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Z. Aliyazicioglu

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

Cal Poly Pomona

The one-sided z-transform of a signal x(n) is defined as

X + ( z ) = x ( n) z n

n =0

z+

x (n) X + ( z )

1. It does not contain information about the signal x(n) for negative

values of time (i.e., for n<0)

2. It is unique only for causal signals, because only these signals are

zero for n<0.

3. The one-sided z-transform X+(z) of x(n) is identical to the two-sided

z-transform of the signal x(n)u(n).

4. ROC of X+(z) is always the exterior of the circle. So it is not

necessary to refer to their ROC

ECE 308-12 2

Example:

x+

x1 (n) = {1,2,5,7,0,1} X 1+ ( z ) = 1 + 2 z 1 + 5 z 2 + 7 z 3 + z 5

z+

x2 (n) = {1,2,5,7,0,1} X 2+ ( z ) = 5 + 7 z 1 + z 3

x+

x+

x+

x4 (n) = (n) X 4+ ( z ) = 1

x5 (n) = (n k ) X 5+ ( z ) = z k

+

x

1

+

n

x6 (n) = (n + k ) X ( z ) = 0 x4 ( n) = a u ( n) X 4 ( z ) = 1 az 1

x+

+

6

ECE 308-12 3

Shifting Property

Case 1:Time Delay

if

x+

x ( n) X + ( z )

k

x

x ( n k ) z k X + ( z ) + x ( n) z n

n =1

Then

,.

x+

x (n k ) z k X + ( z )

Example:

x+

x ( n) = a n u ( n) X + ( z ) =

k >0

k >0

1

1 az 1

x1 (n) = x(n 2)

The z-transform of

+

x

1

x(n 2) = a n2u (n 2) z 2

+ x(1) z + x(2) z 2

1

1 az

2

z

=

+ x(1) z 1 + x(2)

1 az 1

ECE 308-12 4

Case 2: Time advance

x+

if

x ( n) X + ( z )

+

k 1

x

x ( n + k ) z k X + ( z ) x ( n) z n

n =0

Then

Example:

x+

x( n) = a n u ( n) X + ( z ) =

k >0

1

1 az 1

x1 (n) = x(n + 2)

The z-transform of

x

1

x ( n + 2) = a n + 2u ( n + 2) z 2

+ x (0) + x (1) z 1

1

1 az

2

z

=

+ x (0) z 2 + x (1) z

1 az 1

z2

=

+ z 2 + az

1 az 1

ECE 308-12 5

Final Value Theorem:

x+

if

x ( n) X + ( z )

x+

Then

n

z 1

Example:

x (n) = u ( n)

Y ( z) = H ( z) X ( z) =

h( n) = n u ( n)

y ( n ) = h ( n) * x ( n )

1

z2

=

1

1 z 1 z

( z )( z 1)

ROC

z >

z2

z2

=

( z )( z 1) ( z )

ROC

z >

( z 1)Y ( z ) = ( z 1)

x+

n

z 1

z2

1

=

z 1

ECE 308-12 6

Solution of Difference Equation:

The one-sided z-transform is a very efficient tool for the solution of

difference equation.

y ( n) = y (n 1) + y (n 2)

Example:

,

y (1) = 0 y ( 2) = 1

Y ( z ) = z 1Y + ( Z ) + y ( 1) + z 2Y + ( z ) + z 1 y (1) + y (2)

Y ( z )(1 z 1 z 2 ) = 1

Y ( z) =

1

1 z 1 z 2

z2

z2 z 1

ECE 308-12 7

Example:(cont)

Y ( z) =

A1 = (1 1.618 z 1 ) Y ( z )

=

1

1

1 + .618

1.618

z 1 =

1

1.618

A2

1

1

.618

+

z 1 )

(

1

1

1.618

z 1 )

(

z 1 =

1

1.618

= 0.7236

A2 = (1 + 0.618 z 1 ) Y ( z )

=

A1

z 1 =

1

0.618

z 1 =

1

0.618

1

= 0.2764

1

1

1.618(

)

0.618

Finally

n

n

y ( n ) = 0.7236 (1.618 ) 0.2764 ( 0.618 ) u (n )

ECE 308-12 8

Example:

y ( n) = y (n 1) + x ( n) 1 < < 1

The initial condition

y ( 1) = 1

Y + ( z ) = z 1Y + ( Z ) + y (1) + X + ( z )

Y + ( z ) = z 1Y + ( Z ) + y (1) +

Y + ( z) =

1 z 1

1

1 z 1

1

(1 z 1 )(1 z 1 )

y (n) = n+1u ( n) +

=

1 n+1

u ( n)

1

1

(1 n+2 )u (n)

1

ECE 308-12 9

Analysis of LTI Systems in the z-Domain

Response of System with Rational System Function

Let us assume that the input signal x(n) and the corresponding

system function h(n) have rational z-transform X(z) and H(z) of

the form

X ( z) =

N ( z)

D( z )

H ( z) =

and

B( z )

A( z )

equation are zero ), the z-transform of system output has

Y ( z) = H ( z) X ( z) =

B( z ) N ( z )

A( z ) D ( z )

pole-zero cancellation

N

L

Ak

Qk

+

1

1

k =1 1 p x z

k =1 1 q x z

Y ( z) =

where

q1, q2 ,...qL

system poles,

the input signal poles,

and p qm

ECE 308-12 10 k

p1, p2 ,... pN

The inverse transform of Y(z) yields

N

k =1

k =1

y (n) = Ak ( pk ) n u (n) + Qk ( qk ) n u ( n)

qk.

