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6-1

CHAPTER 6

MECHANICAL DESIGN

6.1

Mechanical Design Of Esterification Reactor 1 (R-101)

6.1.1

Determination Of Orientation Of Reactor

The esterification reactor is designed as a vertical vessel. Since we are dealing with
boiling process, this vertical orientation will provide bigger surface area for
vaporization of the liquid reactants. Bigger surface will hence increases the rate of
products formation per unit time.
6.1.2

Determination Of Material Of Construction

The material of construction selected for the reactor system is stainless steel (316).
Acetic acid and para-toluene sulphonic acid utilized in this process give a very
significant corrosion effect to the reactor. Hence, stainless steel is the best material
to be used since it can resist such effect very well. The components in the stainless
steel (316) has provide following functions.
a) Nickel increases toughness and improves low temperature properties and
corrosion resistance.
b) Chromium improves hardness, abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance and
resistance to oxidation.
c) Molybdenum provides strength at elevated temperature. Greater strength
can permits thinner walls in process equipments.
6.1.3

Selection Of Impeller Arrangement

The turbine with flat vertical blades extending to the shaft is suited to the vast
majority of mixing duties up to 100,000 cP or so at high pumping capacity. Because
of that the turbine with flat vertical blades is selected [Sinnot 1999].

6-2
Size of impeller depends on the type of impeller and operating conditions.
For turbine impeller, the ratio of diameter of impeller and vessel is in the range of
d/D = 0.3 to 0.6.

Take the ratio of diameter of impeller and vessel as 0.4, hence

The diameter of impeller,

d 0.4 2.435

(6.1.1)

d 0.974 m
The width of impeller,

d 8

(6.1.2)

0.974 8 0.12m
The offset of baffle

d 2

(6.1.3)

0.974 / 2 0.487 m 0.5 m


The baffle width,

D 12

(6.1.4)

2.435 12 0.203 m
The space between impeller and vessel bottom
= H/6

(6.1.5)

= 7.305/6 = 1.2175 m

The baffle height,

H H 6
7.305m 1.2175m 6.0875m

(6.1.6)

6-3
The space between impeller

H 3

(6.1.7)

7.305 3 2.435m
6.1.3.1

Shaft Design

Before shaft design can begin, the motor horsepower, shaft speed and impeller
must be selected first for a turbine agitator application. Shaft design requires two
steps:
1) Establishing the minimum shaft diameter to withstand the forces
acting upon the shaft
2) Determining the natural frequency of vibration for the shaft and
turbines

The shaft and impeller must not rotate close to their natural frequency, N c. As stated
in Journal of Liquid Agitation on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C.
Zoller, the operating speed,N of the shaft must be sufficiently far from the systems
natural frequency to prevent the deflections that exceed the yield stress. Then,

Nc N .
6.1.3.2

Speed Impeller

D 394 (

Hp
nS g N

)5
3

(6.1.8)

where D = blade diameter


Hp = horsepower
n = number of blade
Sggg == specific gravity of 2-EHA
N = speed impeller

For typical power consumption for blending of low viscosity liquids. It is about 0.2
kW/m3 (Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 1, page 293)

6-4
Then, power for the agitator,P is;

P p xV

(6.1.9)

where p = power consumption per volume (kW/m3)


V = volume of reactor in m3

P 0.2

kW
x 34 m3
3
m

P = 6.8 kW @ 9.1189 hp

The speed of impeller can be calculated as below

0.974 394 (

1
9.1189
5
)
4(0.887) N 3

9.2324 1014

2.5702
N3

N 3 30307.54
Speed impeller, N 158.63 rpm

The torque transmitted by the shaft will have the maximum value above the
uppermost turbine. Since the power drawn by sealing devices is in significant, the
maximum torque,TQ becomes:

TQ (max) 63025
Where

Hp

(6.1.10)

Hp= Agitator power

N = speed impeller

Then, the torque value can be calculated as below;

TQ (max) 63025

9.1189
158.63

TQ(max) 3623.014

The maximum bending moment, Mmax, is the sum of product of the hydraulic forces
and the distance from individual impellers to the first bearing

M max 19000

H p L'
ND

(6.1.11)

6-5

Where

Hp= Agitator power


N = speed impeller
L = Length of vessel
D = blade diameter

Then, the bending moment value is

M max 19000

9.1189 7.305
158.63 0.974

M max 8191.6614
The minimum shaft diameter values can be calculated due to relationship to meet
the shear stress and tensile stress, respectively:
Shear stress diameter;

16 TQ (max) M max 1
ds [
] 3
2

(6.1.12)

Tensile stress diameter;

16( M max TQ (max) M max ) 1


dt [
]3
2

Then, the shear stress and tensile stress can be calculated as below:

16 3623.0142 8191.66142 13
ds [
]
6000

d s 1.9664 inc
16(8191.6614 3623.0142 8191.66142 ) 13
dt [
]
10000

d t 4.4368 inc @ 11.2695 cm


Assume diameter = 12 cm

(6.1.13)

6-6
To meet the shear and tensile requirement, a 12 cm of shaft diameter would be
recommended.

Then, estimate the hub weight from the table on page 103 (Journal of Liquid
Agitation on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C. Zoller) and the blade
weight by substituiting into below;

Hub weight = 11.34 kg

Wb (

0.35D 3 H p
N

(6.1.14)

Where W b = weight of blade


Hp = Agitator power
N

= speed impeller

Then

Wb (

0.35(0.974) 3 9.1189 12
]
158.63

Wb 0.1363 kg
W 11.34 0.1363 kg
W 11.4763kg

Final step, calculate the natural frequency by using equation

Nc

0.388 x 106 (d 2 Fm )

Where

L' W L' S b

d = diameter shaft
Fm = stainless steel factor
W = equivalent weight
Sb = bearing span

(6.1.15)

6-7
Then;

Nc

Nc

0.388 x 10 6 (0.12 2 1)
7.305 11.4763 7.305 30.5

119017
152.1583

N c 782.1947 rpm
Since the natural frequency of 782.1947 rpm for the shaft and impeller is more than
the operating speed of 158.63 rpm, then the 12 cm shaft is acceptable.
6.1.4

Cooling Elements Of The Reactor

6.1.4.1 Selection of Cooling Element and Utility

For cooling of the reactants, an internal helical coil is used. The coil is the simplest
and cheapest form of heat transfer surface and it is installed inside the reactor
vessel. The utility supplied to the coil is cooling water.

6.1.4.2 Determination of Coils Dimension and Heat Transfer

Now, the length of the cooling coil is determined using following formula [Incropera,
2002];

As Dt ,i L mC P Tm,o Tm,i Q Ar

Rearraging, L mC P Tm,o Tm,i

Q A D
r

t ,i

Where, As is the heat transfer area of the coil, A r is the heat transfer area of the
reactor and Dt,i is the inside diameter of the coil (which is assumed to be 0.3 m)
= 3.495 106 /
Q absorbed by the process is 3.495x10 6 kJ/hr per unit area of the vessel.
By using equation [Incorpera, 2002].
= = ( )

6-8
By assuming the inlet cooling water at 22C, the outlet cooling water at 80C with
Cp= 4.18 kJ/kg.K.

3.495 106 /
=
= 14,412.49 /
(80 22) 4.181 . 80 22 .

Assume no heat loss from the coils wall, Q transferred by the coil is equal to the Q
absorbed by the process in the vessel.
= = 2.435 7.305
= 55.8616 2
=

(6.1.18)

55.8616 4.181 58 14,412.49


= 59.3 60
3.495 106 0.3

The number spiral formed by the cooling coil around the reactor can be calculated
by dividing the length of the coil by the reactor circumference,

6.1.5

59.29
= 7.75 8
2.435

Determination Of The Thickness Of Wall Vessel

There is a minimum thickness requires to ensure that any vessel is sufficient rigid to
withstand its own weight and any accidental loads. For a cylindrical vessel, the
minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure can be determined from the
following equation:

(6.1.19)

The design conditions for esterification process between acrylic acid and
2EHOL is set to be: 6 bar as the design pressure and the design temperature is at
10% above operating temperature which is 132C.

The design pressure is taken as 6 bar because during the shutdown


process, the caustic wash of the equipment will be conducted in normal atmospheric

6-9
pressure and it is also due to avoid counterfeit operation during minor process upset
and safety condition.
Therefore, the design stress for stainless steel (316) is taken as 140.4 N/mm2 at
132C.
,

= 6 = 5.9215 = 6 = 0.6

, =

0.6 (2435)
2 140.4 (0.5)

= 5.2123 5.3

The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow


for material loss by corrosion and erosion. For esterification process, there will be a
severe condition of corrosion arise from the acetic acid and p-toluene sulfonic acid
used. According to Sinnot (1999), when this condition occurs, the allowance for
corrosion should be increased from 2 mm to 4 mm.
= 5.3 + 4 = 9.3 10
According to Sinnot, 1999 also, for a vessel diameter of 2m to 2.5m, the
minimum wall thickness required should not be less than 9 mm. Therefore, the wall
thickness is acceptable.

The reactor is insulated to avoid loss of heat from the reactor (to conserve
energy) and to keep process conditions from fluctuating with ambient conditions.
Type of insulator used is rockwool. Rockwool is a ceramic material conceived with
fibres of molten stone. Its main features are its thermal insulation (low thermal
conductivity), non-combustible, fire-resistance and environmental friendly material.
Thickness of insulation is depends on process temperature as shown in the
following table 1.6.

Table 6.1

Thickness of insulation as a function of process temperature

T(C)

93

205

316

t (mm)

12.7

25.4

31.75

tinsulation for the process with T = 200C can be estimated by interpolation:

6-10
200 93

t insulation
( 25.4 12.7) 12.7
205 93

24.8330 mm 25 mm

Therefore, the density of insulator at 25mm thickness is found as 800 kg/m 3.

Total thickness, t (including insulation) = 25 mm + 10 mm = 35 mm.


6.1.6

Head and Closure

T (C) t (mm)
93

12.7

200

t insulation

205

25.4

The end of a cylindrical vessel is closed by heads of various shapes. The common
types used are:
a) Flat heads
b) Hemispherical heads
c) Ellipsoidal heads
d) Torispherical heads

The heads used for the vessel may be flat if they are suitably buttressed, but
preferably they are some curved shape as the hemispherical, ellipsoidal or
torispherical heads. However, the hemispherical heads are commonly used for high
pressures hence they are not suitable to be used for this esterification reactor. To
calculate the thickness of the head, the following equations can be used:

I.

Ellipsoidal heads
=


2 0.2

(6.1.20)

By taking the value of joint factor, J as 1 which implies that the joint is equally
as strong as the virgin plate which achieve by radiographing the complete weld
length and cutting out and remaking any defects. The use of lower joint factors in
design, though saving cost on radiography, but it will result in thicker, heavier &
increase the cost of materials.
Assume J=1,
=

0.6 (2435)
= 5.075 5.1
2 1 140.4 0.2 (0.5)

By considering corrosion allowance of 4 mm,


Total thickness = 5.1 + 4 mm = 9.1 mm

6-11
II.

Torrispherical heads
=


2 0.2

1
3 +
4

(6.1.21)

(6.1.22)

Since the crown radius, Rc should not be greater than the diameter of the
cylindrical section, Rc is taken as equal to Di. The ratio of the knuckle to crown
radius should not be less than 0.06 to avoid buckling. Hence, Rk is taken as 6% of
Rc.
Rc = Di =2.435m.
Rk = (0.06)(2.435) = 0.1461 m.

1
3 +
4

2.435
= 1.7706
0.1461

0.5 2435 1.7706


= 9.0116 9.5
2 120 1 0.5 1.7706 0.2
Total thickness = 9.5 mm + 4 mm = 13.5mm

III.

