients gives

Matrix form

Shear strain as a function of the twist angle (see Textbook):

Hookes law for shear stresses:

G shear modulus

28

GridElementStiffnessMatrix

Step 4: Derive the elements stiffness matrix

From elementary mechanics, we have the shear stress related to the applied torque by

J polar moment of inertia

Nodal torque sign convention:

Then, the governing equations for the torsional moments become

where

Combining the torsional effects with

the bending effects, we obtain

the local stiffness matrix equations

for a grid element:

29

GridElementStiffnessMatrix

The transformation matrix for the grid element is

The local stiffness matrix in the global coordinates is given by

Now that we have formulated the global stiffness matrix for the grid element, the procedure

for solution then follows in the same manner as that for the plane frame.

We shall illustrate the use of the developed questions in the following example problems.

30

ExampleProblem(5.5)

Consider the grid shown in the figure below. The frame is fixed at nodes 2, 3, and 4,

and is subjected to a load of 100 kips applied at node 1. Assume I = 400 in4, J = 110

in4, G = 12 x 103 ksi, and E = 30 x 103 ksi for all elements. To facilitate a timely

solution, apply the boundary conditions at nodes 2, 3, and 4 to the local stiffness

matrices at the beginning of the solution process.

31

ExampleProblem(5.5)

Only node 1 needs to be considered since all DOFs associated with the remaining nodes are

constrained to zer0.

x-coordinate of node 2 minus

x-coordinate of node 1

32

ExampleProblem(5.5)

Stiffness matrix of Element 2:

Using

we obtain

33

ExampleProblem(5.5)

Upon superposition of the element stiffness matrices in the global coordinate system, we obtain

the total stiffness matrix of the whole structure for node 1

Solution

The results indicate that the y displacement at node 1 is downward as indicated by the minus

sign, the rotation about the x axis is positive, and the rotation about the z axis is negative. Based

on the downward loading location with respect to the supports, these results are expected.

Having solved for the unknown displacement and the rotations, we can obtain the local element

forces on formulating the element equations in a manner similar to that for the beam and the

plane frame.

34

ExampleProblem(5.6)

Consider the frame shown in the figure below, where a load of 22 kN is applied at

node 2. All other nodes are fully fixed. Assume I = 16.6 x 10-5 m4, J = 4.6 x 10-5 m4,

G = 84 GPa, and E = 210 GPa for all elements. To facilitate a timely solution, apply

the boundary conditions at nodes 1 and 3 to the local stiffness matrices at the

beginning of the solution process.

35

ExampleProblem(5.6)

Recall the stiffness matrix of a grid element:

Transformation matrix:

local coordinates global coordinates

Stiffness matrix of Element 1 in global coordinates:

Using

we obtain

36

ExampleProblems(5.6)

Stiffness matrix of Element 2 in global coordinates:

Using

we obtain

37

ExampleProblem(5.6)

Now we employ

Element 1:

38

ExampleProblem(5.6)

We can use the same procedure for Element 2. The results for the local forces/moments are

39

PracticeProblem5.4(Frames)

For the rigid frame shown in the figure below, determine (1) the nodal

displacements and rotation at node 4, (2) the forces and moments in each

elements, and (3) provide a free-body diagram of nodal forces and moments

for each element. (4) Then check equilibrium at node 4.

Let E = 30 x 106 psi, A = 8 in2, and I = 800 in4 for all elements.

40

PracticeProblem5.7(Frames)

For the rigid frame shown in the figure below, determine the displacements

and rotations of node 2 and the element forces/moments. Also provide a freebody diagram of each element and the whole structure.

The values of E, A, and I to be used are listed next to the figure.

41

PracticeProblem5.8(Frames)

For the rigid frame shown in the figure below, determine equivalent nodal

forces/moments and solve for the unknown displacements and rotations.

The values of E, A, and I to be used are listed next to the figure.

42

PracticeProblem5.51(Grids)

For the grid shown in figure below, determine the nodal displacements and

the local element forces.

Let E = 210 GPa, G = 84 GPa, I = 2 x 10-4 m4, J = 1 x 10-4 m4, and

A = 1 x 10-2 m2.

43

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