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The structural design of any construction related to civil engineering will enhance the life of that structure. Hangar is a closed structure to hold aircraft or spacecraft in protective storage.Hangars are used for protection from weather, direct sunlight, maintenance, repair, manufacture, assembly and storage of aircraft on airfields, aircraft carriers and ships. This report explains about the manual analysis of design process carried out for hangar, and its importance in the construction for an airport. The checks and corrections are analyzed in STAAD PRO software. The results obtained in this detailed project report will prove to be economical from design point of view.

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The structural design of any construction related to civil engineering will enhance the life of that

structure. Hangar is a closed structure to hold aircraft or spacecraft in protective storage.Hangars

are used for protection from weather, direct sunlight, maintenance, repair, manufacture, assembly

and storage of aircraft on airfields, aircraft carriers and ships. This report explains about the

manual analysis of design process carried out for hangar, and its importance in the construction

for an airport. The checks and corrections are analyzed in STAAD PRO software. The results

obtained in this detailed project report will prove to be economical from design point of view.

'1.1 Introduction

Structure in the civil point of view is very important to be in proper design and detailing so that

maximum benefit can be achieved by the people. An aircraft should be properly repaired and

maintained after its certain use in transportationHence, the hangar is a place where the aircraft

can be taken proper care,proper management and enhancement in the manufacturing parts can be

made.

If hangars are not provided then the aircraft company can face the problems due to its less

maintenance and services. Even less maintenance and repairing may lead to large vital accidents

in future; hence hangars should be designed keeping in mind the future point of view. Materials

used in hangars mainly consist of wood, fabric and steel.

Structure with span larger than 40 m can be regarded as long span structures and need to be

carefully designed keeping a balance of all the aspects like its weight, deflections (sway) and

foundation forces. There are many combinations of designing large spans, like conventional truss

& RCC column combination, truss & steel columns, Pre-engineered building (PEB) etc.

The design under discussion is a 50 meter clear span hangar for aircrafts. We have designed this

hangar in 3D on STAAD software, for proper simulation of the load distribution uniformly in

three co-ordinates system i.e. X, Y and Z. All the basic loads i.e. dead, live, wind, temperature,

seismic etc. have been taken into consideration for designing of the frames. The structure has

been designed under enclosed as well as open conditions for application of wind loads, because

of the opening & closing of the large sized hangar doors.

The basic philosophy of rigid frame design is by adopting 'Fixed' or 'Pinned' column base

conditions. A fixed column base is always a sturdy frame and helps in controlling allowable

deflection (side sway) in the frames. Steel designers always prefer fixed base to pinned base

frames. On the contrary, for foundation designers, the design of foundations becomes a

nightmare particularly in large span buildings. In fixed base design, the frame is rigid, but

transfers heavy moments to the foundations.

'

On weak soil, designing foundations becomes tedious task. Likewise, for pinned support, the

frame does not transfer any moment to the foundation and only vertical & horizontal reactions

affect the design of foundation. It looks simple but in case of large spans, controlling deflections

of frame in pinned base condition is a challenging task.

The simplest wayfor controlling this deflection is to increase the geometrical properties/sectional

sizes of frame, but it is not advisable as it adds to the tonnage of the whole building, adding not

only to the seismic forces but also adding to the cost subsequently. We need a solution wherein

the sway of the frame can be controlled and the section sizes are also not increased.

'

Definitions

Span :

The centre to centre distance between two supports of roof truss is called span.

Spacing:

Horizontal distance between two consecutive trusses is known as spacing

Principal rafter:

Member of roof truss from end support to ridge point is known as principal rafter.

Main tie:

Bottom chord member of the roof truss.

Sag tie:

Vertical member joining ridge point and midpoint of main tie.

Ridge line:

Line joining ridge point of one truss to ridge point of another truss.

Eaves line:

Line joining eave point of one truss to eave point of another truss.

Purlin:

Member supported on panel points of two consecutive roof trusses.

Web members:

Vertical or inclined members joining top chord and bottom chord members.

Panel point:

Points on principal rafter where vertical or inclined members connected to principal rafter are

called panel points.

Panel:

The portion of roof truss between two consecutive panel point on principal rafter.

Rise:

Vertical distance from main tie to the ridge point.

Pitch:

Ratio of rise and span.

Wind bracing:

Two roof truss are connected by cross members to stabilize it against action of wind.

'

Objectives

Identify the current and long-term projected airplane fleet, including the number of airplanes that

will use the facility, annual use of airplanes, and maintenance-hour requirements.

Identify the shops and support functions that will be required to support the hangar functions.