Flat heads
=

(6.1.23)

By assuming plate welded to the end of the shell with a fillet weld is used, C p is
taken as 0.55 and De = Di.
= 0.55 2435

0.5
= 86.4482 mm 86.5 mm
120

Total thickness = 86.5 + 4 = 90.5 mm.

The largest value of the thickness obtained by using flat head shows the
inefficiency of a flat cover. Hence, for the head of the vessel, ellipsoidal head is
much preferred since it is the most economical whereby the thickness of the head is
the same as the thickness of the vessel.

6-12
6.1.7

Determination of Pipe (Nozzle) Size

Stainless steel pipe is used for the inlet and outlet pipe of the reactor. Optimum
diameter for the pipe can be calculated using the following equation:
= 260 0.52 0.37

I.

(6.1.24)

Inlet pipe (At 110C)


22920.8736

=
=
= 924.2921 3
3

24.7983

22920.8736
= 260
3600

0.52

924.2931

0.37

= 260 2.6184 0.0799 = 54.3946 55


Therefore, the pipe used is 55mm pipe.
II.

Outlet pipe vent (At 110C)


5052.2543

= 979.4227
=
=
3

3
5.1584

5052.2543
= 260
3600

0.52

979.4227

0.37

= 260 1.1927 0.0782 = 24.25 25


Therefore, the pipe used is 25mm pipe.

III.

Outlet pipe liquid (At 110C)


17868.6194

=
=
= 904.5250 3
3

19.7547

17868.6194
= 260
3600

0.52

904.5250

0.37

= 260 2.3 0.08056 = 48.1749 50


Therefore, the pipe used is 50mm pipe.

6-13
6.1.8

Determination Of Bolt & Flange Joint

Flanged joint are used for connecting pipes and instrument to vessel, for manholes
cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required. Flanged also
used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections for
transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to connect pipe to the
equipments such as pumps and valves.

Flanges dimension must be able to withstand the hydrostatic ends loads and
the bolt loads necessary to ensure tight joint in service. For the design of this heat
exchanger, welding-neck flange are used. It is because welding-neck flanges have a
long tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual
transition of the section reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and
branch. It is also can increase the strength of the flange assembly.

Welding-neck flanges are suitable for extreme service conditions, where


flange are likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and vibration loads. They will
normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process vessels and
process equipment. The dimensions of welding-neck flanges is chosen base on the
nominal pipe size of the nozzle pipe. From the interpolation made from table in
Appendix H1 in R.K. Sinnot, 2009, by using D nominal of 55mm for the inlet pipe,
25mm for the vent and 50 nm for the outlet pipe. The following values obtained for
bolt and flange at the reactor.

Table 6.2
Nominal
size
55

Values for bolt and flange of the inlet pipe


Raised

Flange

d1

65.6

Face

d4

146.7

14

38.

96.7

Table 6.3
Nominal
size
25

d1

33.7

Bolting

M12

Drilling

Boss

No.

d2

d3

14

116.7 78.7

Values for bolt and flange of the vent pipe


Raised

Flange

Face

Bolting

d4

100

14

35

60

M12

Drilling

Boss

No.

d2

d3

11

75

42

6-14
Table 6.4
Nominal
size
50

Values for bolt and flange of the outlet pipe


Raised

Flange

d1

140

Face

Bolting

d4

320

14

28

90

Figure 6.1

M12

Drilling

Boss

No

d2

D3

14

110

80

Flanged Joint Standard (R.K.Sinnot, 1999)

6-15
6.1.9

Design Of Vessel Subject To Combined Loading

Instead of the pressure, the vessel is also subject to other loads. Hence, it must be
designed to withstand these loads without failure. The main sources of load to be
considered are:
a) Dead weight of vessel and contents
b) Wind
c) Earthquake (seismic)
d) External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment

From the previous page, the minimum thickness required for pressure loading is
9 mm. A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind
and dead weight loads. As a first trial, divide column into five sections, with the
thickness increasing by 2mm per section. Try 11.1, 13.1, 15.1, 17.1, 19.1 mm.

I.

Weight Loads
The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed head ends and
uniform thickness steel vessel can be estimated from the following equation:

= 240 + 0.8

(6.1.25)

By taking:

Cv = 1.08 for vessel with only few fitting (internal coil)


Dm = [Di + (t x10-3)] m = 2.435 m + 0.015 m = 2.45m
Hv = 7.305 m , t = 9.1 mm
= 240 1.08 2.45 7.305 + 0.8 2.45 9.1
= 53,541.1750 = 53.54

II.

Weight Of Insulation
Rock wool density = 800 kg/m3.
Approximate volume of insulation

= = 2.435 7.305 25 103 = 1.3970 3

(6.1.26)

6-16
Weight Of Insulation,

9.81 2 = 10,963.656
3

(1.25)

= = 1.3970 3 800
= 10.9637

Double insulation for fittings = 2 10.9637 = 21.9274


III.

Weight of external fittings

External fitting used at the reactor is a plain steel ladder. From Nelson
(1963), weight of the ladder is estimated to be 150 N/m length.

Hence, = 150

IV.

7.305 = 1095.75 = 1.0958

Weight of internal coil


=
= 8000

(6.1.28)

=
9.81
, 2,
3
2

Approximate volume of internal coil


= = 0.085 34 0.002

(6.1.29)

= 18.1584 103 3

= 8000 18.1584 103

9.81 = 1425.0712

Double this value to allow for fittings,

V.

= 2 1425.0712 = 2850.1424 2.85

Weight Of Ellipsoidal Head


, = 9 ,
,
1 1
= 3 3
3 12
=

1
2.453 2.4353 = 0.02343 3
36

(6.1.30)

6-17
= .

(6.1.31)

= 8000 0.02343 9.81 = 1838.7864


Double this value to allow fittings;
= 2 1838.7864 = 3677.5728
,
= + + +

(6.1.32)

= 53,541.1750 + 21,927.312 + 1,095.75 + 2,850.1424 + 3,677.5728


= 83,091.9522 83.092

VI.

Wind Loads

A vessel installed in the open must be designed to withstand the weight


bending stress caused by wind loading. The wind loading is a function of the wind
velocity, air density and the shape of structure. A column must be designed to
withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to be encountered at the site during
the life of the plant. For our plant in which located at Gebeng Industrial Site 2,
Kuantan, the worse-case wind speed that has occurred is 50 km/hr. (Malaysian
Meteorological department, 2011). However, this wind load does not give effect to
the equipment. Therefore, the value for preliminary design is taken as reference to
R.K.Sinnot, 2009 which is 160 km/hr.
,
= 0.05 2

, /2

(6.1.33)

= , /
160 2

= 0.05 (
) = 1280

Mean diameter including insulation,


= + 2 + 103

(6.1.34)

= 2.435 + 2 15.1 + 25 103 = 2.5152 2.52


Wind loading (per linear metre), Fw =

= 1280 2.5152 = 3219.456

(6.1.35)

6-18
Bending moment at bottom tangent line
=
=

VII.

2
2

(6.1.36)

3219.456 7.3052
= 85,899.956 85.90
2

Analysis of stresses
At bottom tangent line
Pressure stresses:

0.5
2 2435

=
=
= 15.9359
4
419.1
2

(6.1.37)

0.5
2435

2
=
=
= 31.8717
2
219.1
2

(6.1.38)

Dead weight stresses:


=

83,091.9522
=
+
2435 + 19.1 19.1 2

= 0.5643

(6.1.39)

Bending stress:
= + 2 = 2435 + 2 19.1
= 2473.2

=
4 4 =
2473.24 24354 = 1.1087 1011 4
64
64

=
+
2

(6.1.40)
(6.1.41)
(6.1.42)

1000
85,899.956
2435

1
=
+ 19.1 = 0.9581
11
4
1.1087 10

2
2
The resultant longitudinal stress is
= +
,

= 15.9359 0.5643 0.9581 = 14.4135


2
= 15.9359 0.5643 + 0.9581 = 16.3297

(6.1.43)

6-19

As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be .


The radical stress is negligible

= 0.25
2
2

16.3297

14.4135

31.8717

30.2632

Down-wind

Up-wind

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the down-wind side
whereby, [31.8717 14.4135] = 17.4582

which is below maximum allowable

design stress.

VIII.

Check elastic stability (buckling)

Critical buckling stress:

= 2104

= 2104

(6.1.44)
19.1

= 154.4558
2473.2
2

Maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure
= + = 0.5643 + 0.9581 = 1.5224,

Therefore, the vessel will be able to withstand in the case of increase in


external pressure, triggering collapse, or buckling of the tank. Thin-walled cylindrical
tanks are prone to buckling (or inward collapse) due to accidentally induced internal
vacuum. In industrial application, during the sterilisation process, steam can
condense, causing a reduction in volume.

6-20
6.1.10 Reactor Support

The method used to support a vessel depends on the size, shape and weight of the
vessel; the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and arrangement;
and the internal and external fittings and attachments. Since the design reactor is a
vertical vessel, a skirt support is recommended as it does not impose concentrated
loads on the vessel shell. Supports will impose localized loads on the vessel wall,
and the design must be checked to ensure that the resulting stress concentrations
are below the maximum allowable design stress.

I.

Determination of total weight of vessel


= 90

, = 200,000
2
, = 135


=
=

2

4

(6.1.45)

1000

2.4352 7.305
9.81 2 = 333,716.0082 333.72
3
4

Total weight of vessel, W T = 83,091.9522

Overall total weight = W T + approximate weight

(6.1.46)

= 83,091.9522 + 333,716.0082 = 416,807.9604 416.81

II.

Determination of dead weight

Wind loading, Fw = 3219.456


Skirt height, Hs = 1 m
Bending moment at base of skirt, Ms
=
= 3219.456

+
2

7.305 + 1

(6.1.47)
2

= 111,027.8096 111.03

1st trial, skirt thickness = bottom section of vessel, 19.1 mm.

6-21

, =

4
+

(6.1.48)

1000

1
=
= .
2435 + 19.1 2435 19.1

4 111,027.8096

,
=
=

(6.1.49)

333,716.0082

= .
2435 + 19.1 19.1

,
=
=

III.

(6.1.50)
+

83,091.9522

= .
2435 + 19.1 19.1

The resulting stress in the skirt


Maximum s (compressive) = +
= 1.2386 + 2.2662 = .

(6.1.51)

=
= 1.2386 0.5643 = .

(6.1.52)

Take joint factor, J as 0.85 (double-welded butt/equivalent type of joint with spot
degree of radiography).

IV.

Criteria for design


0.6743 135

0.85 90
2

0.6743 114.75

(6.1.53)

6-22

3.5048 0.125 200,000

(6.1.54)

19
90
2 2300

3.5048 215.9091
Both criteria satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion allowance in which gives
design thickness, ts= 19.1+2 =21.1 mm

6.1.11 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base
ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by the wind and other lateral loads will
tend to overturn the vessel: this will be opposed by the couple set up by the weight
of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolts. Since reactor is considered as
small vessels, the simplest type rolled angle rings is recommended.
Scheimans method can be used for preliminary design. Scheiman gives the
following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor bolts.
1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used
2. Minimum number of bolts = 8
3. Use multiples of 4 bolts
4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm

Approximate pitch circle diameter = 2.5m


Circumference of bolt circle = 2500
Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing
=

2500
= 13.089 14
600

Closest multiple of 4 = 16 bolts


Take bolt design stress, f b = 125 N/mm2
Bending moment at base skirt, Ms = 111,027.8096
Take W = operating value = weight of vessel =83,091.9522

6-23
,

I.
=

II.