We can separate the y(n) into two parts

N

ynr ( n) = Ak ( pk ) n u ( n)

natural response

k =1

X(z) is zero, then Y(z) is zero

L

y fr ( n) = Qk ( qk ) n u (n)

k =1

ECE 308-12 11

Response of Pole-zero System with Nonzero Initial Condition.

The input signal x(n) is assumed to be causal. The effect of all

previous input signals to the system are reflected in the initial

conditions y(-1), y(-2), ..y(-N). We will look at the one-sided ztransform

N

k

M

Y + ( z ) = ak z k Y + ( z ) + y (n) z n + bk z k X + ( z )

k =1

k =1

k =1

X + ( z) = X ( z)

M

Y ( z) =

b z

k =1

N

1 + ak z k

X ( z)

a z y ( n) z

k

k =1

k =1

Y + ( z) = H ( z) X ( z)

k =1

N

1 + ak z k

k =1

N0 ( z)

A( z )

k =1

k =1

N 0 ( z ) = ak z k y ( n ) z n

ECE 308-12 12

The output of the system can subdivide into two parts.

Yzi+ ( z ) =

N0 ( z)

A( z )

gives us y(n)

ECE 308-12 13

Example:

Determine the unit step response of the system of the

following equation.

y ( n) = 0.9 y ( n 1) 0.81 y ( n 2) + x( n)

Condition: a.

b.

y (1) = y (2) = 0

y ( 1) = y (2) = 1

Solution:

Y ( z ) = 0.9 z 1Y ( z ) + y (1) 0.81 z 2Y ( z ) + z 1 y (1) + y (2) + X ( z )

Y ( z )(1 0.9 z 1 + 0.81z 2 ) = 0.9 y (1) 0.81z 1 y (1) + 0.81 y (2) + X ( z )

Y ( z) =

1

X ( z)

(1 0.9 z + 0.81z 2 )

H ( z) =

1

(1 0.9 z + 0.81z 2 )

1

ECE 308-12 14

Example: (cont)

p1 = 0.9e

and

p2 = 0.9e

X ( z) =

Therefore,

1

(1 z 1 )

1

Y ( z) =

Y ( z) =

0.544e j 95.2

j

(1 0.9e z )

3

3

0.544e j 95.2

j

(1 0.9e z )

3

1.099

(1 z 1 )

3

ECE 308-12 15

Example(cont)

Y ( z) =

1

0.81 0.81z 1

X ( z)

(1 0.9 z 1 + 0.81z 2 )

(1 0.9 z 1 + 0.81z 2 )

Yzi ( z ) =

Yzi ( z ) =

0.81 0.81z 1

N0 ( z )

=

A( z ) (1 0.9 z 1 + 0.81z 2 )

0.4956e j 84.8

j

1 0.9e 3 z

0.4956e j 84.8

j

1 0.9e 3 z 1

3

Y ( z ) = Yzs ( z ) + Yzi ( z )

3

ECE 308-12 16

Transient and Steady-State Response

The response of a system to a given input can be separated

into two components

N

Natural response

k =1

where pk i = 1,2,..., k , are the poles of the system and Ak are scale factor.

If pk < 1 for all k, ynr (n) goes zero for n approaches infinity. In this

case, natural response of the system accept as transient response.

The forced response:

y fr ( n) = Qk ( qk ) n u (n)

k =1

where qk,i = 1,2,..., k are the poles in the forcing function and are Qk

scale factor.

ECE 308-12 17

If qk < 1 for all k, y fr (n) goes zero for n approaches infinity

If the causal input signal is sinusoidal, then the forced signal

will be sinusoidal for all n 0 . In the case, the forced response

is called the steady-state response

Example:

y (n) = 0.5 y (n 1) + x(n)

x(n) = 10cos(

n

4

)u (n)

Solution:

Y ( z ) = 0.5 z 1Y ( z ) + X ( z )

H ( z) =

1

Y ( z)

=

X ( z ) 1 0.5 z 1

The poles at

z = 0.5

ECE 308-12 18

Example: (cont)

The z-transform of input signal

1 z 1 cos

X ( z ) = 10

1 2 z 1 cos

1 1

z )

2

=

1 2 z 1 + z 2

10(1

+ z 2

4

1 1

z )

10(1

2

X ( z) =

j / 4 1

(1 e z )(1 e j / 4 z 1 )

1 1

z )

2

Y ( z) = H ( z) X ( z) =

j / 4 1

1

(1 0.5 z )(1 e z )(1 e j / 4 z 1 )

10(1

Y ( z) =

A3

A1

A2

+

+

(1 0.5 z 1 ) (1 e j / 4 z 1 ) (1 e j / 4 z 1 )

1 1

z )

2

A1 =

1

(1 2 z + z 2 )

10(1

1

2)

2

=

= 1.907

z 1 = 2

(1 22 + 22 )

10(1

ECE 308-12 19

Example (cont)

1 1

z )

2

A2 =

1

(1 0.5 z )(1 e j / 4 z 1 )

10(1

1 1

z )

2

A3 =

1

(1 0.5 z )(1 e j / 4 z 1 )

z 1 =e j / 4

= 6.78e j 28.7

10(1

z 1 = e j / 4

= 6.78e j 28.7

Y ( z) =

1.907

6.78e j 28.7

6.78e j 28.7

+

+

(1 0.5 z 1 ) (1 e j / 4 z 1 ) (1 e j / 4 z 1 )

ynr (n) = 1.907(0.5) n u (n)

D

4

ECE 308-12 20

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