Assess company standards for interior and exterior finish quality, security, facility maintenance,

access for people with disabilities, and corporate image.

Assess airplane layout requirements. As with hangar height, the internal dimensions of the

hangar will be determined by the types and number of airplanes housed and the work performed.

In addition, possible insurance or regulatory authority clearance requirements as well as

maintenance policy will affect the internal dimensions of the hangar.

Areas to consider include required horizontal clearances around airplanes including stands and

floor- or roof-supported maintenance docks, the ability to move airplanes while others are in the

hangar, tail-in versus nose-in airplane-parking configurations, building setback requirements, the

proximity to adjacent buildings, the use of tail doors, and the installation of floor airplane powersupply stations..

Corrosion control and cleaning can be carried out whenever required.

Heavy maintenance, overhauling and modification can be done.

'

CHAPTER-3:

PLAN OF WORK

1. Determining Dimensions of hangar.

2. Determination of Load on purlin and its design.

3. Determinationof Load on Truss and deciding the Configuration of Truss.

4. Structurally analyzing the truss.

5. Structure design of truss.

6. Designing Column for truss.

7. Design of foundation.

'

Chapter-4:

4.1 Materials Used

4.1.1 AutoCAD

AutoCAD is the software developed by the Autodesk Company US. AutoCAD is the software by

which we design the drawings and figures of the truss members and its configurations. It is a

very easy and accurate software to draw the engineering structures. This software is useful in

preparing all the reinforced concrete detailed drawings and at the time of construction, these

drawings are most useful for the construction engineer. All the dimensions and scale of the

drawing can be easily changed by this software. Layout can also be prepared with the help of this

software. In this project, detailed drawing of the trusses and its loading is clearly shown by this

software.

4.1.2 Staad Pro

STAAD or (STAAD.Pro) is a structural analysis and design computer program originally

developed by Research Engineers International inYorba Linda, CA.The commercial version

STAAD.Pro is one of the most widely used structural analysis and design software. It supports

several steel, concrete and timber design codes. It is 3D design software which shows the

detailing and is an advanced software compared to AutoCAD. In this the analysis and checks of

the project is carried out.

'

4.2 Methodology used

The roof truss member is analyzed by the method of joints.After analysis of this truss we come to

conclusion whether the member is in compression or in tension. The member being in tension is

designed by the following steps.

Determining the gross section area by the factored axial tension on the member and yield stress

??mo=T/fy ??mo

Selection of trial section from the steel table.

The roof truss comprises of welded joints no bolting is carried out, computation of three strength

Tdg=design strength due to yielding of gross section

Tdn= design strength due to rupture of critical section

Tdb= design strength due to block shear

The min value of the above strength is taken and the section selected should be great the

minimum value

The design strength is less than the T the trial section is changed, and higher section is selected

The slenderness ratio (KL/r) check it the value should be less than effective slenderness ratio.

The member being in compression is designed by following steps:

Based on length and loading in compression, section classification is carried out in various terms

such as

??= (250/fy)0.5 =1

b/tf = 9.4< ?? for plastic state

d/tw = >42?? for slender

Determining the effective length for the member

kl = 0.65L (0.65 for welded joints)

'

Buckling curve classification is carried out.

h/bf = >1.2

bucking class curve 'C'

The slenderness ratio (KL/r) is obtained and fcd is calculated.

The design compressive strength is calculated ( Pd= Ae x fcd)

If the value of Pd is less than the loading on the member, the selection of member is changed.

After determining the compression and tension member, the roof truss is resting on the sole plate

and base plate, the thickness of this plate is determined as per bending stresses.

The jointing of the roof truss to the sole plate and the base plate is done by the rag bolt and is

connected to leg of the angle section.

The whole loading is transferred from the column to the foundation. The ISHB section in column

and strip footing is selected due to high uplift wind force. The gable columns are provided at the

intermediate joints of the roof truss.

As the wind load is comparatively high as compared to dead load and live load, bracing is

provided in roof truss. The bracing such as principal rafter bracing, wall bracing, tie runner, eave

girder, side runner are provided.

'

4.2.1. Determination of loads on truss

A). Dead Load (D.L.)

Weight of roofing material

Assume the G.I. sheets @ 61 N/m2

= 61 ?? 203.96

= 12441.56 N

Weight of purlin

Weight acting on plan area=282.528 N/m2

= 200 ?? 282.528

= 56505.6 N

Self-weight of roof truss

= 10 (50/3+ 5)N/m2

= 216.66 N/m2

Self-weight of roof truss = 216.66 ?? 200

= 43332 N

Weight of wind bracing

Assume the weight as 12 N/m2

=12 ?? 200

= 2400 N

Total Dead Load = 12441.56 + 56505.6 + 43332 + 2400

= 114.67 KN

On one side of roof truss, there are 10 Full panel points (P.P.)

