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CHAPTER 8 : PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

1. Understand and use the concept of binomial distribution.


1.1 List all possible values of a discrete random variable.

(a) If X represents the number of pupils


scoring 12A in a group of 5 pupils, list
all the possible values of X.

(b) If Y represents the number of times of


getting the number 1 when tossing a
fair dice three times, list all the
possible values of Y.

(c) A pupil takes English examination 8


times. If Z represents the number of
times he passes the examination, list
all the possible values of Z.

(d) 3 marbles are chosen from a bag


containing 5 red marbles and 4 black
marbles. If X represents the number
of black marbles chosen, list all the
possible values of X.

1.2 Determine the probability of an event in a binomial distribution.


P ( X r ) nCr p r q n r , p q 1
(a) Given p = 0.7 , q =
(b) Given p = 0.2

r =3

, q=
n = 10 ,
r =2
Find P(X = 2).

(c) Given p = 0.45 , q =


n=7,
r =3
Find P( X = 3).

(d) Given p = 0.12 , q =


n = 10 ,
r =2
Find P(X = 2).

n=5,
Find P(X = 3).

[0.3087]

[ 0.3020]

[0.2918]

(e) The probability that Bernard will be


late for a meeting is 0.6. Find the
probability that Bernard will be late
for 3 out of five meetings.

[ 0.3456]

8. Probability Distributions

[ 0.2330]

(f)

The probability that Minimum


scoring 1A for English in the
monthly test is 0.4. Find the
probability that Minimum will be
scoring 1A for English twice out of 6
monthly tests.

[ 0.3110]

(g) The probability that Chandra wins in


a singing competition is 0.65. Find
the probability that Chandra will win
4 out of 6 singing competitions.

[ 0.3280]

(h) The probability that Ahmad wears


batik shirt for a meeting is 0.55. Find
the probability that Ahmad will wear
batik shirt for 2 out of five meetings.

[ 0.2757]

1.3 Plot binomial distribution graphs.

(a) Siva has to play 4 games. The


probability that Siva will win a game
is 0.55. If the binomial random
variable X represents the number of
games that Siva won,
find the probability that Siva wins 0,
1, 2, 3 or 4 games .
Plot a binomial distribution graph.

8. Probability Distributions

A dice is tossed 4 times. The


probability of getting the number 2
is

9
.
20

If the binomial random

variable X represents the number of


times of getting the number 2,
find the probability of getting
0,1,2,3,or 4 times of number 2
Plot a binomial distribution graph.

1.4 Determine mean, variance and standard deviation of a binomial distribution.


np ; 2 npq ; npq ; p q 1

(a)

(c)

1
6

Given n =200, p , Find the value

(b)

of
i) q,

ii)

of
i) q,

ii)

iii) 2

iv)

iii) 2

iv)

Johnny attempted 60 questions with 4


options to choose from. There is only
one correct answer for each question.
Johnny guessed all the answers .
Find
(a) the mean number of questions that
he will get it right.
(b) the variance and the standard
deviation of the number of correct
answers obtained.

(d) Given that a class consists of 30


students, 70% of them pass in a
mathematics test. Find
(a) the mean number of students pass
the test.
(b) the variance and the standard
deviation of the number of
students pass the test

[15, 11.25 ,3.354]

(e)

1
3

Given n =100, p , Find the value

[21, 6.3, 2.510]

A fair dice is rolled 15 times


continuously. The probability of
obtaining the number 2 is

1
.
6

Find

(a) the mean number of times that


number 2 appears
(b) the variance and the standard
deviation of number 2 is
obtained.

[2.5, 2.083,1.443]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

Given that 30 bombs were released


by a jet fighter, the probability that a
bomb will hit its target is 0.65. Find
(a) the mean number bombs hit
its target.
(b) the variance and the standard
deviation of the number of bombs
hit its target

[19.5,6.825,2.612]

n
r n r
1.5 Solve problems involving binomial distributions. P( X r ) Cr p q , p q 1

(a)

In SMK Simpang Lima, the


probability of a pupil being latein
Form 3D is 8%. Calculate the
probability that in a group of 10
students from Form 3D, the number
of pupils being late is
(i) exactly two
(ii) less than two

(b) Given that 12 bombs were released


by a jet fighter, the probability that a
bomb will hit its target is 0.65.
calculate the probability that
(a) exactly 10 bombs hit the target
(b) all the bombs hit the target

[ 0.1088, 0.005688]
[ 0.1478, 0.8121]

(c)

In Kuantan, the probability that a


teenager owns a mobile phone is

4
.A
5

group of 10 teenagers are selected at


random from Kuantan. Find the
probability
(i) that exactly 7 of the selected
teenagers own a mobile phone.
(ii) at least 8 of the selected
teenagers own a mobile phone.