1 4


1

16 125

(6.1.55)

4 111,027.8096
83,091.9522N = 47.2763 2
2.5

Bolt root diameter


4 47.2763
= 7.7585

III.

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

(6.1.56)

4 111,027.8096 83,091.9522

+
= 23,842.07004 + 10,862.0082
2
2.435
2.435

= 34,704.0782

= 34.70

Take fc, bearing pressure as 5 N/mm2 is one of the concrete foundation pad.
IV.

Base ring width, Lb

103

(6.1.57)

34,704.0782

=
= 6.9408 7

3
5

10
2
Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967) where the root area is 353 mm2. This
is the minimum width required; actual width depends on the chair
design.

V.

Actual width required =

Lr + ts + 50mm

76 + 21 + 50

147 mm

(6.1.58)

6-24
VI.

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation,

fc =

Fb
Aw

VII.

(6.1.59)

34.70 103
= 0.2361 N/mm2
147 103

Minimum thickness,

t b = Lr

3 fc
fr

(6.1.60)

Where,
Lr

distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the

ring (mm)
tb

base ring thickness (mm)

fc

actual bearing pressure on base (N/mm2)

allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140

fr

N/mm

t b = 76

3 (0.2361)
= 5.4058 mm 5.5 mm
140

Chair dimension as tabulated in the tables A12 for bolt size M24.

6.1.12 Gasket

Gaskets are used to make a leak-tight joint between two surfaces. It is impractical to
machine flanges to the degree of surface finish that would be required to make a
satisfactory seal under pressure without a gasket. Gaskets are made from semiplastic materials; which will deform and flow under load to fill the surface
irregularities between the flange faces, yet retain sufficient elasticity to take up the
changes in the flange alignment that occur under load. The following factors must be
considered when selecting a gasket material:

6-25
1. The process conditions: pressure, temperature, corrosive nature of the
process fluid.
2. Whether repeated assembly and disassembly of the joint is required.
3. The type of flange and flange face

In the spigot and socket, and tongue and grooved faces, the gasket is confined
in a groove, which prevents failure by blow-out. Matched pairs of flanges are
required, which increases the cost, but this type is suitable for high pressure and
high vacuum service.

Figure 6.2

Figure 6.3

Spigot and socket flange (R.K.Sinnot,1999)

Spiral wound gasket (Bikudo.com)

By referring to the operating condition of the process, the gasket material


chosen is the spiral-wound metal, asbestos filled. Even though the cost to buy this
gasket is relatively expensive, the price of the product is expensive. Due to its long
lasting lifetime, it can decrease the capital cost of the plant. Followings are the
advantages of spiral wound gasket (Donit Tesnit, 2011):

1. Sealing under heavy operating conditions


2. Strong stress compensation, stable and reliable sealing performance even
under frequent pressure fluctuation condition

6-26
3. Solid construction provides stability and seallability even when the sealing
surfaces are slightly corroded or bent
4. Easy installation

Figure 6.4

The cross-sectional area of esterification reactor

6.1.13 Summary Of The Reactor Design


Table 6.5

Summary Of Mechanical Design

Thickness of reactor (mm)


Type of head
Material of construction
Thickness of head (mm)
Inlet pipe diameter (mm)
Outlet vent pipe diameter (mm)
Outlet pipe diameter (mm)
Skirt thickness (mm)

9
Ellipsoidal head
Stainless steel (316)
9
55
25
50
19.1

6-27
Table 6.6

Reactor specification sheet (R-101)

SPECIFICATION DATA
MECHANICAL DESIGN
Identification
Item no
Design orientation

R-101
Vertical

Operating Condition
Operating temperature, oC
110
Operating pressure, bar
0.29
Design temperature, oC
132
Design pressure, bar
6
Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni,
Material of construction
316)
2
Design stress, kN/m
140.4
Wall thickness, mm
10
Thickness insulation, mm
25
Wind loading, N/m
3222
Head and Closure Design
Type
Ellipsoidal Head
Thickness, mm
10
Internal Cooling Coil
Length, m
60
Number of spiral
8
Impeller Arrangement
Type of impeller
Turbine with flat vertical blades
Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni,
Material of construction
316)
Diameter of impeller, m
0.974
Width of impeller, m
0.12
Offset of baffle, m
0.50
Baffle width, m
0.203
Baffle height, m
6.0875
Shaft Design
Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni,
Material of construction
316)
Speed impeller, rpm
158.63
Maximum torque
3623.014
Maximum bending moment
8191.6614
Diameter of shaft, cm
12
Weight of Load
Vessel, kN
58.865
Insulation, kN
21.9274
External fittings, kN
1.0958

6-28
Internal Coil, kN
Ellipsoidal head, kN
Total weight, kN

5.584
3.924
91.396
Analysis of stress

Bending moment, kNm


85.961
2
Critical buckling stress, N/mm
162
Maximum compressive stress, N/mm2
1.5078
Support design
Type
Skirt support
Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni,
Material of construction
316)
Skirt thickness, mm
20
Skirt height, m
1
Base ring and Anchor bolts
Nu. Of bolts
12
2
Area of bolt, mm
73.74
Bolt root diameter, mm
9.6899

6.2

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF ESTERIFICATION REACTOR 2 (R-102)

6.2.1

Material of construction

The material used for esterification reactor R-102 is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, Mo 2
%, 316). The stainless steels are the most frequently used corrosion resistant
materials in the chemical industry. The important corrosion resistance the chromium
content must be above 12%, and the higher the chromium content, the more
resistant is the alloy to corrosion in oxidizing conditions. Nickel is added to improve
the corrosion resistance in non-oxidizing environment.

Grade 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade, second in


importance to 304 amongst the austenitic stainless steels. The molybdenum gives
316 better overall corrosion resistant properties than Grade 304, particularly higher
resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. It has excellent
forming and welding characteristics. It is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of
parts for applications in the industrial, architectural, and transportation fields. Grade
316 also has outstanding welding characteristics. Post-weld annealing is not
required when welding thin sections.

6-29
6.2.2

Thickness of the vessel

(6.2.1)

Design conditions for esterification process between Acrylic Acid and 2-Ethylhexanol
is set to be:
Pressure, Pi

6 bar absolute (5.9216 atm)

4.9216 atm (gage pressure)

Temperature

2000C

Design stress, f

120 N/mm2

Material joint efficiency, J

Inner diameter, Di

2632.2 mm

Corrosion allowance

4 mm

Therefore design pressure, Pi 4.9216 atm = 0.4987 2


The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow
for material loss by corrosion and erosion. For esterification process, there will be a
severe condition of corrosion arise from the acrylic acid and acid catalyst used.
According to Sinnot (1999), when this condition occurs, the allowance for corrosion
should be increased from 2 mm to 4 mm.

Calculation of thickness;

0.4987 2632.2
= 5.4809 6
2 1 120 0.4987

= 6 + 4 =
The total thickness obtained is appropriate referring to table below, for a
vessel diameter of 2.5m to 3.0m, the minimum wall thickness required should not be
less than 10 mm. So, the thickness of 10mm esterification reactor is appropriate.

6-30
Table 6.7: Minimum thickness required corresponds to vessel diameter
Vessel Diameter (m)
1.0
1.0 to 2.0
2.0 to 2.5
2.5 to 3.0
3.0 to 3.5

6.2.3

Minimum thickness (mm)


5
7
9
10
12

Insulation of the Vessel

The material used for insulator on this esterification reactor is mineral wool. Mineral
wool is made from molten glass, stone or slag that is spun into a fiber-like structure.
The reactor is insulated to avoid heat loss from the reactor (to conserve energy) and
to keep the process conditions from fluctuating with the ambient conditions.

Table 6.8: Thickness of insulation as a function of process temperature


T (0C)

t (mm)

93

12.7

205

25.4

316

31.75

0
t insulationfor the process with T = 120 C can be estimated through interpolation:

T (0C)

t (mm)

93

12.7

200

t insulation

205

25.4

200 93

t insulation
(25.4 12.7) 12.7
205

93

24.83 mm 25 mm

6-31

Hence, the thickness of insulation for esterification reactor R-102 is 25 mm.

Figure 6.5: Reactor Cross Sectional Area of R-102

6.2.4

Cooling element inside the vessel

Internal coil
For cooling purposes of reactants inside the reactor, an internal helical coil is used.
The coil is the simplest and cheapest form of heat transfer surface and it is installed
inside the reactor vessel. The utility supplied to the coil is cooling water. The
assumptions as listed below:1. No heat loss from the coils wall
2. Heat transferred by process is equal to heat absorbed by coils

The diameter of the coil is subscribed as

30

The pitch is taken as twice the diameter coil. Hence;


=

2.6322
= 0.0877
30

Pitch is times two of coil diameter;


= 2 0.0877 = 0.1755

(6.2.2)

6-32
Energy, Q produced by the process is 9.7616105 kJ/h per unit area of the vessel.
By assuming no heat loss from the coils wall, Q transferred by the process is equal
to Q absorbed by the coils.

(6.2.3)

= = 2.6322 7.8966 = 65.3000 2

= 9.7616 105

= 7167.9

9.7616 105
=

7167.9

= 136.1849

Tout of the coil is assumed to be as ambient temperature, 27 0C


=
(6.2.4)
= 7.0122

/. oC

= 137 7.0122 120.27 = 8.9342 104


=

.
8.9342 104 (65.3)
=
= 5.9765 2

9.7616 105

Hence, area of the coil is 5.9765 m2.

Equation for area of the coil as below;


=
(6.2.5)

So, Length of the coil;


=

5.9765
=
= 21.69

(0.0877)

Hence, length of coil in esterification reactor R-102 is 21.69 m.

6-33
6.2.5

Head and Closure

Actually head and closure has a few types such as ellipsoidal heads, torispherical
heads, and flat heads. So, the calculation of the thickness below is to choose the
best of head and closure for esterification reactor, R-102.

1. Ellipsoidal heads


2 0.2

(6.2.6)

0.4987 2632.2
= 5.47 6
2 1 120 0.2 0.4987

Adding corrosion allowance of 4mm


= 6 + 4 = 10
2. Torispherical heads


2 ( 0.2)
1

= 4 3 +

(6.2.7)
(6.2.8)

Since the crown radius, Rc should not be greater than the diameter of the cylindrical
section; therefore Rc is taken to be equal to Di. The ratio of knuckle to crown radius
should not be less than 0.06 to avoid buckling. Hence Rk is taken as 6% of Rc.
= = 2.6322
= 0.06 2.6322 = 0.1579
=

1
2.6322
3+
= 1.7707
4
0.1579

So,
=

0.4987 2632.2 1.7707


= 9.72 10
2 1 120 [0.4987 1.7707 0.2 ]

Adding corrosion allowance of 4mm;


= 10 + 4 = 14

6-34
3. Flat heads

(6.2.9)

By assuming plate welded to the end of the shell with a fillet weld is used, C p is
taken as 0.55 and De = Di.
= 0.55 2632.2

0.4987
= 93.33 94
120

Adding corrosion allowance of 4mm


= 94 + 4 = 98
From the three values of thickness, the thickness of flat heads is the the
greatest value. This value is not an effective idea for angle of economical. Hence,
ellipsoidal head is decided to be the vessel head since it would probably be the most
economical. The thickness of the head is as the same as the vessel thickness. This
is more preferable.

6.2.6

Pipe Size Selection

Material types used for inlet and outlet pipe also stainless steel. The formula to
determine the pipe size as shown below;
= 260 0.52 0.37
(6.2.10)

(6.2.11)
Inlet Pipe S6

= 1.677 104

= 20.79

1.677 104

= 806.6378
3
20.79

6-35
1.677 104
= 260
3600

0.52

(806.6378)0.37 = 48.64

Therefore, the pipe size used is 50mm pipe.