Therefore, D.L per Panel point=98173.56/10

= 9817.356 N

D.L. on I.P.P (full P.P) =11.46 KN

D.L.on E.P.P = 5.733 KN

B). Live Load (L.L.)

L.L on purlin = 750 ' 20 (??-10)

= 750 - 20 (11.309-10)

= 723.82 > 400 N/m^2

L.L. on roof truss =2/3??723.82

= 482.546 N/m^2

Total L.L. = 482.546 ?? 200

= 96509.2 N

L.L. on I.P.P =96509.2/10

= 9.65KN

L.L. on E.P.P =96509.2/(2 ??10000)

= 4.825 KN

I.P.P Total D.L= 19.467 KN

E.P.P Total (D.L. + L.L.) = 9.7335 KN

Weight of purlin = 18 KN

Roof truss = 43.33 KN

Weight of wind bracing = 26 KN

Wind load

basic wind speed Vb= 39 m/s

Design wind speed Vz = Vb K1 K2 K3

K1 = 1.06 (from table 1 IS 875 Pg 3)

K2= 1.10 (for class B type and having terrain category 1)

K3 = 1

Vz = 39 ?? 1.10 ?? 1 ?? 1.06

=45.474 m/s

'

Design wind pressure

PZ = 0.6 V_z^2

= 0.6?? 45.4742

= 1247 N/m^2

TABLE 1.

Wind angle Pressure coefficient Cpe+Cpi A xPd FORCE (KN)

Cpe Cpi WL LW (KN) WL LW

WL LW

0 -1.12 -0.4 -0.7 -1.82 -1.1 190.869 -347.38 -209.95

0.7 -0.42 +0.3 190.869 -80.164 57.26

90 -0.79 -0.6 -0.7 -1.49 -1.3 190.869 -284.39 -248.12

0.7 -0.09 +0.1 190.869 -17.17 19.08

WL on IPP =- 485.69/ 10

= -48.57 KN

WL on EPP = -48.57/2

= -24.29 KN

'

4.2.2.Design of purlin.

>> Self weight of roofing material = 61 ?? 2.5498 ?? 8

= 1244.302 N

>>Self weight of purlin = 288 ?? 8

=2304 N

>>Total Dead load = 1244.302 + 2304

= 3548 N

>>Component of D.L. perpendicular to the Principal rafter

>>Cos 11.309 = DL/3548= 3479.14 N

Live load = 750 ' 20 (??-10)

= 750 ' 20 (11.309-10)

= 723.82 > 400 N/m^2

L.L. = 723.82 ?? 25 ?? 8

= 14476.4 N

L.L = 14195.3243 N

Wind Load (W.L.)

W.L. = -1247 ?? (2.549 ?? 8)

= -24952 N

Load Combination

D.L = 3.5 KN L.L. = 14.195 KN W.L. = - 24.95 KN

D.L.+ L.L = 3.5 + 14.195 = 17.695 KN

D.L.+ W.L = 3.5 ' 24.95 = - 21.45 KN

D.L.+ L.L + W.L = 3.5 + 14.95 - 24.95 = - 7.255 KN

U.D.L = w=21.47/8= 2.68 KN/m

M =(2.68 ??8^2)/10= 17.15 KN.m

'

Required Zez = M_z/F_y

=(17.15 '??10'^6)/250

= 68600 mm^3

= 68.6 cm^3

Minimum depth of purlin = D = L/ 45 = 8000/45 = 177.77 mm

Minimum width of purlin = B = L/60 = 8000/60 = 33.33 mm

Izz required

Permissible deflection = L/ 180 = 8000/180 = 44.44 m

Actual deflection =(5 ??WL^4)/(384 ??EI)

44.44 =(5 ??268 '??8000'^4)/(384 ??2 '??10'^(5 )??I_z )

Iz = 16.08 ?? 106 mm^4

Now select section

ISWB ' 200

Depth = 200 > 177.77mm

Width = 140 > 133.33mm

Iz = 26.26 ?? 106> 16.08 ?? 106

Actual deflection = (5 ??WL^4)/(384 ??EI)

=(5 ??268 '??8000'^4)/(384 ??2 '??10'^(5 )??26.26 '??10'^6 )

= 27.21 mm < 44.44 mm

'