(d) 72 % of the pupils in Form 5D pass


their aptitude test. If 4 pupils are
selected at random from the class.
Calculate the probability that
(i) at least half of the selected pupils
pass their aptitude test
(ii) at most 1 of the selected pupils
pass heir aptitude test,

[ 0.9306, 0.0694]

[ 0.2013, 0.6778]

(e)

In a shooting competition, the chance


for John to hit the target on any one
shot is 95%. John fires 8 shots. Find
the probability that
(i) at least 7 shots hit the target
(ii) at most 3 of the shots hit the
target.

[0.9428, 0.0000154]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

A fair dice is tossed 10 times


continuously. The probability of
obtaining the number 2 is

1
. Find
6

the probability of getting


(i) number 2 not more than 3
tosses
(ii) number 2 in 4 or more tosses

[ 0.9303,0.0697]

(g)

(i)

(k)

In an examination, 70% of the students


passed. If a sample of 8 students is
randomly selected, find the probability
that 6 students from the sample passed
the examination.

[0.2965]
The result of a study shows that 20% of
the pupils in a city cycle to school. If 8
pupils from the city are chosen at
random, calculate the probability that
(i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school
(ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school

[0.2936, 0.79691]
It is known that 18 out of 30 students in a
class like to read during their free time. 9
students are selected at random from the
class. Find the probability that
(i) all the selected students like to read
during their free time.
(ii) at least 7 of the selected students like
to read during their free time.

[ 0.01008, 0.2318]

8. Probability Distributions

(h) Senior citizens make up 20% of the

population of a settlement.
If 7 people are randomly selected from
the settlement, find the probability that at
least two of them are senior citizens.

(j)

[0.4233]
The probability that each shot fired by
Ramli hits a target is 1/3
(i) If Ramli fires 10 shots, find the
probability that exactly 2 shots hit
the target.
(ii) If Ramli fires n shots, the
probability that all the n shots hit
the target is 1/243. Find the value
of n.

[0.1951, 5]

(l)

In an IT literacy research in a village, it


is found that every one out of three
homes has computers. If 10 homes are
randomly selected, find the probability
that
(i) not a single home has computers
(ii) at least two homes have computers.

[0.01734, 0.8960]

2. Understand and use the concept of normal distribution.

2.1 Describe continuous random variables using set notations.


2.2 Find probability of z-values for standard normal distribution.

1
(a)

Given that Z is the standard normal distribution variable, find the values for the
following:
P(Z>0.2)
(b) P(Z>1.2)

[ 0.4207 ]

(c)

P( Z < -0.6 )

[ 0.1151 ]

(d) P ( Z < -1.5)

[ 0.0668]

[ 0.2743]

(e)

P( Z > -1.511)

(f)

[0.9346]

(g)

P( Z < 1.327)

[0.5805]

(h) P( Z < 0.549 )

[0.9078]

(i)

P ( 0.2 < Z < 1.2)

[0.7085]

(j)

[0.3056]

(k)

P( -1.5 < Z < -0.6)

[ 0.2075]

(m) P ( 0 Z 1.511 )

[ 0.4346]

8. Probability Distributions

P( Z > -0.203)

P( 0.548< Z < 1.327 )

[0.1996]

(l)

P ( -1.013 < Z < -0.203 )

[0.2640]

(n) P ( 0.203 Z 1.327 )

[ 0.4882]

(o)

P ( Z 1.334 )

(p) P ( Z 0.625 )

(q)

[0.1824]
P ( Z 1.112 )

(r)

[ 0.7338]

[ 0.5320]
P ( Z 0.336 )

[ 0.2630]

Find the z-score for each of the following:

(a)

P( Z > z ) =0.4207

(b)

P(Z > z) =0.1151

(c)

[0.2]
P( Z < z ) =0.2743

(d)