Outlet Pipe S7

= 874.8

= 1506
874.8

=
= 0.5809
3
1506

= 260

874.8
3600

0.52

(0.5809)0.37 = 152

Therefore, the pipe size used is 200mm pipe.

Outlet Pipe S8

= 1.59 104

= 20.06

1.59 104

= 792.622
3
20.06

1.59 104
= 260
3600

0.52

(792.622)0.37 = 47.62

Therefore, the pipe size used is 50 mm pipe.

6.2.7

Bolt Flanged Joint

Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for
manhole covers, and for removable wessel heads when ease of access is required.
Flanges may also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the
vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to
connect pipes to other equipment, such as pumps and valves. Flanges range in size
from a few millimeters diameter for small pipes, to several metres diameter for those
used as body or head flanges on vessels. Standards flanges are available in a
range of types, sizes and materials; and are used extensively for pipes, nozzles and
other attachments to pressure vessel

6-36

Figure 6.6: Typical standard flange design

Refer to Coulson & Richardson'sChemical Engineering Design Volume 6 (Bolted


flanged joints), we got the values of bolt and flange for each pipe. The tables below
are showing the values of each pipe.
S6:

D nominal = 50 mm

Table 6.9: Values for bolt and flange of the inlet pipe (S4)
d1
60.3

S7:

Flange

Raised Face

d4

140

14

28

90

Bolting
M12

Drilling

Boss

No.

d2

d3

14

110

80

D nominal = 200 mm

Table 6.10: Values for bolt and flange of the outlet pipe (S6)
d1
219.1

S8:

Flange

Raised Face

d4

320

20

44

258

Bolting
M16

Drilling

Boss

No.

d2

d3

18

280

240

D nominal = 50 mm

Table 6.11: Values for bolt and flange of the outlet pipe (S8)
d1
60.3

Flange

Raised Face

d4

140

14

28

90

Bolting
M12

Drilling

Boss

No.

d2

d3

14

110

80

6-37
6.2.8

Design of Vessel Subject To Combine Loading

Pressure vessels are subjected to other loads in addition to pressure must be


designed to withstand the worst combination of loading without failure. The main
sources of load to consider are:
a) Dead weight of vessel and contents
b) Wind
c) Earthquake (seismic)
d) External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment.

However, in this country, the impact of earthquake is not that important to be


considered according to the geographical location.
6.2.8.1 Dead Weight of Vessel

1. Weight of vessel
The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed head ends and
uniform thickness can be estimated from the following equation:
= 240 + 0.8
(6.2.12)
= 1.08 ,

= 10

= + 103 = 2.6322 + 10 103 = 2.6422


= 7.8966
= 240 1.08 2.6422 7.8966 + 0.8 2.6422 10 = 68556.77
= 68.557

2. Weight of Ellipsoidal Head


=

= 8000
=

(6.2.13)

, =

9.81

, = 10

2.65223 2.63223 = 0.0366 3


3 12

= 8000 0.0366 9.81 = 2872.37


Double this value to allow fittings; hence = 5744.74 = 5.74

6-38
3. Weight of insulation

In this esterification reactor, the material of insulator used is mineral wool.


The density of mineral wool is 130 kg/m3.
=
6.2.14)
= 2.6322 + 0.010 + 0.010 7.8966 25 103 = 1.6449 3
= = 130 1.6449 9.81 = 2097.74
Double this value to allow fittings; hence = 4195.48 = 4.20
4. Weight of internal coil
=
(6.2.15)

= 8000

, =

9.81

, = 2

= = 0.0877 21.69 0.002 = 0.0120 3


= 8000 0.0120 9.81 = 941.76
Double this value to allow fittings; hence = 1883.52 = 1.88
5. Weight of external fittings

Plain steel ladder is used for external fitting at the reactor. From Nelson
(1963), weight of the ladder is estimated to be 150 N/m length.
= 150 7.8966 = 1184.49 = 1.18
Total weight of the vessel;
= + + + +
= 68556.77 + 4195.48 + 1184.49 + 1883.52 + 5744.74 = 81565

6-39
6.2.8.2 Wind Loading
Dynamic wind pressure is 1280 N/m2
= 2.6322 + 2 10 + 25 103 = 2.7022
So, loading per linear meter of vessel, is;
=

1280
2.7022 = 3458.82/
2

Bending moment at bottom tangent line;


=

(6.2.16)
= ( )
= 3458.82 7.8966 = 107839.60
6.2.9

Analysis of Stress

From bottom tangent line;


1. Longitudinal pressure stress

(6.2.17)
=

0.4987 2702.2
= 67.38 /2
2(10)

2. Circumferential pressure stress

(6.2.18)
=

0.4987 2702.2
= 33.69
4(10)

3. Dead weight stress

(6.2.19)
=

81565
= 0.98 /2
2632.2 + 10 (10)

6-40
4. Bending stress
= 2632.2 + 2 10 = 2652.2

4 4

64

(6.2.20)

2652.24 2632.24 = 7.2437 1010 4


64


107839.60 103 2632.2
+ ==
+ 10 = 1.97/2
2
7.2437 1010
2

6.2.9.1 The resultant longitudinal stress, is;

= + + = 33.69 0.98 + 1.97 = 34.68 /2


= + = 33.69 0.98 1.97 = 30.74 /2

From the above resultant longitudinal stress, the highest difference between the
principle stresses will be on the down-wind side which is . /.
6.2.10 Check Elastic Stability (Buckling)
= 2 104

(6.2.21)
= 2 104

10
= 75.64 /2
2644.2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under
pressure which exceeds the total value of dead weight and bending stress, 2.95
N/mm2, well below the critical buckling stress. Hence, we can say the design of R102 is satisfactory.
6.2.11 Vessel Support Design

Skirt supports are used for tall and vertical columns. The support must be designed
to carry the weight of the vessel and contents and any superimposed load, such as
wind loads. In 2-EHA plant, the reactor used is cylindrical and vertical vessel. So,
the type of skirt used is straight cylindrical support.

6-41
Type of support

: Straight cylindrical skirt

: 900

Design stress, fs

: 135 N/mm2 at ambient temperature, 270C

Skirt height

: 1.0 m

: 200,000 N/mm2

=
2.63222 7.8966 1000 9.81 = 160146.67
4
Young modulus

= 160.15
= 81565 + 160146.67 = 241711.67 = 241.71

1. Bending moment at skirt base;


+ 2

(6.2.22)
8.89662
= 3458.2
= 136881.92 = 136.88
2

2. Bending stress in skirt;


Taking skirt thickness as the same as the thickness of the bottom section of
the vessel;
= 10 ,

4
+

(6.2.23)
=

4(136.88 106 )
= 2.47/2
[ 2652.2 + 10 10 2652.2]

Where;
Ms

= maximum bending moment at the base of the skirt

ts

= skirt thickness

Dv

= outside diameter of the vessel, 2.6522 m

6-42

3. Dead weight in skirt;

= [ (

2
+ ]

(6.2.24)
=

2(160146.67)
= 3.83 /2
[( 2652.2 + 10 10]

= [ (

2
+ ]

(6.2.25)

2(81565)
= 1.95 /2
[( 2652.2 + 10 10]

4. Resulting stress in skirt;


Maximum = + = 2.47 + 3.83 = 6.3 /2
Maximum = = 2.47 1.95 = 0.52 /2
5. General consideration for skirt design;

Taking the joint factor, J as 1;


i)

<
0.42
< 135 1 90
2
0.42
< 135/2
2

ii)

< 0.125
6.3

10
< 0.125 200,000
90
2

2652.2

6.3
< 94.26 /2
2

6-43
6.2.12 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts

Assume pitch circle diameter

=3m

Circumference of bolt circle

=3000

Bolt design stress, f b

=125 N/ mm2

Recommended space between bolts

=600 mm

Minimum number of bolt required, Nb

=3000/600=15.71

Closest multiple of 4

= 16

Bending moment at the base skirt, Ms

=136881.92 N

Total weight (operating value)

=81565 N

1. Area of bolt;

=
=

(6.2.26)

1
4(136881.92)
81565 = 50.47 3
16(125)
3

2. Bolt root diameter;


=

4(50.47)
= 8.02 9

3. Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length;

4
2

(6.2.27)
=

4(136881.92)
81565
+
= 34565.92 /
2
(2.6522)
(2.6522)

Assume a pressure of 4 N/mm2 is one of the concrete foundation pad, f c.


Minimum width of the base ring,
=

1
34565.92
3=
= .
10
4 103

6-44
6.3

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN (T-102)

6.3.1

Introduction

Several factors need to be considered in the mechanical design of distillation


column such as:
1. Design pressure
2. Design temperature
3. Material of construction
4. Design stress
5. Wall thickness
6. Welded joint efficiency
7. Analysis of stresses
a. Dead weight load
b. Wind load
c. Pressure stress
d. Bending stress
8. Vessel support
9. Insulation
6.3.1.1 Design Pressure

Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 10% above the operating pressure at the
bottom of column to avoid spurious operating during minor process upsets.
6.3.1.2 Design Temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any
uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.

6-45
6.3.1.3 Material of Construction

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material
for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with
the process environment. The chosen material of construction must meet the
several purposes, such as:
1.

Readily available

2.

Low cost

3.

Subjected to welding

4.

Corrosion resistant to feed and product

5.

Easily fabricated

6.

High strength

6.3.1.4 Design Stress

It is necessary to determine the maximum allowable stress that the material can
withstand without failure under operating condition.
6.3.1.5 Wall Thickness

Design of wall thickness, e, is determined by using this formula:

e =

Pi Di
2 Jf 0.2 Pi

(6.3.1)

Where,
e

minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi

internal pressure

Di

internal diameter

design stress

joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

6-46
6.3.1.6 Welded Joint Efficiency

The strength of welded joint will depend on the types of joint and the quality of the
welding. Take welding joint as 1.0 implies that the point is equally as strong as the
virgin plate; this is achieved by radio graphing the complete weld length, and cutting
out and remarking any.
6.3.1.7 Analysis of Stresses

The column also subjected to other loads such as vessel shell, plate fittings and
weight of liquid to fill into the vessel. Total weight of column can be calculated by
using formula:
WV = 240 CV Dm

HV + 0.8 Dm t 103 kN

(6.3.2)

Where,
Wv

total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as plate

Cv

a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and internal


support

Dm

mean diameter of vessel (Dc + t x 10-3)

Hv

height or length between tangent lines, m

wall thickness

a.

Wind loading

Wind loading will only be important on tall column installed in the open. Columns are
usually free standing, mounted on skirt support, and not attached to structural steel
work.

b.

Pressure stress

The longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure can be calculated


using equation:
L =

PD
PD
and h =
4t
2t

Where,
P

operating pressure

column diameter

(6.3.3)

6-47
t

thickness

c.

Bending stresses

Bending moments will be caused by the following bending condition:


1.

Wind load on tall self supported vessels

2.

Seismic loads on tall column

3.

Dead weight and wind loading on piping and equipment.

