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VL830 - ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN

Assignment

1 Problem 1
1
,
1 + K(2 )
we assumed = 0 as the point of maximum flatness. This problem is to provoke a thought whether it is
possible to design a maximally flat response filter having an arbitrary frequency o as the point of maximum
flatness.
Design a filter having the K(2 ) as shown in Figure 1. Note that it is required to have K(1)=1, similar
to that in the case of a Butterworth filter.
In the class, for a nth order Butterworth filter having a transfer function of the form |T ( j)|2 =

Figure 1: Desired K(2 ) having maximum flatness at = o

(a) Are there any restrictions on the order of K(2 )?


(b) What is K(2 ) for a filter of order n?
(c) Design a fourth order filter of this type, with o = 0.65. After you find K(2 ),proceed just as we did
in class - that is, find the LHP poles of T(s)T(-s), and the resulting T(s). You may use Matlab to find
the roots of the appropriate polynomial. Once you have found the denominator polynomial, normalize
it so that the maximum transmission of the filter is unity. Plot the resulting magnitude response. On
the same graph, plot the response of a fourth order Butterworth filter. Which of the filters has a better
stop band response ? Can you intuitively explain why ?

2 Problem 2
Design a Chebyshev filter having the following specifications on the frequency response.
(a) Pass band range: 0 100 rad s1 .
(b) Ripple in the pass band = 1 dB
(c) At = 150 rad s1 , the magnitude of the transfer function should be less than 0.02.
Find the minimum order of the filter that will satisfy the above requirements, the transfer function and the
frequencies of maximum and minimum transmission in the passband.
1

Find the order and 3-dB bandwidth of an Inverse Chebyshev filter required to satisfy the same frequency
mask. For this filter, find the transfer function, and the maxima and minima of transmission in the stopband.
Plot the two responses on the same graph. Plot the group delay for both the filters. Which of the filters has
smaller group delay distortion, and why ?

3 Problem 3
A third order Chebyshev lowpass filter proptotype is to be realized using a doubly terminatied LC ladder
that minimizes the number of inductors. The ripple in the pass band is required to be 0.5 dB. Use 1
termination. Simulate using LT-Spice and plot the response.

4 Problem 4
A fifth order Inverse Chebyshev lowpass filter is to be realized as a doubly terminated LC ladder. The
termination resistance is 1 . The stopband edge is 1 rad s1 . The maximum transmission in the stopband
must be 40 dB below the transmission at DC. You may find it less tedious to write a MATLAB script to
perform the whole calculation. For parts (a) and (b) use the entire precision offered by your computer.
For part (c), first run through the calculations with full precision. Then redo with the coefficients of (s)
truncated to 4 decimal places. Comment on the results.
(a) Find the transfer function.
(b) Find the reflection coefficient (s)
(c) Calculate the elements values for the ladder network. Assume that transmission zeroes are realized
using series resonant networks in the shunt arms of the ladder. The smaller transmission zero must be
extracted first. Simulate the frequency response of the resulting LC ladder in LT-SPICE to make sure
that your network is indeed what you want.

5 Problem 5
A third order Chebyshev lowpass filter is to be used as the prototype for 6th order bandpass filter. In the
pass-band of the BPF, which is defined by 10 MHz f 11 MHz, a ripple of 0.5 dB is desired. The
terminating resistors for the bandpass filter must be 50 .
(a) Find the element values for the lowpass prototype, choosing the ladder topology that minimizes the
number of inductors used.
(b) Find the element values of the bandpass network.
(c) Simulate the bandpass filter in LT-Spice. Plot the magnitude. What do you notice ?