C=-VE T=+VE 4.2.3. Analysis of truss with dead load, live load and wind load (with load

combinations)

DL LL WL 1.5(DL+LL) 1.5(DL+WL) 1.2(DL+LL+WL) max

A,A1 0 0 4.85 0 7.275 5.82 7.275 T

A,B -5.73 -4.825 24.84 -15.8325 28.665 17.142 28.665 T

B,B1 180.72 152.796 -752.46 500.274 -857.61 -502.7328 857.61 C

A1,A2 184.291 155.821 781.93 -510.168 896.4585 530.1816 896.4585 T

A1,B1 60.831 51.468 -251.46 168.4485 285.9435 -166.9932 285.9435 C

B1,A2 -97.378 -82.39 402.54 -269.652 457.743 267.3264 457.743 T

B1,B2 256.76 217.132 1066.79 710.838 -1215.045 -711.4776 1215.045 C

A2,A3 -261.84 221.431 1111.68 724.9065 1274.76 754.0908 1274.76 T

A2,B2 34.183 28.951 -139.12 94.701 -157.4055 -91.1832 157.4055 C

B2,A3 -48.342 -40.942 196.75 -133.926 222.612 128.9592 222.612 T

B2,B3 290.943 246.082 -1206 805.537 -1372.585 -802.77 1372.586 C

A3,A4 296.704 250.954 1221.24 -821.487 1386.804 808.2984 1386.804 T

A3,B3 15.89 13.51 -31.172 44.1 -22.923 -2.1264 44.1 T

B3,A4 -20.684 -17.586 40.577 -57.405 29.8395 2.7684 57.405 C

B3,B4 304.184 257.34 -1232 842.286 -1391.724 -804.5712 1391.724 C

A4,A5 310.203 262.435 1257.2 -858.957 1420.495 821.4744 1420.49 T

A4,B4 1.782 1.608 23.52 5.085 37.953 32.292 37.953 T

B4,A5 -2.19 -1.976 -28.9 -6.249 -46.635 -39.6792 46.635 C

B4,B5 305.455 258.488 1215.21 845.914 1364.632 -781.5204 1364.633 C

'

A5,A6 -311.5 263.606 1250 -862.659 1407.75 809.8728 1407.75 T

A5,B5 -9.94 -8.271 70 -27.3165 90.09 62.1468 90.09 T

B5,A6 11.72 9.752 -82.542 32.208 -106.233 -73.284 106.233 C

B5,B6 300 253.32 1171.47 829.98 -1307.205 -741.78 1307.205 C

A6,A7 305.164 258.335 1214.84 845.2485 1364.514 781.6092 1364.514 T

A6,B6 -20.155 -16.88 110.77 -55.5525 135.9225 88.482 135.9225 T

B6,A7 23.056 243.942 -126.72 400.497 -155.496 168.3336 400.497 C

B6,B7 288.8 19.31 -1110.1 462.165 -1231.95 -962.388 1231.95 C

A7,A8 -294 248.771 1161.52 814.1565 1301.28 742.4988 1301.28 T

A7,B7 -29.42 -24.654 147.98 -81.111 177.84 112.6872 177.84 T

B7,A8 32.9 231.615 -165.44 396.7725 -198.81 118.89 396.7725 C

B7,B8 297.86 27.564 1039.13 488.136 -1111.905 -856.4472 1111.905 C

A8,A9 -279 239.199 1095 777.2985 1224 692.1612 1224 T

A8,B8 -37.95 -31.838 182.73 -104.682 217.17 135.5304 217.17 T

B8,A9 41.68 34.973 -200.72 114.9795 -238.56 -148.8804 238.56 C

B8,B9 280.612 217.143 -956.72 746.6325 -1014.162 -550.758 1014.162 C

B9,B9 -41.87 -38.593 215.66 120.6945 260.685 162.2364 260.685 T

B9,P 42.29 41.81 -233.33 126.15 -286.56 -179.076 286.56 C

B9,O 263.34 201.062 -866.86 696.603 -905.28 -482.9496 905.28 C

'