Bending stress can be calculated using this formula:


b =

M
Iv

Dc
+ t
2

(6.3.4)

Where,

Iv =
Do 4 Di 4
64
Do = (Di + 2t)
6.3.2

Calculation on Mechanical Engineering Design of Distillation Column

6.3.2.1 Column Design Specification

Total column height

8.9 m

Allow 2 m for clearance height

(8.9 + 2) m

10.9 m 11 m

Internal diameter, Dc

2.04 m

Operating pressure, Top column

0.04 bar

Bottom column =

0.11 bar

Material of column

Stainless steel

Tray type

Sieve tray (15 trays equally spaced)

Material of tray

Stainless steel (316)

Operating temperature

120 0C

6-48
(i)

Design Pressure

Distillation column must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it


is likely to be subjected in operation. Usually, the design pressure is taken above the
normal working operation. The purpose is to avoid counterfeit operation during
minor process upset and safety condition, therefore the design pressure is taken as
6 bars as it is used in the real industry.
= 6 bar
= 0.6 N

(ii)

0.1 N

mm2
1 bar

mm2
Design Temperature

Take design as 10% above the operating temperature,


= 120.2 1.1
= 132.22
(iii)

Material of Construction

The material used for construction of this column is Stainless Steel 316. Grade 316
is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade and gives better overall corrosion
resistant properties. It has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It is readily
brake or roll formed into a variety of parts for applications in the industrial,
architectural, and transportation fields. Grade 316 also has outstanding welding
characteristics. Post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin sections.

Minimum thickness required for pressure loading, (t),

t =

t =

P (Dc )
2 des P

(6.3.5)

0.6 N/mm2 (2040 m)


= 5.37 mm
2 114.33 N/mm2 (0.6 N/mm2 )

The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow


for material lost by corrosion and erosion. Based on table 13.4, Coulson &
Richardson, Chemical Engineering, volume 6, page 739, and this minimum

6-49
thickness should be added 4mm to withstand its own weight and any incidental
loads. Therefore,
t = 5.37 mm + 4mm
= 9.37 mm
it is assumed to be 10 mm

6.3.2.2 Dead Weight of Vessel


WV = 240 CV Dm

HV + 0.8 Dm t 103

Where,
Wv

total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as plates

Cv

a factor to account for the weight of manways and internal support.


(In this case for distillation column ,Cv 1.15)

Dm

mean diameter of vessel (Dc + t x 10-3)

Hv

height or length between tangent lines

wall thickness

Therefore,
Dm = 2.04 +

10 103

= 2.05 m

WV = 240 1.15 2.05

11 + 0.8 2.05 (10 103 )

WV = 71.52 kN
6.3.2.3 Weight of Plates
Plate area =

Plate area =

D2
4

(2.04)2
4

Plate area = 3.27 m2


Weight of plate

= 1.2 kN/m2 3.27 m2


= 3.92 kN

6-50
(Where 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading in
kN/m2)

For 15 plates

15 x 3.92

58.8 kN

6.3.2.4 Weight of Insulation

Insulating material: Mineral wool


Characteristics are;
(i) Made from molten glass, stone or slag that is spun into a fiber-like
structure
(ii) Very safe insulation materials
(iii) Provide better acoustical and insulating results than fiberglass
(iv) Outstanding resistance to fire
(v) Higher density (130 kg/m3)

By taken insulation thickness of 75 mm,


=

Dc Hv (75 10-3)

2.04 11 (75 10-3)

5.29 m3

5.29 m3 x 130 kg/m3 x 9.81 m/s2

6.75 kN

Double this value to allow for fitting =

13.5 kN

Approximate volume of insulation

Weight

Total weight (W),


Shell

71.52 kN

Plates

58.80 kN

Insulation

13.50 kN

Total

143.82 kN

6-51
6.3.2.5 Wind Loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2, corresponding to 160 kph.
Mean diameter, including insulation

Loading per unit length, Fw

Dc + Dc (tinsulation + twall)

2.04 + 2.04 (0.075 + 0.01)

2.21 m

1280 N/m2 2.21 m

2828.8 N/m

Bending moment at bottom tangent line,Mx:


Where x = Hv = 11 m (column height)
M x = Fw
Mx = 2828.8

x2
2
112
2

(6.3.6)
= 171 142 N/m

6.3.2.6 Analysis of Stresses

At bottom tangent line,


Pressure stresses:
L =

PD
4t

and

h =

PD
2t

Where,
P

operating pressure (0.6 N/mm2)

column diameter (2.04 m)

thickness (10 mm)

L =

0.6 (2040)
= 30.6 N/mm2
4 (10)

h =

0.6 (2040)
= 61.2 N/mm2
2 (10)

6-52
(i) Dead Weight Stress
w =

w =

(ii)

Wv
Dc + t t

(6.3.7)

71.52 kN
= 1.11 N/mm2 (compressive stress)
2040 + 10 mm (10mm)
Bending Stress

b =

M
lv

Dc
+ t
2

Where,
lv

Do =

64

Do 4 Di 4

Di + 2t

= 2040 + 2 10

lv

= 2060 mm

64

2060 4 2040 4

= 3.38 1010 mm4

171142 103 N/mm


3.38 1010 mm4

2040
+ 10 mm
2

Therefore,
b =

b = 5.22 N/mm2
The resultant longitudinal stress is:
z = L + W + b

(6.3.8)

w is compressive therefore it is negative.


z upwind

= 30.6 1.11 + 5.22 = + 34.71 N/mm2

z downwind

= 30.6 1.11 5.22 = 24.27 N/mm2

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side:
h - z (downwind) = (61.2 - 24.27) N/mm2
= 36.93 N/mm2
Design stress

= 140.33 N/mm2 (for stainless steel 316)

The value of differences between the principal stresses is well below the maximum
allowable design stress.

6-53
(iii)

Elastic Stability (Buckling)

Critical buckling stress,


c = 2 104
c = 2 104

10
2060

t
Do

= 97.1 N/mm2

Therefore, a critical buckling stress is 97.1 N/mm2.

When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur):
Maximum stress

w + h

(1.11 + 61.2) N/mm2

62.31 N/mm2

The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore, design is
satisfactory.

6.3.2.7 Design of Domed End and Wall Thickness

Ellipsoidal head is the most economical types of head that being used in
petrochemical equipment. Therefore, ellipsoidal head is chosen. Material of
construction for ellipsoidal head is stainless steel.
e =

Pi Di
2 Jf 0.2 Pi

Where,
e

minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi

internal pressure, 0.6 N/mm2

Di

internal diameter, 2.04 m

design stress, 140.33 N/mm2

joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

Therefore, minimum thickness required:


e =

0.6 (2040)
= 4.36 mm
2 1 140.33 0.2(0.6)

Add 4 mm for corrosion allowance,


e

(4.36 + 4) mm

8.36 mm

6-54

9 mm

So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is taken as 10mm which is
same as wall thickness.
6.3.2.8 Design for the Skirt Support

Material of construction for skirt support is stainless steel.


Design stress

140.33 N/mm2

Youngs modulus

200000 N/mm2

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occurs.

Dc 2 Hv
4

Aprroximate weight =

L g

2.042 11
4

Aprroximate weight =

(6.3.9)

(801.7) (9.81)

Aprroximate weight = 282.76 kN

Weight of vessel from previous calculation = 143.82 kN

Total weight

(282.76 + 143.82) kN

426.58 kN

Wind loading from previous calculation = 2.828 kN/m


Take skirt support as 3 m height.
Bending moment at base skirt
= 2.828 kN/m

(column height + skirt support height)2


2

Bending moment at base skirt, Ms = 2.828 kN/m

(11 + 3)2
= 277.1 kNm
2

The resultant stresses in the skirt support will be:


s (tensile)

bs - ws

s (compressive)

bs + ws

Where,
bs

bending stress in the skirt

ws

dead weight stress in the skirt

6-55

bs =

Ds

4 Ms
W
and ws test =
+ t s t s Ds
Ds + t s t s

(6.3.10)

Where,

Ms

maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt


(due to the wind, seismic and eccentric load)

Ds

inside diameter of the skirt, at the base.

ts

skirt thickness

Therefore,
4 277.1 103 kNmm
= 8.44 N/mm2
2040 + 10 (10) (2040)

bs =

ws test =

282.76 103 N
2040 + 10 10

ws operating =

143.82 103 N
2040 + 10 10

Maximum s (compressive) =

Maximum s (tensile)

= 4.39 N/mm2

= 2.23 N/mm2

bs + ws

8.44 + 4.39

12.83 N/mm2

bs

8.44 - 2.23

6.21 N/mm2

ws

Take joint factor, J =1:


Criteria for design:
s (tensile)

<

fs J sin

6.21

<

140.33 x 1 x sin 900

6.21

<

140.33

<

0.125 EY

s (compressive)

ts
Ds

sin

12.83 <

0.125 (200000)

12.83 <

122.55

10
2040

sin 90

6-56
Both criteria are satisfied and 4 mm is added for corrosion allowance. Therefore for
the design stress thickness (10 + 4) mm is 14 mm.
6.3.2.9 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts

(i)

Approximate Pitch Circle Diameter

Approximate pitch circle diameter

2.2m

Circumference of bolt circle

2200

(ii)

Number of Bolts Required at Minimum Recommended Bolt Spacing


2200
= 11.52
600

By follow Scheiman rules (Coulson & Richardsons, 1999) bolt used most be
multiple of 4. Closest multiple of 4

Take bolt design stress

125 N/mm2

12 bolts

The Anchor Bolts,

(iii)

At operating value,
Ms

277.1 kNm

WTotal vessel

282.76 kN

The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt
area required is given by:
Ab =

1
Nb fb

4 Ms
W
Db

(6.11)

Where,
Ab

area of one bolt at the root of the thread (mm2)

Nb

number of bolts

fb

maximum allowable bolt stress (N/mm2); typical design value 125

Ms

bending (overturning) moment at the base (Nm)

weight of the vessel (N)

Db

bolt circle diameter (m)

N/mm2

6-57

1
4(277.1 103 )
Ab =
12 125
2.2

282.76 103

= 147.37 mm2

Bolt root diameter,


4 Ab

4 (147.37)

13.7 mm

14mm

Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967) where the root area is 353 mm 2.

(iv)

Total Compressive Load on the Base Ring per Unit Length

Fb =

4 Ms
Ds

W
Ds

(6.3.12)

Where,
Fb

compressive load on the base ring (N/m)

Ds

skirt diameter (m)

Fb =

4 (277.1 103 )
282.76 103
+
(2.04)2
(2.04)

= 128.9 kN/m

Minimum Width of the Base Ring,

(v)

Lb =

Fb 1
fc 103

(6.3.13)

Where,
Lb

base ring width (mm)

fc

the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation

6-58
pad, which will depend on the mix used, and will typically range from
3.5
to 7 N/mm2
Take the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm2,
128.9 103
Lb =
5 103

= 25.78 mm

This is the minimum width required; actual width depends on the chair design.
Actual width required

Lr + ts + 50mm

76 + 14 + 50

140 mm

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation,

fc =

Fb
128.9 103
=
= 0.921 N/mm2
Aw
140 103

Minimum thickness,
t b = Lr

3 fc
fr

(6.3.14)

Where,
Lr

distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring (mm)

tb

base ring thickness (mm)

fc

actual bearing pressure on base (N/mm2)

fr

allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm 2

t b = 76

6.3.2.10

3 (0.921)
= 10.67 11mm
140

Piping and Flange Design

Optimum diameter of flange can be calculating using equation below.


d, optimum = 260 G0.52 0.37

(6.3.15)

6-59
Where,
G

mass flowrate (kg/s)

mass density (kg/m3)

(i)

Feed inlet

Flowrate

1.67 x 104 kg/h

Density

17.56 kg/m3

Therefore,
d, optimum = 260 (4.64)0.52 (17.56)0.37 = 200mm

(ii)

Top Column Inlet

Flowrate

2292 kg/h

Density

0.1167 kg/m3

Therefore,
d, optimum = 260 (0.64)0.52 (0.1167)0.37 = 456mm

As reference to typical standard flange design table, so the standard diameter size
of flange is taken as 500mm.
(iii)

Bottom Column Inlet

Flowrate

1.441 x 104 kg/h

Density

801.7 kg/m3

Therefore,
d, optimum = 260 (4.00)0.52 (801.7)0.37 = 45mm

As reference to typical standard flange design table, so the standard diameter size
of flange is taken as 50mm.