[1.2]
P( Z < z ) =0.0668

(e)

[-0.6]
P( Z > z ) = 0.5805

(f)

[-1.5]
P( Z > z ) = 0.9346

(g)

[-0.203 ]
P( Z < z ) = 0.9332

(h)

[-1.511]
P( Z< z ) = 0.8757

(i)

[1.5]
P( -1.2 Z z ) 0.2369, z <0

(j)

[1.154]
P( z Z 0.5 ) =0.6152, z < 0

[-0.38]

8. Probability Distributions

[-1.431]

2.3 Convert random variable of normal distributions, X, to standardised variable, Z.


(1)
(a)

For each normal distribution below, convert the random variable X to standardized variable
Z. Then, find the probability of the event given the mean and the standard deviation.
(b)
X
12
X
43.26

10
50

3
10
Z

Probabilit
y of event
P(Z>z)

Probabilit
y of event
P( Z<z)

[ 0.667, 0.2523]

[-0.674, 0.2501]

(c)

(d)
X

X
Z

68
70
10

X
Z

Probabilit
y of event
P(Z>z)
[ -0.2 , 0.5793]

43
50
8

Probabilit
y of event
P( Z >z)
[ -0.875, 0.6184]

2.4 Represent probability of an event using set notation.


2.5 Determine probability of an event.
2.6 Solve problems involving normal distributions.
(a) X is random variable of a normal
(b)
distribution with mean and standard
deviation 6. Find
(i) the value of , if the z-value is 1.5
when X= 42
(ii) P( X<47)

[33, 0.9902]

8. Probability Distributions

X is random variable of a normal


distribution with mean 4.8 and standard
deviation 1.2 . Find
(i) the value of X if the z score =1.5
(ii) P (X 3.2)

[6.6, 0.9977]

(c)

X is random variable of a normal


distribution with mean 6.7 and standard
deviation 1.5. Find
(i) the z-score given X=4.6
(ii) P ( X 4.6)

(d)

X is random variable of a normal


distribution with mean and variance
2.25. Find
(i) the value of if the z score =2
when X = 8.5
(ii) P (X < 7)

[5.5, 0.8413]
(e)

(g)

(i)

[-1.4, 0.9192]
X is random variable of a normal
distribution with mean 108 and standard
deviation 10. Find
(i) the Z score if X=100
(ii) P ( 100 X 108)

[-0.8, 0.2881]
X is random variable of a normal
distribution with 10 and standard
deviation 3. . Find the value of k if
P( X < k) = 0.975

[15.88]
A random variable X has a normal
distribution with mean 50 and variance,
2 . Given that
P (X > 51) = 0.288, find the value of

[1.795]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

(h)

(j)

X is random variable of a normal


distribution with mean 24 and standard
deviation 2.5. Find
(i) P( X >26 )
(ii) value of k if P( X < k) = 0.1151

[ 0.2119, 27]
X is a continuous random variable such
that X~N( ,25) . Given that
P (X < 9)= 0.7257. Find the value of .

[6]
X is random variable of a normal
distribution with mean 38.5 and
variance 10.24 . Find the value of a
given P (X > a) = 0.268

[44.84]

(k)

Diagram below shows a standard normal


distribution graph.

(l)

F(z)

=9

[0.1872]
Diagram below shows a standardized
normal distribution graph.

X mm

It is given that the area of the shaded


region is o.4522. Find the value of h

If P(0< z < k)=0.3128, find P(z > k)

(m)

The diameters of the marbles produced


by a factory are normally distributed
with a mean of 9mm and a standard
deviation of 0.1 mm. Diagram below
shows the normal distribution graph for
the diameter of the marbles, X mm

[9.012]
(n)

f (z)
0.3643

The probability represented by the area


of the shaded region is 0.3643
(i) Find the value of k.
(ii) X is a continuous random variable
which is normally distributed with a
mean of and a standard deviation of
8.
Find the value of if X = 70 when the
z-score is k.