4.2.4.Design of truss members and connections

FORCE area

CM2 TYPE OF

SECTION Provided

member l r area (k*l)/r fcd Compression

load

VERTICAL 28.28 1.24 25-25-2 60-60-4.8 1000 22.2 1001 29.27 220.438 220.65

168.44 7.41 50-50-4.5 100-100-4 1500 38.9 1495 25.06 222.96 333.32

94.7 4.16 38-38-3.2 60-60-4.8 2000 22.2 1001 58.55 196.45 196.645

44.1 1.94 25-25-2.6 60-60-4.8 2500 22.2 1001 73.19 177.203 177.38

37.953 1.66 25-25-2 60-60-4.8 3000 22.2 1001 87.83 153.314 153.46

90.07 3.96 40-40-3.2 60-60-4.8 3500 22.2 1001 102.477 127.78 127.90

135.922 5.98 50-50-3.6 60-60-4.8 4000 22.2 1001 117.11 105.036 105.14

177.84 7.82 60-60-4 60-60-4.8 4500 22.2 1001 131.75 86.46 86.54

217.17 9.55 60-60-4.8 100-100-4 5000 38.9 1495 83.54 160.63 240.14

260.685 11.47 80-80-4 100-100-4 5500 38.9 1495 91.90 145.76 217.91

DIAGONAL 1030.1 45.32 180-180-8 220-220-8 2898.5 86 6619 21.90 224.85 1488.28

457.74 20.14 100-100-6 150-150-4 3201.6 59.3 2295 35.09 216.43 496.70

222.61 9.79 60-60-4.8 100-100-4 3535.5 38.9 1495 59.075 195.94 292.93

29.89 1.31 25-25-2 100-100-4 3905.1 38.9 1495 65.252 188.175 281.32

43.63 1.91 25-25-2.6 100-100-4 4301.2 38.9 1495 71.87 179.195 267.89

32.20 1.41 25-25-2 100-100-4 4717 38.9 1495 78.81 179.19 267.88

400.49 17.62 100-100-5 150-150-4 5147.8 59.3 2295 56.42 198.57 455.71

396.77 17.45 100-100-5 150-150-4 5590.2 59.3 2295 61.27 193.349 443.73

115 5.06 60-60-2.6 150-150-4 6041.5 59.3 2295 66.22 186.92 428.98

126.5 5.566 60-60-2.6 150-150-4 6500 59.3 2295 71.24 180.14 413.42

60-60-4.8 14 Number of members

100-100-4 15

150-150-4 10

220-220-8 2 Tie

220-220-10 2 Rafter

'

4.2.5. Design of column

# Calculation OfLoad

Compressive force in column

Roofing material load = 20.392 KN

Tie runner load = 10 KN

Purlin = 24 KN

Eaves = 5 KN

Truss = 77.20 KN

Girts = 17.5 KN

Side wall = 125.568 KN

Self-weight = 50.57 KN

Total compressive force = 382.23 KN

Tensile force in column

Vertical uplift force = 0.8 ?? 0.75 ?? 1247 ?? 15 ?? 25

= 280.575KN

Moment at base

Net horizontal force at tie level due to wind on roof

= sin 11.303 ?? 25.49 ?? 8 ?? 0.75 ?? 1247

= 36 KN

0.65 0.75

0.4Pd 0.7Pd

Pd= 0.75 ?? 1247 ?? 8

= 7.482 KN/m

'

Deflection of column AB

=(T '??15'^3)/3EI+ (2.25 '??15'^3)/8EI

Deflection of column CD

=(5.25 '??15'^3)/8EI+ (36 '??15'^3)/3EI- (T '??15'^3)/3EI

Equating deflection of AB and CD

(T '??15'^3)/3EI+ (2.25 '??15'^3)/8EI= (5.25 '??15'^3)/8EI+ (36 '??15'^3)/3EI- (T '??15'^3)/3EI

(2T '??15'^3)/3EI- (36 '??15'^3)/3EI= (5.25 '??15'^3)/8EI- (2.25 '??15'^3)/8EI

('15'^(3 )??(2T-36))/3EI= (3 '??15'^3)/8EI

2T-36 = 9

2T= 45

T = 22.5 KN

Moment at base of AB

= 2.25 ?? 15 ?? 7.5 + 22.5 ?? 15

= 590.625KN.m

Moment at base of CD

= 5.25 ?? 15?? 7.5 + 36.?? 15 ' 22.5 ?? 15

= 793.125KN.m

considering the increase in allowable stress for wind load combination forces, the reduced forces

are :

Tensile force = 0.85 ?? 280.575 = 238.488 KN

Moment = 0.75 ?? 793.125 = 600 KN.m

'

Design of section

Compressive force = 382.25 KN

Tensile force = 238.488 KN

Base moment = 600 KN.m

For built up section ISHB 450 with 40 mm thick and 400 mm long plate on both sides

