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SEMI MICRO QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE

INORGANIC SALT
I. PRELIMINARY TEST
OBSERVATION

1.

INFERENCE

EXPERIMENT
Colour and
appearance :

2. Solubility:

A pinch of the salt is


shaken with test
tube of water

a. soluble

a. S.S. prepared in
water

b. insoluble
b. S.S prepared in
dil.HCl

II. IDENTIFICATION OF ACID RADICAL


Reactions of group-I acid
radical
OBSERVATION
3.

EXPERIMENT
Salt + dil. H2SO4
Pass the gas through
lime water.

INFERENCE

Brisk effervescence ,
a colorless gas is
evolved.
-

Lime water turns


milky.

Carbonate ion (CO3 2)


is present and
confirmed

Reactions of group-II acid


radical
4. Salt + Conc. H2S O4
in a dry test tube.

a. vigorous reaction ,a
colorless gas which
gives dense white
fumes with a glass rod
dipped NH4OH shown
near the mouth of the
T.T
b. reddish brown
vapours are evolved

a. Chloride ion (Cl- ) is


present

b. Bromide ion (Br- ) is


present

5.

To the above solution


add copper turnings
and heat

c. Violet vapours are


evolved.

c. Iodide ion is
present.

Reddish brown fumes


are evolved and the
solution turns blue.

nitrate ion (NO3-)is


present

Confirmatory test for Cl-

, Br- , I-

(Silver nitrate test)


6.

S.S + dil.HNO3 +
AgNO3

a. curdy white ppt


soluble in excess of
NH4OH
b. pale yellow ppt
sparingly soluble in
excess of NH4OH
c. yellow ppt insoluble
in excess of NH4OH

confirmed

b. Br-

confirmed

a. Cl

c. I-

confirmed

Confirmatory test for Cl- (Chromyl


chloride test)
7.

Salt+ potassium
dichromate solid +
Conc. H2SO4 + heat
Pass the gas that is
evolved through
NaOH solution.
The solution is
acidified with acetic
acid and add lead
acetate solution .

8.

Orange red vapours


Solution become
Yellow

Cl-

confirmed

Yellow ppt

Confirmatory test for NO3- (Brown ring test)


S.S+ freshly prepared A brown ring is formed Nitrate ion (NO3-)
Fe SO4 solution+ Con.
H2SO4 along the sides
of the test tube

at the junction of two


liquids

confirmed

Reactions of group-III acid


radical

OBSERVATION
9.

EXPERIMENT
Test for Sulphate:
S.S + BaCl2 solution.

A white ppt insoluble


in dil.HCl even on
heating

INFERENCE
SO4

-2

present

Confirmatory test for Sulphate


ion
10
.

Lead acetate test:


S.S + acetic acid +
lead acetate solution.

White ppt

SO4 2confirmed

The acid radical was found to


be

III. IDENTIFICATION OF BASIC RADICAL


Reactions of group zero basic
radical
OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

EXPERIMENT
11
.

Test for NH4 ion:


Salt + NaOH solution
+ boil

A pungent smelling
gas which gives dense
white fumes glass rod

NH4

ion is present

with a glass rod


dipped in Conc.HCl is
evolved

Confirmatory test for NH4+ ion


12
.

Nesslers reagent
test:
S.S + Nesslers
reagent

Reddish brown ppt

NH4

ion is confirmed

Preparation of Salt solution: A concentrated solution of the given salt is


prepared by dissolving it in..

Group-I GroupII
S.S +
dil.HCl

No ppt
Pb+2
absent

S.S +
dil.HCl+
H2S(g)

No ppt
Cu+2
absent

Group-III

Group separation chart


Group-IV
Group-V Group-VI

S.S +
NH4Cl(s)+
NH4OH (Ex)

S.S +
NH4Cl(s)+
NH4OH (Ex)
+ H2S(g)

S.S +
NH4Cl(s)+
NH4OH
(Ex) +
(NH4)2CO3

No
common
group
reagent

Gelatinous
white ppt
Al+3 present

Greyish
white ppt
Zn+2 present
Buff ppt
Mn+2 present
Black ppt

White ppt

Mg+2 may
be
present

Ba+2 / Sr+2/
Ca+2
present

Ni+2 / Co+2

No ppt
Al+3 absent

present
No ppt
+2

No ppt
+2

Zn / Mn /
Ni+2 / Co+2

Ba+2 / Sr+2/
Ca+2

absent

absent

Reactions of group-III basic


radical
OBSERVATION
13
.

EXPERIMENT
S.S + NH4OH solution
drop by drop to
excess.

White gelatinous ppt


insoluble in excess.

INFERENCE
Al+3 present

Confirmatory test for Al+3


14
.

S.S + NaOH solution


drop by drop to
excess.

White gelatinous ppt


which is soluble in
excess NaOH.
Al+3 confirmed

To the above solution


add NH4Cl(s) and
warm.

White gelatinous ppt


reappears.

Reactions of group-IV basic radical


15

S.S + NaOH solution


drop by drop.

a. white ppt soluble in


excess

a. Zn+2 present
b. Mn+2 present

b. white ppt insoluble


in excess of NaOH
turns brown on
exposure to air

Confirmatory test for Zn +2


16
.

S.S+ potassium
Pale green ppt
ferrocyanide solution.

Zn+2 confirmed

Confirmatory test for Mn+2


17
.

S.S+ PbO2 (s)+ Con.


HNO3 boil, cool and
dilute with water

Supernatant solution
turns pink in colour

Mn+2 confirmed

Confirmatory test for Co+2


18
.

S.S+ NH4OH
solution+ acetic acid

Yellow ppt

Co+2 confirmed

solution + crystals of
potassium nitrite.
warm.

Confirmatory test for Ni+2


19
.

S.S+ NaOH + few


drops of dimethyl
glyoxime

Bright red ppt

Ni+2 confirmed

Reactions of group-V basic


radical
OBSERVATION
20
.

EXPERIMENT
S.S+ acetic acid+
potassium chromate
solution.

Yellow ppt.

INFERENCE
Ba+2 present.

Confirmatory test for Ba+2


21
.

22
.

Salt + Conc.HCl
.make a paste with
glass rod and then
introduced it into the
flame.
S.S + ammonium
Sulphate solution.

Apple green colour is


imparted to the flame.

white ppt

Ba+2 confirmed.

Sr+2 present

Confirmatory test for Sr+2


23
.

24
.

Salt + Conc.HCl
.make a paste with
glass rod and then
introduced it into the
flame
S.S+ NH4OH
solution+ ammonium
oxalate solution.

Crimson red colour is


imparted to the flame

Sr+2 confirmed

White ppt

Ca+2 present

Confirmatory test for Ca+2


25
.

Salt + Conc.HCl
.make a paste with

Brick red colour is


imparted to the flame

Ca+2 confirmed

glass rod and then


introduced it into the
flame

Reactions of group-VI basic


radical
26
.

S.S + NH4Cl(s)+
NH4OH (Ex)
+ammonium
phosphate (scratch
the inner side of the
test tube with a glass
rod)

Result:

White crystalline ppt

Mg+2 present and


confirmed

The acid radical was found to be.

The basic radical was found to be


The salt is

-2

SCO3