[ 1.1, 61.2]

8. Probability Distributions

Diagram shows a standard normal


distribution graph.
The probability represented by the area
of the shaded region is 0.3485.
(i)Find the value of k
(ii) X is a continuous random variable
which is normally distributed with a
mean of 79 and a standard deviation of
3. Find the value of X when the z-score is
k

[ 1.03, 82.09]

10

(o)

(q)

Marks obtained by a group of students in


an examination are normally distributed
with a mean of 48 marks and standard
deviation of 10 marks.
(i) If a student is selected at random,
calculate the probability that the students
mark is more than 60
(ii)If 30% of the students fail in the
examination, estimate the minimum mark
required to pass the examination.

[0.1151,42.76]
The mass of a packet of cookies has a
normal distribution with mass of 248 g
and a standard deviation of 16 g. Find
(i) The probability that a packet of
cookies is chosen at random has mass
between 240 g and 250 g.
(ii) the value of x if 20% of the packet of
cookies chosen at random have a mass
greater than x g

[0.2412, 261.47]
8. Probability Distributions

(p)

(r)

A group of workers are given medical


check up. The blood pressure of a
worker has a normal distribution with a
mean of 130 mmHg and a standard
deviation of 16mmHg. Blood pressure
that is more than 150 mmHg is classify
as high blood pressure
(i) a worker is chosen at random from
the group. Find the probability that the
worker has a blood pressure between
114mm Hg and 150mmHg
(ii) It is found that 132 workers have
high blood pressure. Find the total
number of workers in the group.

[ 0.7357, 1249]
In a training session with a group of
Form 5 boys, it is discovered that the
rate of heart beats has a normal
distribution with a mean of 80 beats per
minute and a standard deviation of 10
beats per minutes.
(i) If one form 5 boy is randomly
selected, find the probability that
his rate of heart beats is between
75 to 85 beats per minutes.
(ii) Given that 20% of the Form 5
boys have rate of heart bets less
than k beats per minute, find the
value of k.

[0.383, 71.58]

11

(s)

(u)

The life span of a type of battery


produced by a factory is normally
distributed with mean 325 hours and
standard deviation of 25 hours. Find
(i) the probability that a unit of battery
chosen at random, has a life span
between 280 hours and 350 hours,
(ii) the percentage of battery that has a
life span of more than 320 hours.

[0.8054, 57.93%]
The mass of water melons produced from
an orchard follows a normal distribution
with a mean of 3.2kg and a standard
deviation of 0.5 kg. find
(i) the probability that a water-melon
chosen randomly from the orchard have a
mass of not more than 4.0 kg
(ii) the value of m if 60% of the water
melons from the orchard have a mass
more than m kg

[ 0.9452,3.0735,]
(a)Government servants make up 15% of

8. Probability Distributions

(t)

(v)

The mass of papayas produced by an


orchard is normally distributed with a
mean and variance 0.64 g
(i) Given that 10.5% of the papayas
produced exceed 3.5 kg. Find the value
of
(ii) The papayas that have masses less
than 1.0 kg and more than 4.0 kg are
rejected from packaging. Calculate the
percentage of acceptable papayas.

[ 2.4976, 93.92%]
The mass of mango fruits from a farm is
normally distributed with a mean of
820 g and standard deviation of 100 g.
(i)Find the probability that a mango fruit
chosen randomly has a minimum mass
of 700 g.
(ii)Find the expected number of mango
fruits from a basket containing 200 fruits
that have a mass of less than 700 g.

[ 0.8849, 23 ]
(a) A football team is having a practice

12

the population of a village.


(i) If 8 people are selected randomly from
the village, find the probability that at
least two of them are government
servants.
(ii) If the variance of government
servants is 91.8, what is the population of
the village?
[5 marks]
(b) The height of the workers in a factory
is normally distributed with a mean of
162.5 cm and a variance of 90.25 cm2.
180 of the workers are between 151.3 cm
and 169.7 cm tall. Find the total number
of workers in the factory.
[ 5marks]

session on scoring goals from penalty


kicks. Each player takes 10 penalty . The
probability that a player scores a goal
from a penalty kick is p. After the
practice session, it is found that the mean
number of goals for a player is 3.6
(i) Find the value of p.
(ii) If a player is chosen at random, find
the probability that he scores at least one
goal.
[5 marks]
(b) The heights of students are normally
distributed with a mean of 162 cm, and a
standard deviation of 12 cm
(i) If a student is chosen at random,
calculate the probability that his height
is less than 154 cm.
(ii)Given that 15% of the students are
taller than h cm, find the value of h
[5 marks]
[0.36, 0.9885, 0.2523,174.4]