Rxx = 230.6 mm ,Ryy = 102.2 mm

A= 437.89 cm2 = 43789 mm2

W= 343.7 Kg/m

KL/R=(0.8 ??1500)/23.06= 52.038

Fcd = 183 Mpa

Allowable compressive force = 183 ?? 43789 = 8013.387 KN

Check for deflection

ISHB 450

Ixx = 40349.9 + 213.33 ?? 2 = 40776.566 cm^4

Deflection at top

= (535.138 '??15'^4 '??100'^3)/( 8 ??2.047 '??10'^6 ??40776.566)+ (1376.146 '??15'^3

'??100'^3)/(3 ??2.047 '??10'^6 ??40776.586)= 59.12 > 10 cm'''' Not ok

Check for compressive stress due to bending

= 6116207.9/(780.94 ??8787)

= 0.891 < 1 ok

Check for simultaneous action of bending and axial tension and moment

=15290.5/(437.89 ??1500)+ 6116207.9/(1650 ??8787)

= 0.445 < 1 ok

'

For deflection providing two extra plate of 40 x 400 mm at both side of column

New M1 = 40776.56 + 41666.66 ?? 2

= 83443.226 KN.m

= (535.168 '??15'^4 '??100'^3)/(8 ??2.047 '??10'^6 ??83448.226)

= 19.269 ' 11.4108

=7.85 <L = 1500/10= 10 ok

'

4.2.6.Base plate

Eccentricity = m/f

= (600 ?? 106) / (382.7 ?? 103)

= 1567.807 mm

Length of plate = 900 mm < 6 ??1567.807

Hence there will be taken

?? = (900- 100)/2

= 400mm

y =900/2+ 400- ((900/2+ 400)^2- 2((600 '??10'^6+ 382.7 '??10'^3 ??400)/(0.45 ??40 ??700))

)^0.5

= 73.49 mm

Fb= 0.45 ??f_ck ??y ??b ' n

= 0.45 ?? 40 ?? 73.49 ?? (700 ' 382.7 ?? 103)

= 543.27 KN

Hence provide 3 bolts of 32 mm diameter.

Nu=5.5 '??40 ?? '400'^1.5

= 784.244 > 543.27 KN

So 400 mm anchor length

Maximum BM

B.M = 73.49 ?? 700 ?? 0.45 ?? 40 ?? ((370 ' 78.5/2))/'10'^6

= 306.26 KN.m

Moment capacity of base plate = 1.2 ?? 250/1.1 ?? t^2 ?? 700/6

= 31818.18 t^2

t = '((306.26 ?? 106)/31818.18)= 100 mm thickness

'

Truss shoe angle design

WL reaction = -150KN

DL reaction = 382.23KN

Therefore wind load tension per bolt ft

ft= (382.23-150)/4

= 58.0575 KN

Wind load shear per bolt = 36/4 = 9KN

Try 4- M30 4.6 grade black bolt

Fs=??/4 ?? d^(2 )?? 0.78 ?? 400= 220.540KN

Ft =??/(4 ) ?? d^(2 )?? 0.75 ??400= 212.058KN

(9/220.540)^2+ (58.0575/212.058)^2= 0.0766<1

Try 2 ' ISA (200 ?? 200 ?? 18)

X = 2 ?? tan'''60'^?? ' ??14.82+2 = 53.34 cm

Thickness t = 2.5 cm

Moment in angle = 58.0575 ??14.82

= 860.412 KN.m

Bending stress = (860.412 ?? 6)/(53.34 ?? 1.8 ?? 1.8) = 298.72 < 320 N/mm^2 therefore safe.

Cap plate design:Moment = 58.0575 ?? 15.385 = 893.215 KN.m

X = 2 ?? tan60?? ?? 15.385+2 = 55.3 cm

Size of plate = (630 ?? 500 ?? 20)mm

Bending stress = (893.215 ?? 6)/(55.3 ?? 2 ?? 2) = 242.28 N/mm^2< 320 N/mm^2 therefore safe.

'

4.2.7. Design Of Tie Runner.

Portion of wind load from gable end along the ridge will be transferred as axial load to tie runner

provided along the length of building at tie level.

L/W = 48/50 = 0.96< 4

From table 4 of IS 875(PART 3) 1987, external wind pressure = + 0.7 with internal pressure +

0.5, maximum pressure =1.2

Factored wind load on intermediate runner

= 1.5 ??1.274 ?? 1.2 ?? 8 ?? (15/2 +6/2)

=192.63KN

Min r required =((8000 ?? 0.85))/250

= 27.2 mm

Try ( 150 X 150 X 4)

A =2295mm^2

Rmin =59.3mm

Design strength due to rupture of critical section

Tdg= A_g f_y/??_mo

Tdg= ((2295 ??250 ))/1100

= 521.59 > 192 KN Ok

Try ( 100x 100 x 4)

A = 1495mm2

Tdg=A_g f_y/??_mo

Tdg= ((1495 ?? 250 ))/1100

= 339.77 > 192.63 KN OK

'

4.2.8. Design of Eave Girder.

Design wind pressure= 1.274 KN/m^2

Maximum force coefficient= 1.65

Eave girder bracing are connected between gable column which are assumed to be spaced at 8m

center to center and truss bottom joints.