6-60

Figure 6.7: Typical Standard Flange Design


(Source: R. K. Sinnott, John Metcalfe Coulson, John Francis Richardson, Chemical
Engineering Design. Volume 6)

6-61
Table 6.12 :

dopt

Pipe

(mm)

d1

d4

Feed

200

219.1

320

20

55

258

Top

500

508

645

24

68

570

Bottom

50

60.3

140

14

38

90

Stream

Flange

Standard Flange Size

Raised Face

Table 6.13 :

Bolting

Drilling
No

d2

d3

M16

18

280

236

M20

20

22

600

538

M12

14

110

74

Summary of Mechanical Design

Operating Condition

Dimensions

Design Pressure

0.6 N/mm2

Design Temperature

132.22 oC
Plate

Material

Stainless steel (316)


140.33 N/mm2

Design Stress
Cylindrical Section

10 mm
Column Weight

Mean Diameter

2.05 m

Dead Weight

71.52 kN

Weight of Plates

58.8 kN

Weight of Insulations

13.5 kN

Total Weight

143.82 kN
Wind Loading

Mean Diameter

2.21 m

Loading

2828.8 N/m
Vessel Supports

Material

Stainless Steel

Design Stress

140.33 N/mm2

Total Weight

426.58 kN

Wind Loading

2.828 kN/m

Skirt Support Height

Boss

3m

Bending Moment

277.1 kNm

Dead Weight (Test)

4.39 N/mm2

Dead Weight (Operating)

2.23 N/mm2

6-62
Thickness

14 mm
Anchor Bolts

Bolts

12

Design Stress

125 N/mm2

Bending Moment

277.1 kNm

Area

147.37 mm2

Bolts Root Diameter


Types

6.4

13.7 mm
M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967)

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN (T-103)

6.4.1

Introduction

Several factors need to be considered in the mechanical design of distillation


column which are:
1. Design pressure
2. Design temperature
3. Material of construction
4. Design stress
5. Vessel thickness
6. Heads and closure
7. Column weight
8. Analysis of stresses
9. Vessel support
10. Piping sizing

6.4.2

Column Design Specification

Total column height = tray spacing x no. of stages


= 0.6 x 21
= 12.6 m
Allow, 2 m for clearance height = 12.6 + 2
= 14.6 m
Internal diameter, Dc = 1.22 m
Operating pressure,
Top column = 2 kPa
Bottom column = 9 kPa

6-63
Take column operating at = 6.5 x 10 -3 bar (at vacuum condition)
Operating temperature = 390.4K
Material of column = stainless steel
Tray type = sieve tray (20 trays)
Material of type = stainless steel
Corrosion allowance = 4 mm (for corrosive material)
Insulation column = mineral wool 75 mm thick

6.4.3

Design Pressure

In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and pressure
are important properties in order evaluate the thickness and the stress of material.
Therefore, the safety factor is added as precaution and determined by certain
consideration such as corrosion factor, location and process characteristics.
Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 10% above the operating pressure at the
bottom of column to avoid serious operating during minor process upsets. Take
design pressure as 10% above operating pressure,
Design Pressure, Pi = 6.5 x 10-2 bar x 1.1
= 7.15 x 10-2 bar
= 7.15 x10-3 N/mm2
Noted that this column operate at vacuum condition as the design pressure is at
vacuum pressure.
6.4.4

Design Temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of the material, with due allowance for any
uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.
Operating Temperature, T = 390.4 K = 153.3 oC
Design Temperature, T = operating temperature (oC) x 1.1
= 153.3oC x 1.1
= 168.6oC

6-64
6.4.5

Material of Construction

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material
for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with
the process environment. The material used is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni,304) as the
material are suitable for handling refined acetate esters, in high temperature and
vacuum pressure. For this material, the design stress at 168.6 oC is obtained from
Table 13.2, page 809, Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6
Design stress, f = 101 N/mm2
Diameter vessel, Di = 1.22 m
Tensile strength = 517 N/mm2
6.4.6

Vessel Thickness

The minimum thickness of column and other design are calculated based on
equation below:
e = Pi Di /(2f Pi)
where, Pi = Design pressure
Di = Column diameter
f = design stress
e =(7.15 x 10-3)(1.22 x 103)/[2(101) 7.15 x 10-3]
= 0.043mm + 4 mm (corrosion allowance)
= 4.043 mm
= 4.0 mm (approximately)

A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the
wind and dead weigh load. Divide the column into five sections, with the thickness
increasing by 2 mm per section upwards.

6.4.7

Head and Closure

Torispherical head had been choosen because of operating pressure below 10 bars
and suitable for liquid vapour phase process. The calculation as below with take
Crown Radius, RC = Di = 1.22 m
Knuckle Radius, Rk = 6%RC = 0.0732 m
A head of this size would be form by pressing: no joints, so E = 1.0. Then the
minimum thickness, t is

6-65

t=
t=

6.4.8

0.885Pi R c
SE 0.1Pi

0.885 7.15 102 (1.22 103 )


+ 4 = 4.76 mm
101 1 0.1 1.5 102

Dead Weight of Vessel, Wv

For a steel vessel, W v = 240 Cv Dm (Hv + 0.8 Dm) t


where, W v = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as plates, N
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways and internal
support. (In this case for distillation column ,Cv 1.15)
Dm = mean diameter of vessel (Di + t ), m
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m
To get a rough estimate of the weight of this vessel is by using the average
thickness, 4
mm.
Dm = Di + t
= 1.22 + 0.004

= 1.224 m

Hv = 12.6 m
So, W v = 240 (1.15) (1.224) (12.6 + 0.8 (1.224)) (0.004)
= 18.3 kN

6.4.9

Weight of Plate, Wp

From Nelson Guide, page 833, Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering,
Volume 6; take contacting plates, 1.2 kN/m2.
Plate area = D2/4

6-66
= (1.22)2/4

= 1.17 m2
Weight of plate = 1.2 kN/m2 x 1.17 m2

= 1.4 Kn

For 20 plates = 20 x 1.4 kN

= 28.06 kN

6.4.10

Weight of insulation, Wi

The mineral wool was choosing as insulation material. By referring to Coulson and
Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 833;
Density, of mineral wool = 130 kg/m3

Thickness = 50 mm = 0.05 m
Approximate volume of insulation = x Dm x Hv x thickness of insulation
= (1.224) (12.6) (0.05)
= 2.42 m3
Weight of insulation, W i = volume of insulation x x g
= 2.42 x 130 x 9.81
= 3089.47 N
= 3.089 kN

Double this value to allow fittings, so weight of insulation will be = 17.624 kN


Total weight, W t = W v + W p + W i
= 18.3 + 28.06 +3.089
= 49.499 kN

6-67
6.4.11

Wind Loading

Wind loading will only be important on tall columns installed in the open. Columns
are usually free standing, mounted on skirt supports and not attached to structural
steel work. The wind load is calculated based on location and the weather of
surrounding.
Dynamic wind pressure, Pw =(1/2)CdaUw2
where, Pw = wind pressure (load per unit area)
Cd = drag coefficient (shape factor)
a = density of air
Uw = wind velocity
Wind speed, Uw = 160 km/h
For a smooth cylindrical column, the following semi-empirical equation can be used
to estimate the wind pressure,
Pw = 0.05 Uw2
where, Pw = wind pressure, N/m2
Uw = wind speed, km/h
Pw = 0.05 (1602)
= 1280 N/m2

Mean diameter, including insulation = Dc + Dc t


= 1.22 + (1.22) (4.76 + 50) x 10-3
= 1.29 m
Loading per unit length, Fw = 1280 N/m2 x 1.29 m
= 1647 N/m
Bending moment, Mx = Fw x2 /2
where, x = distance measure from the free end = 1.22 m
Therefore, Mx = (1641 N/m) (1.22 m)2/2
= 1221 N.m

6-68
6.4.12

Analysis of stresses

At bottom tangent line:


Pressure stresses: L = PDi / 4t
Where, P = operating pressure
Di = column diameter
t = thickness
L = (7.15 x 10-3) (1.22 x 103)/ 4(0.76)
= 2.87 N/mm2
h = PDi /2t
= (7.15 x 10-3) (1.22 x 103)/ 2(0.76)
= 5.74 N/mm2

Dead weight stress,


w = W v / (Di + t) t
= 49.499 x 103 / (1.22 x 103 + 0.76) 0.076
=16.98 N/mm2 (compressive stress)

Bending stresses,

Bending moments will be caused by the following loading conditions:


1. The wind loads on tall self-supported vessels
2. Seismic loads on tall column
3. The dead weight and wind loads on piping and equipment

Bending stress can be calculated using this equation:


b =

M Di
+t
Iv 2

where, Mv = the total bending moment at the plate


Iv = the second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending

6-69
Iv =

4
D D4i
64 o

where, Do = (Di + 2t)


= (1220 + 2(0.76))
= 1221.52 mm

Iv =

1221.524 12204 = 542.9 106 mm4


64

Therefore,
b =

1221 103 1220


+ 0.76 = 1.374N/mm2
542.9 106
2

The resultant longitudinal stress is,


z = L + w b
w is compressive and therefore negative,
z (upwind) = 2.87 - 16.98 + 1.374
= -12.736 N/mm2
z (downwind) = 2.87 - 16.98 - 1.374
= - 15.484 N/mm2
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principle stresses will be z and h. The
radial stress r is negligible.
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side,
h - z (downwind) = 5.74 (- 15.484)
= 21.224 N/mm2
Design stress = 130 N/mm2

The value of difference between the principal stresses is well below the maximum
allowable design stress.

Check elastic stability (buckling)


Critical buckling stress, c = 2 x 104 (t/Do)
= 2 x 104 (0.76/1220)
= 12.45 N/mm2

6-70
When the column is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur)
Maximum stress = w + h
= 16.98 + 5.74
= 22.72 N/mm2

6.4.13

Design for the Skirt Support

Type of support = Straight cylindrical skirt, s = 900


Material of construction = stainless steel
Design stress = 130 N/mm2
Youngs Modulus = 210 kN/mm2 = 210,000 N/mm2
At this condition of ambient temperature, the maximum dead weight load on the skirt
will occur when the vessel is full of the mixture.
Approximate weight, W approx = (/4 x Di2 x Hv) x L x g
= (/4 x (1.22)2 x (16.2)) x 902.31 x 9.81
= 167,629 N
= 167.629 kN

Weight of vessel from previous calculation = 49.499 kN


Total weight = W v + W p + W i + W approx
= 18.3 + 28.06 + 3.089 + 167.629
= 217.078 kN

Wind loading from previous calculation = 1641 N/m = 1.641 kN/m

Take skirt support height as 5 m to support the column,


Bending moment at base skirt, Ms = Fw [ (Hv + Hskirt)2/2]
= 1.641 [ (16.2 + 5.0)2/2]
= 368.76 kNm

6-71
Take skirt thickness as same as the thickness of the bottom section of the vessel, t s
= 50 mm.