[0.3428, 720,268]

2.7 Past year questions


(a)

SPM 2008 P2 Q11


The masses of mangoes from an orchard
has a normal distribution with a mean of
300 g and a standard deviation of 80 g.
(a) Find the probability that a mango
chosen randomly from this orchard has a
mass of more than 168 g
[3marks]
(b) A random sample of 500 mangoes is
chosen.
(i) calculate the number of mangoes from
this sample that have a mass of more than
168 g
(ii) Given that 435 mangoes from this
sample have a mass of more than m g,
find the value of m
[7marks]

(b)

SPM 2007 P2 Q11


(a) In a survey carried out in a school, it
is found that 2 out of 5 students have
handphones. If 8 students from that
school are chosen at random, calculate
the probability that
(i) exactly 2 students have handphones
(ii) more than 2 students have
handphones
[5marks]
(b) A group of workers are given medical
check up. The blood pressure of a
worker has a normal distribution with a
mean of 130 mmHg and a standard
deviation of 16mmHg. Blood pressure
that is more than 150 mmHg is classify
as high blood pressure
(i) a worker is chosen at random from
the group. Find the probability that the
worker has a blood pressure between
114mm Hg and 150mmHg
(ii) It is found that 132 workers have
high blood pressure. Find the total
number of workers in the group.
[5marks]

[0.95053,475/476, 209.84]
(c)

SPM 2006 P2 Q 11

8. Probability Distributions

(d)

[0.6846, 0.7357, 0.1056,1250]


SPM 2005 P2 Q11

13

An orchard produces lemons. Only


lemons with diameter, x greater than k
cm are graded and marketed. Table below
show the grades of the lemons based on
their diameters.
Grade
A
B
C
Diameter,
x(cm)

X>7

7>x>5

(a) The result of a study shows that 20%


of the pupils in a city cycle to school. If
8 pupils from the city are chosen at
random, calculate the probability that
(i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school
(ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school
[4marks]
(b) The mass of water melons produced
from an orchard follows a normal
distribution with a mean of 3.2kg and a
standard deviation of 0.5 kg. find
(i) the probability that a water-melon
chosen randomly from the orchard have
a mass of not more than 4.0 kg
(ii) the value of m if 60% of the water
melons from the orchard have a mass
more than m kg
[6marks]

5>x>k

It is given that the diameter of the lemons


has a normal distribution with a mean of
5.8 cm and a standard deviation of 1.5
cm
(a) If one lemon is picked at random,
calculate the probability that it is of grade
A
[2marks]
(b) In a basket of 500 lemons, estimate
the number of grade B lemons.
[4marks]
(c) If 85.7% of the lemons is marketed,
find the value of k.
[4marks]

(e)

[ 0.2119, 0.4912, 4.1965]


SPM 2004 P2 Q11
(a) A club organizes a practice session for
trainees on scoring goals from penalty
kicks.. each trainee takes 8 penalty kicks.
The probability that a trainee scores a
goal from a penalty kick is p. After the
session, it is found that the mean number
of goals for a trainee is 4.8
(i) Find the value of p.
(ii) If a trainee is chosen at random, find
the probability that he scores at least one
goal.
[5 marks]
(b) A survey on body-mass is done on a
group of students. The mass of a student
has a normal distribution with a mean of
50kg and a standard deviation of 15 kg
(i) If a student is chosen at random,
calculate the probability that his mass is
less than 41kg
(ii) Given that 12% of the students have a
mass of more than m kg, find the value of
m.
[5 marks]
[0.6, 0.9993,0.2743,67.63]

8. Probability Distributions

(f)

[ 0.2936, 0.79691, 0.9452,3.0735,]


SPM 2003 P2 Q 10
(a) Senior citizens make up 20% of the
population of a settlement.
(i) If 7 people are randomly selected
from the settlement, find the probability
that at least two of them are senior
citizens
(ii) If the variance of the senior citizens
in 128, what is the population of the
settlement.
[5 marks]
(b) The mass of the workers in a factory
is normally distributed with a mean of
67.86 kg and a variance of 42.25 kg2.
200 of the workers in the factory weigh
between 50 kg and 70kg.
Find the total number of worker in the
factory.
[5 marks]

[0.2, 0.4232, 800, 0.6259]

14