Wind load on internal joints =(1.274 ??1.2 ??8 ??( 15/2 + 6/2 ) ?? 1.5 = 1.5 KN

Reaction =(9 ?? 192.63 + 2 ?? 96.315)

= 963.15 KN

Using The Method Of Joint

The maximum force in the bracing at the end of the eave girder

Fbr= ((963.15 - 96.315))/cos'32.005

= ?? 1022.20 KN

Members of the girder are subjected to reversal of stresses and hence they have been checked for

compression as well as tension.

Length of bracing = '(5^2+ 8^2 )

=9.43m

Required rmin= 9434/350 = 26.95 mm

Try section 150 x 150 x 4 with following properties

A= 2295 mm2

Rmin =59.3mm

Section classification

?? = (250/f_y )^0.5

=1

'

Using section 220 x 220 x 8

Axial capacity in compression = (170?? 6619)/1000

= 1125.23 > 1022.22 KN

Axial tensile capacity = (6619 ?? 250)/1100

= 1504.32 > 1022.20 KN

Design strength due to rupture of critical section.

Tdn= (0.6 ?? 6619 ?? 410)/(1.25 ?? 1000)

= 1302.62 > 1022.20 KN

'

4.2.9. Design of rafter bracing member.

Design wind pressure = 1.247 KN/m^2

Max force coefficient = -1.65

Factor wind load = 1.5 ?? 1.24 ?? 1.65 ?? 5 ??4?? sec11.307

= 62.8KN

Length of bracing ='(5^2+8^2 )

=9.43m

TRY (150x150 x 4) ' A'_g=2295 mm^2

Rmin = 59.3mm

L/r = (9430 ?? 0.65) /59.3

= 103.36< 400

Tensile Capacity

Tdg= A_(g ?? ) f_y/??_mo

Tdg= ((2295 ?? 250 ))/1100

= 521.59 > 242.12 KN Ok

Rupture Of Critical Section

Tdn= '' ??A'_(g ) '?? f'_y/??_mo

= ((2295 ?? 250))/1100

= 312.95> 242.12 KN Ok

'

4.2.10. Wall bracing

Force from tie level bracing = 13.13 + 63.55

= 16.68 KN

Wind drag from side walls = 0.025 ?? 1.247 ?? 3.94 ?? 8 ?? 6

= 5.89 KN

Total compression on eaves beam = 82.575 KN

Maximum tension in bracing = (82.57 ?? '(8^2+ '3.94'^2 ))/8

= 92.04 KN

Length of bracing = 10.96m

kl/r = ((0.8 ?? 15000))/59.3

= 202.36

Fcd=36.3

Compression capacity =36.3 ?? 3436

= 124.726 KN> 92 KN

So required section= 150 x 150 x 5

'

4.2.11 Gable columns.

Height= 15m

Wind force per column= 0.7 ?? 1247 ?? 5 ?? (5/2)

= 10911.25 N/m

Mmax = (10911.25 ?? 152)/8

= 308.878 KN.m

Critical Stress Calculation

CS = (1.2 ??10.1 '??10'^6 ??91813 ??55)/(3060.1 '??1500'^2 ) ?? '(1+(0.162 ??64.14

'??1500'^2)/(91813 '??55'^2 ))

= 9237.80kg/cm^2

= 906.149 > 410 Mpa Ok

Section required is ISMB 600

'

4.2.12. Design of pedestal

Self wt of pedestal= 0.94 ?? 0.8 ?? 3 ?? 2500

=55.32 KN

Net downward load = 31.85KN

Moment due to shear force at base of pedestal = 975 KN.m

Total moment at base=1650 KN.m

Therefore design compression= 47.775KN

Design moment =2475KN.m

Fck=40 N/mm^2

MU = '(0.0959/(F_(ck )?? B ?? d_2 ))

PU ='(0.000165/(F_(ck )?? B ?? d_2 ))

(d')/D= 0.05

P_u/F_ck = 0.03

Provide min reinforcement =2%

Therefore area of longitudinal steel= 2% ?? 940 ?? 800

= 15040 mm^2

Provide 12 bars of 40 mm bars

Diameter greater

i) 5mm

ii) ??(dia of main bar)