Bending stress in the skirt,


=

4
+

where, Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt (due to
the wind, seismic and eccentric loads)
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base
ts = skirt thickness
Therefore,
=

4 368.76 103 103


= 66 /2
1220 + 4.76 4.76 1220

Dead weight stress in the skirt,


=

where, W v = total weight of the vessel and contents


Therefore,
=

217.078 103
= 11.8 /2
1220 + 4.76 4.76

49.499 103
=
= 2.7/2
1220 + 4.76 4.76

Maximum s (compressive) = bs + ws
= 66 + 11.8
= 77.8 N/mm2
Maximum s (tensile) = bs - ws
= 66 11.8
= 54.2 N/mm2

6-72
Take joint factor, E = 1

Criteria for design,


s (maximum, tensile) < f s E sin
54.2 < 130 (1) sin 90o
54.2 < 130 N/mm2
s (maximum, compressive) < 0.125 EY ( ts / Ds ) sin
77.8 > 0.125 x 210 000 x (0.76/1220) sin 90
77.8 > 16.32 N/mm2

6.4.14

Base Ring and Anchor Bolts Design

Approximate pitch circle diameter, say, 1.25 m


Circumference of bolt circle = 2250
Number of bolts required at minimum recommended bolt spacing = 2250 /600 =
11.78

Closest multiple of 4 = 12 bolts


Take bolt design stress = 125 N/mm2

Ms = 762.76 kNm
Take W = operating value = 308.716 kN
Ab = 1 [ 4Ms/Db W] / Nb fb
where, Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm2; typically design value 125
N/mm2 (18,000 psi)
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm
W = weight of the vessel, N
Db = bolt circle diameter, m

6-73
So, Ab = 1 [ 4 (368.76 x 103)/1.25 (18.3 x 103] / 11.78 (125)
= 656 mm2
Bolt root diameter = (656 x 4)/ = 12.8 mm

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length


Fb = [ 4Ms/Ds2 + W/Ds ]
where, Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per linear metre
Ds = skirt diameter, m
Therefore, Fb = [4(368.76 x 103)/(2.00)2 + (18.3 x 103)/(2.00)
= 120 kN/m

By assuming that a pressure of 5 N/mm2 is one of the concrete foundation pad, f c.


Minimum width of the base ring,
Lb = (Fb/fc) x (1/103)
where, Lb = base ring width, mm
fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation
pad, which will depend on the mix used, and will typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm 2
(500 to 1010 psi)
therefore, Lb= 120 x 103 /(5 x 103)
= 24 mm

Take the skirt bottom diameter as 2 m


Skirt base angle s = tan-1 (2) = 71.6 / (1/2)
Keep the skirt thickness the same as that calculated for the cylindrical skirt. Highest
stresses will occur at the top of the skirt; where the values will be close to those
calculated for the cylindrical skirt. Sin 71.6 = 0.95, so this term has little effect on the
design criteria.

6-74
Assume bolt circle diameter = 1.25 m

Take number of bolts as 16


Bolt spacing = x (1.25 x 103)/16 = 638 mm, satisfactory
Ab = 1 [ 4Ms/Db W] / Nb fb
= 1 [ 4 (761.76 x 103)/3.25 (308.716 x 103] / 16 (125)
= 314.42 mm2
Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root area = 353 mm 2
Fb = [ 4Ms/Ds2 + W/Ds ]
= [4(761.76 x 103)/(3.00)2 + (308.716 x 103)/(3.00)
= 140,552.78 N/m
= 140.552 X 103 kN/m
Lb = (Fb/fc) x (1/103)
= 140,552.78/(5 x 103)
= 28.11 mm

This is the minimum width required, actual width will depend on the chair design.
Actual width required (Figure 13.30),
= Lr + ts + 50 mm
= 76 + 52 + 50
= 178 mm

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation,


Fc = (140.552 x 103)/(178 x 103) = 0.79 N/mm2
The minimum thickness is given by,
tb = Lr ((3fc/fr)
where, Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring, mm
tb = base ring thickness, mm
fc = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2
fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/m 2

6-75
tb = Lr ((3fc/fr)
= 76 (3) (0.79)/(140)
= 9.9 mm

6.4.15

Design of Stiffness Ring

The plate is supported on rings 75 mm wide and 10 mm deep. The plate spacing is
0.6 m. Take design pressure as 1 bar external or 105 N/m2. The load each ring,
Fr = Pe Ls
where, Pe = external pressure
Ls = spacing between the rings
Therefore, the load per unit length on the ring,
Fr = 105 N/m2 x 0.6 m
= 0.6 x 105 N/m
Taking Youngs Modulus, E = 210,000 N/mm2
= 2.1 x 1011 N/m2

Factor of safety = 6
The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,
PcLs = 24 E Ir / Dr3 x factor of safety
where, Ir = second moment of area of the ring cross-section
Dr = diameter of the ring (approximately equal to the shell outside diameter)
0.6 x 105 N/m = 24 (2.1 x 1011) Ir / 2 x 6
Ir = 1.43 x 10-7 m4
For a rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:
I = breath x depth3 /12
So, Ir for the support rings = 10 x (75) 3 x 10-12/12
= 3.51 x 10-7 m4

And the support ring is of an adequate size to be considered as a stiffening ring,

6-76
L / Do = 0.5 / 3.0 = 0.25
Where, L = plate spacing
Do = internal diameter
Do /t = 2000 / 50 = 40
From Figure 13.13, Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, volume 6,
Kc = 68
From equation 13.53, Coulson & Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, volume 6,
Pc = Kc x EY x (t / Do)3
= 68 x 2.1 x 1011 x (40)3.
= 2.23 x 108 N/m2.
This is above the maximum design pressure of 2.12 x 10 5 N/m2. So, design of the
support rings to support the plate is satisfied.

6.4.16

Piping Sizing

By assuming that the flow of the pipe is turbulent flow, therefore to determine
optimum duct diameter is
Optimum duct diameter, dopt = 260 G0.52 -0.37 (for stainless steel)
where, G = flow rate, kg/s
= density, kg/m3

For feed stream,

Flow rates, G

= 16612 kg/h
= 4.61 kg/s

Density mixture, mix = 0.089(1059.33) + 0.001(1158.13) + 0.053(836.76) +


0.847(888.71) +
0.002(724.98) + 0.009(997.99)
= 902.96 kg/m3

6-77
Therefore, dopt

= 260 (4.61)0.52 (902.96)-0.37


= 46.39 mm

Add 4 mm corrosion allowances d op = 50.39 mm


Nozzle thickness, t = Ps dopt / 20 + Ps
where, Ps = operating pressure
= design stress at working temperature

Therefore, t

= 0.0715 (50.39) / (20 (130) + 0.0715)


= 0.0014 mm

So, thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.0014 mm


= 4 + 0.0014
= 4.0014 mm
= 4 mm

For top stream,


Flow rates, G

= 2855 kg/h
= 0.79 kg/s

Density mixture, mix = 0.4274(1059.33) + 0.0026(1158.13) + 0.2579(888.71) +


0.0077(724.98)
+ 0.255(997.99)
= 1297.34 kg/m3

Therefore, dopt

= 260 (0.79)0.52 (1297.34)-0.37


= 16.2 mm

Add 4 mm corrosion allowances, d op = 20.2 mm


Nozzle thickness, t = Ps dopt / 20 + Ps
where, Ps = operating pressure
= design stress at working temperature

Therefore, t

= 0.0715 (20.2) / (20 (130) + 0.0715)


= 0.0005 mm

6-78
So, thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.0012 mm
= 4 + 0.0005
= 4.0005 mm
= 4 mm

For bottom stream,


Flow rates, G

= 82.9 kg/h
= 0.023 kg/s

mix
0.0005(724.98)

= 0.0979(1059.33) + 0.0655(1158.13) + 0.8326(888.71) +


+ 0.0033(997.99)
= 902.31 kg/m3

Therefore, dopt

= 260 (0.023)0.52 (902.31)-0.37


= 3.39 mm

Add 4 mm corrosion allowances d op = 7.39 mm


Nozzle thickness, t = Ps dopt / 20 + Ps

where, Ps = operating pressure


= design stress at working temperature

Therefore, t

= 0.00715 (7.39) / (20 (130) + 0.00715)


= 0.0015 mm

So, thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.0015 mm


= 4 + 0.0015
= 4.0015 mm
= 4 mm
6.4.17

Flange Design

The flange class number required for a particular duty will depend on the design
pressure and temperature and the flange material.

6-79
Table 6.14: Summary of Mechanical Design of Distillation Column (T-103)
Operating condition and Material

Symbol

Value

Unit

bar

Construction
Operating Pressure

6.5 x 10-2

Operating Temperature

117

Design Pressure

Po

7.15 x 10-2

Design temperature

To

168.6

Material Construction

bar
o

Stainless steel

Design Column Dimension


Column Height

hc

14.6

Shell thickness

Typed of domed
Domed thickness

m
mm

Torispherical
eD

0.76

mm

Dead weight of vessel

Wv

18.3

kN

Weight of plate

Wp

28.06

kN

Weight of insulation

WI

3.089

kN

Total weight

WT

49.499

kN

Wind loading

Fw

1641

kN/mm

Wind pressure

Pw

1280

N/m2

Bending moment

Mx

1221

kNm

Longitudinal pressure stress

2.87

N/mm

Circumferential pressure stress

5.74

N/mm

Dead weight stress

16.98

N/mm

Bending stress

1.374

N/mm

Upwind stress

z (upwind)

-12.736

N/mm

Downwind stress

z(downwind)

-15.848

N/mm

Critical buckling stress

12.45

N/mm

Column Weight

Stress Analysis

Vessel support
Type

Straight Skirt

Material construction

Stainless steel

Skirt thickness

ts

0.76

Mm

Skirt diameter

Ds

Skirt height

hs

Skirt weight

Ws

167.629

kN

6-80
Insulation
Material construction
Thickness

ti

50.76

Mm

Flowrate

4.61

Kg/s

Pipe outer diameter

o.di

50.39

mm

Flowrate

0.0079

Kg/s

Pipe outer diameter

o.di

16.2

mm

Flowrate

0.023

Kg/s

Pipe outer diameter

o.di

7.39

mm

Piping sizing
Feed pipe sizing

Top pipe sizing

Bottom pipe sizing

6.5

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER (E-104)

6.5.1

Design Pressure

Usually, the design pressure is taken above the normal working operation. The
purpose is to avoid counterfeit operation during minor process upset and safety
condition.

Table 6.15: Design Pressure


Parameter
Operating Pressure, N/mm
Design pressure, N/mm

6.5.2

Shell side
0.1
0.6

Design Temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of material with due allowance for any
uncertainty involve in predicting vessel wall temperature. Adding 10% from

6-81
operating temperature to cover the uncertainties in temperature prediction, the
design temperature should be:

Table 6.16: Design Temperature


Parameter
o

Operating temperature, C
o

Design temperature, C

6.5.3

Shell side

Tube side

117.2

20

130

22

Exchanger Type

For heat exchanger design, the specification and type of heat exchanger was
discussed in chemical design section. Exchanger with internal floating head is
versatile than other type of heat exchangers. Internal floating head is suitable for
high temperature difference between shell and tubes.

The tubes can be rod from to ends and the bundle are easier to clean and
can be used for fouling liquids. The tube bundle is removable and the floating tube
sheet moves to accommodate differential expansion between shell and tubes.

6.5.4

Material of Construction

Water is fairly corrosive as cooling medium is tending to polymerization. Hence, the


tubes should be constructed by using corrosion resistance materials. Stainless steel
is the most frequently used as corrosion resistance material in chemical industry.
There are several types of stainless steel that can be divided into 3 classes
according to their microstructure:
1. Ferritic: 30% Cr, 0.1% C, no nickel
2. Austenitic: 16 - 26% Cr, 10% Ni
3. Martensitic: 12 14% Cr, 0.1 1% C, < 2% Ni

To impart corrosion resistance, the chromium content must be above 12%.


Nickel is added to improve the corrosion resistance in non-oxidizing environments.