=1/4(40)

=10 mm

Least lateral dimension =800 mm

16times dia of main bar = (16??40)=640mm

48 times dia of tie =480 mm

Provide 10mm lateral tie at 300 mm c/c as per code

'

4.2.13. Design of footing

Moment=1650 KN.m

Unit weight of soil =1500 kg/m^2

Try a footing (3 ?? 1 ?? 0.7)m per meter consider for strip footing

Weight of soil above footing W3

= ((3 ?? 8)-(0.94 ?? 0.8)) ?? 2 ??1500

= 684.188KN

W2= (3 ?? 8) ??0.7 ??2500

= 42000 kg

=412.02 KN

Total vertical load = 684.188+ 412.02+ 31.85

= 1128.058 KN

Eccentricity of resultant vertical force =1128.05/1650

=0.68 > 0.5

Therefore, base pressure distribution is triangular with part of the footing lifting up

:- Width of footing in contact with soil

= ( 3/2 ' 0.68) ?? 8

=2.46 m

Maximum pressure = ((1128.05 ?? 2))/(1.5 ??8)

= 188.08 KN/m^2<196.20 KN/m^2

Pressure at c = ((188.08) (2.46-0.68))/2.46 = 136.09 KN/ m^2

BM due at B due to back fill in concrete = 1500 ??3+2500 ?? 0.7

= 6250 Kg/m^2

Maximum BM at section g = (136.09 ?? (0.682/2)+(188.08 ' 136.09)?? (0.682/3) )??1.5

= 59.216 KN.m

'

Maximum factored BM at section B

= (1.5 ??625 ??0.682/2)

= 3181.5 kg.m

= 31.27 KN.m

Effective depth =65 cm

Area of steel = ((0.12 ?? 100 ?? 65))/100

= 78 mm^2 per m width

Use 12 nos of 415 grade at 100 mm c/c.

'

Chapter-5

5.1 RESULT

Design of connection: 6 mm weld throughout.

Design of column: ISHB 450 with 4cm thick and 40cm long plate on both sides.4cm thick and

40cm long plate on both sides on inner edges.

Design of tie runner: Box Section:100 x 100 x4 mm

Design of eave girder:220 x 220 x 8 mm

Design of principal rafter bracing: Box Section 150 x 150 x 5 mm

Design of girts:200 x 100 x 5 mm

Design of wall bracing:150 x 150 x 5 mm

Supporting member of cap plate 2ISA 200 x 200 x 8 mm

Cap Plate Design: 650 x 500 x 20 mm

Base plate 900 x 700 x 100 mm

Gable column ISMB 600

Anchor bolt 6 numbers of 32 diameter of 4.6 grade.

Cap plate bolts 4 numbers of 30 mm diameter 4.6 grade.

Tie rafter

Strut1 60 x 60 x 4 mm

Strut2 100 x 100 x 4 mm

Strut 3 150 x 150 x 4 mm

Tie 220 x 220 x 8 mm

Principal rafter 220 x 220 x 10 mm

'

Outcomes

'

5.3Conclusion

The procedure of structural design of hangar in airport according to this project would prove to

be economical and even the safety can be maintained in the structure.

We must use built- up section for the column for 50m span because another section may fail in

deflection. We can save the material and increase the stiffness of structure with the help of

welded connection.

Tubular section can serve all aspects and is economical among all sections for short span and

lower duty structures. Sole plate and base plate are used for large span trusses.

Anchor length of rag bolt increases with increase in span and decreases with increase in grade of

concrete.

Backfilling of soil in footing trenches will increase the footing capacity against uplift wind

forces.

RCC strip footing can be used for large span trusses to resist the uplift load of wind. This strip

footing acts as a combined footing and connects all the columns including gable and main

columns.

Higher dead load and live load can be resisted with the help of higher depth of corrugation

galvanized iron sheets As a result; the spacing between the purlins can be increased. Door of

hangar comprises of same tubular sections as that of wall bracing.

'

Chapter-6

References

IS 800-2007 General Construction in Steel.

SP: 38-1987 Typified design for structures with steel roof trusses.

SP: 6(1)-1964 Handbook for Structural Engineers Steel Section.

SP:16-1980 Design aids for reinforced concrete.

IS 4923 Specification for tubular box section.

IS 456:2000 Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code for Practice.

N Subramanian, Steel Structures, Oxford Publications.

Design of Steel Structures, R.P. Rethaliya,AtulPrakashan.

Auto-Cad

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Source: Essay UK - http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/engineering/structural-design-hangarairport.php

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