For tube and shell side, Austenitic stainless steel is also called 316 type or
18/8 stainless steel was used. It contains the minimum chromium and nickel that

6-82
give a stable austenitic structure. The carbon content is low enough for heat
treatment and not to be normally needed with this section to prevent weld decay.
They typically have reasonable cryogenic and high temperature strength properties.
It is also highly ductile and tensile strength.

6.5.5

Welded Joint Efficiency and Corrosion Allowance

The strength of welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality of the
welding. The soundness of weld is then checked by visual inspection and by
nondestructive testing called radiography. The value of welded joint factor, J can be
assumed as 1.0 which the joint is equally as strong as the virgin steel plate.

The corrosion allowance is additional thickness of metal added to allow for


material lost by corrosion or scaling. For stainless steel, where severe corrosion is
not expected, a minimum corrosion allowance of 3.0 mm is used.

6.5.6

Design Stress

It is necessary to fix a minimum allowance value of stress that can be accepted in


the material of construction. The allowable stress for the material of construction can
be obtained in Table 13.2 from Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6 (Refer Appendix
E10).

Table 6.17: Design Stress

6.5.7

Material Used

Design stress, N/mm2

Shell: Stainless Steel 304

136 @ 130 oC

Design Criteria

6.5.7.1 Minimum Practical Wall Thickness

To ensure that the vessel is adequately rigid to withstand its own weight and any
incidental loads.

6-83
For cylinder shell the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure
can be determined as follows:

(6.5.1)

= internal Pressure, N/mm2

Where Pi
Di

= Ds= Shell diameter, mm

= Joint Factor = 1.0

fs

= Design stress of shell side, N/mm2

Shell: Internal diameter, Ds = 0.434 m

0.6 454.7217
2 1 (136) 0.6

= 0.96

Adding Corrosion allowance: 3 mm


= 0.96 + 3
= . ~ 4.0

6.5.7.2 Head and Closure

Heads closes the ends of cylindrical vessel. For the design, Ellipsoidal heads are
chosen because to save cost since it is more economical. The standard type is with
a major and minor axis ratio 2:1. For this ratio, the following equation can be used:


2 0.2

Where Pi

= internal Pressure, N/mm2

Di

= Ds = Shell diameter, mm

= Joint Factor = 1.0

fs

= Design stress of shell side, N/mm2

0.6 434.7560
2 1 (136)2(0.6)

= 0.957

(6.5.2)

6-84
Adding Corrosion allowance: 3 mm
= 0.957 + 3
= . ~ 4.0
Same as the wall thickness

6.5.7.3 Baffles

Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid flow across tube and increase the fluid
velocity. When the fluid velocity increases, its improving the rate of heat transfer.
The assembly of baffles and tubes is hold together by support rods and spacers.

The most commonly used type of baffle is a single-segmental baffle. Baffle


cut used to indicate the dimensions of a segmental baffle. Generally, baffle cut is
20% - 25% will be optimum. The value will give good heat transfer rate without
excessive drop.

With 25% baffle cut:


=
=

4.5
0.1735

(6.5.3)
1

= 24.94~

6.5.7.4 Nozzle (Branches)

Nozzles are used as inlet and outlet stream of the cooler. The nozzles are for
channel side and the shell side of the heat exchanger.

Standard steel pipe are used for the inlet and outlet nozzles. It is important to
avoid flow restrictions at the inlet and outlet nozzles to prevent excessive pressure
drop and flow-induced vibrations of the tubes. Material of construction for nozzles is
same as shell material which is carbon steel.

6-85
Tube side nozzles
Table 6.18: Fluid: Chilled water
Equation
Material of
construction
Temperature, oC
Density, kg/m3
Flow rate, Gwater, kg/s
Fluid velocity, m/s
Flow area, A, m2
Inside diameter pipe,
m

Inlet

Outlet

Stainless steel

Stainless steel

10
999.7
21.05
1.23
0.02

20
999.7
21.05
1.23
0.02

0.20

0.20

G/( )
4 1/2

From Stanley M.Walas, Chemical Process Equipment (Refer Appendix E11)


By taking ID = 7.98 in. the selected tube size nozzle (for inlet and outlet):

Table 6.19: Properties of Steel Pipe for Inlet and Outlet of Chilled Water
Normal pipe
size, in.
8

OD, in

Schedule No.

ID, in

8.63

40

7.98

Flow area per


pipe, in2
50.00

Shell side nozzles


Table 6.20: Fluid: Hydrocarbon Mixture
Material of construction
Temperature, oC
Density, kg/m3
Flow rate, GHC, kg/s
Fluid velocity, m/s
Flow area, A, m2
Inside diameter pipe, m

Inlet
Stainless steel
117.2
802.2
3.894
0.622
0.01
0.11

Outlet
Stainless steel
20
894
3.894
0.622
0.01
0.11

By taking ID = 4.33 in

Table 6.21: Properties of Steel Pipe for Inlet and Outlet of Hydrocarbon Mixture
Normal pipe
size, in.
6

OD, in

Schedule No.

ID, in

6.625

40

6.065

Flow area per


pipe, in2
28.9

6-86
6.5.7.5 Flanged Nozzle

Flanged joint are used for connecting pipes and instrument to vessel, for manholes
cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required. Flanged also
used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections for
transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to connect pipe to the
equipments such as pumps and valves.

Flanges dimension must be able to withstand the hydrostatic ends loads and
the bolt loads necessary to ensure tight joint in service. For the design of this heat
exchanger, welding-neck flange are used. It is because welding-neck flanges have a
long tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual
transition of the section reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and
branch. It is also can increase the strength of the flange assembly.

Welding-neck flanges are suitable for extreme service conditions, where


flange are likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and vibration loads. They will
normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process vessels and
process equipment. The dimensions of welding-neck flanges is chosen base on the
nominal pipe size of the nozzle pipe. All dimension are listed below
From Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6 (Refer Appendix E12)
Dimension of selected flanges (BS 4504)

Table 6.22: Design of Flanged Joint


Type
Tube
side
Shell
side

Flange

Raised
face
d4
f

Bolt

Drilling

Neck

Nom
Pipe

Pipe
OD

203

171.3 268.3 18.1 48.4 205.4 3 M16

18 228.3

150

168.3

18

265

18

44

202

3 M16

No.

d2

225

d3

h2

187.1

12.2

10

184

12

10

6-87

Figure 6.8: Flanged Joint Standard


6.5.7.6 Weight Load

The major sources of dead weight loads are:

Vessel Shell

Tubes

Fluid to fill the vessel

Fluid to fill the tubes

Insulator

1. Vessel Shell Weight


For preliminary design calculation, the approximate weight of cylindrical vessel
with domes ends and uniform wall thickness can be estimated from the following
equation:
= + 0.8 103

(6.5.4)

6-88

Where Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal


supports
Hv = Length (the length of cylindrical section), m
g = gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s2
t = wall thickness, mm
m = density of vessel material, kg/m3
Dm = mean diameter of vessel = (Di + t x 10-3), m
= 1.08 8000 (0.434 + 0.004) 9.81 4.5 + 0.8 0.434 4.0 103
= .

2. The tube weight


= 2 2
Where

(6.5.5)

Nt = number of tubes
do = outside diameter of tube-side, m
di = inside diameter of tube-side, m
L = length, m
m = density of tube material, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s2

= 130 0.022232 0.019742 4.5 16 9.81


= .

3. Weight of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate to fill the vessel


= 2 4
Where Ds = diameter of shell-side, m
L = length, m
s = density of shell-side, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2
= 0.4342 4 4.5 802.2 9.81
= .

(6.5.6)

6-89
4. Weight of water to fill the tubes
= 2 2
Where

(6.5.7)

Nt = number of tubes
do = outside diameter of tube-side, m
di = inside diameter of tube-side, m
L = length, m
t = density of tube-side, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2

= 130 0.022232 0.019742 4.5 998.2 9.81


= .

5. Weight of insulator
=
Where

(6.5.8)

Ds = diameter of shell-side, m
L = length, m
lw = thickness of insulation, m
m = density of material insulation, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2
= 0.434 4.5 0.025 180 9.81

= .

Table 6.23: Total Weight of Heat Exchanger


Weight of Sources

Values (N)

Vessel Shell Weight

2244.74

The tube weight

30.1462

Weight of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate to fill

5257.0827

Weight of water to fill the tubes

470.9073

Weight of insulator

60.2943

Total Weight

8063.170

Total Weight with 5% allowance

8466.3290

6-90
6.5.8

Vessel Support

Determination of support a vessel is depending on the size, shape, and weight of


the vessel; the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and
arrangement; and the internal and external fittings and attachments. Support should
be design to allow easy access to the vessel for inspection and maintenance.

Since cooler in horizontal arrangement, saddle support is chosen as the


support of the cooler. The saddle must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by weight of the vessel and its content. The total weight load of the vessel is 13.9 kN
from calculated above. From the value of the weight and diameter, the dimensions
of saddle are choosing by referring to Appendix B4;
For outer vessel or shell diameter = 0.434 ~ 0.45m (standard construction) for
support only.

Table 6.24: Design of Saddle for Vessel


Shell O.D
(mm)
450

A
330

Dimensions (mm)
C
D
10
13

B
410

E
130

F
13

Design of saddle for Vessel Continuation


G
100

Dimensions (mm)
H
62

J
-

Bolt size

No. of ribs

M.20

Weight
(kg)
26

6-91

Figure 6.9: Standard saddle for vessel

6.5.9

Summary of Heat Exchanger Design

Table 6.25: Summary of Mechanical Heat Exchanger Design


Description

Specification

Material of construction
Shell

Stainless Steel

Tube

Stainless Steel

Shell thickness
Head

4.0 mm
Type

Ellipsoidal

Thickness

4.0 mm

Support

Type

Saddle

Flange

Type

Welding Neck
(Nominal pressure 6 bar)

Nozzles

Baffles

Tube inlet and outlet

200.00 mm

Shell inlet and outlet

110.00 mm

Type

Segmental

Number of baffles
Total Weight

25
8.466 kN

6-92
6.5.10 Specification sheet of Heat Exchanger (E-104)

Equipment No. (Tag): E-104

Heat Exchanger Data Sheet

Descript. : HEAT
EXCHANGE BETWEEN
S13 AND S14
Operating Data
0.435

Size
Shell per unit

Surface per unit

Type
Surface per Shell

Shell and
tube
2

No. of units

Performance of one Unit


SHELL SIDE

TUBE SIDE

TOTAL FLUID ENTERING

LIQUID (2-EHA)

IN

OUT

LIQUID

LIQUID

WATER
VISCOSITY LIQUID

IN

OUT

LIQUID

LIQUID

0.00043

0.00131

SPECIFIC HEAT
THERMAL
CONDUCTIVITY

2.336

4.1950

0.10500

0.5815

TEMPERATURE

117.2

OPERATING PRESSURE

1 bar

VELOCITY

20

0.3225

NO. OF PASSES

10
1.060

65

PRESSURE DROP

0.1061

0.0972

HEAT EXCHANGED

36.043
Construction of one Shell
6 bar

DESIGN PRESSURE

128.92

DESIGN TEMPERATURE
DUTY
TUBES
SHELL
TUBE SHEET
STATIONARY
BAFFLES CROSS

884.1549 kW
No. OD: 0.02223

LENGTH: 4.5

PITCH
0.028

SPACING %
CUT

25

FLOATING
TYPE

SEGMENTAL
0.03
2244.7399

TUBE SIDE
OPERATING

ROCKWOOL

INSPECTION FITTING ATTACHMENT BY

* Units in SI unit

THICKNESS
:0.04
0.435

I.D

CORROSION ALLOWABLE SHELL SIDE


WEIGHT OF ONE
UNIT EMPTY
INSULATION

20

NUR AFIQAH YUSOF

0.03
8466.329