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Project rationale

The Middle to Late Permian Wargal Formation comprises of Limestone and dolomite,
which contains abundant microfauna including bryozoans brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods
ammonides, trilobites, crinoids and conodonts (Shah, 1977; Kummel and Tiechert, 1970), the
reported microflora includes pollen and spores.
The earlier investigations of the Wargal Formation were hampered by a lack of
integration of the outcrop based facies architecture and microfacies analysis for a sequence
stratigraphic modeling. Therefore present study is aimed at devising a useful tool for the
analysis of petroleum system in the sequence stratigraphic context.
1.2 Objectives
The proposed research will involve biostratigraphic and microfacies analysis of the
Wargal Formation and investigation of the sequence stratigraphic model of the unit in the Salt
Ranges, Upper Indus Basin of Pakistan.

The main objectives are as following.


Record and designate the lithofacies of the Wargal Formation in the selected key
stratigraphic sections of the study area.
Study the detailed microfacies analysis in these sections to understand
paleoenvironments of Wargal Formation.
Study the digenetic fabric and cement Stratigraphy for identification of reservoir rock
quality of Wargal Formation.
To identify depositional sequences within the sections in the basins.
To describe the paleontological and sedimentological characterization of the
depositional sequences.

1.3 Stratigraphic sections


1.3.1 Nammal Gorge Section

The Nammal Gorge Section is located near Mianwali in western Salt Range (Figure
1). The area lies in Lat. 3239'17.4N" Long 71E, within the Survey of Pakistan map
number
Nammal Gorge has the best exposures of the Upper Permian, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic rocks.
The oldest rocks exposed in Nammal Gorge belong to the Permian Zaluch Group. The
Triassic MusaKhel Group overlies the Permian Zaluch Group. The boundary between the
Permian and Triassic is a Paraconformity. On top of the Triassic sequence there is a thick
succession of the Jurassic (Surghar Group) Datta Formation. There is a very thin unit of the
Samanasuk Formation. Paleocene rocks of the Nammal Gorge include (Makarwal Group)
Hangu, Lockhart and Patala Formations. The Eocene rocks include Nammal and Sakesar
Formations (Chherat Group).
1.3.2 Chidru Nala Section
The Chidru Nala Section is located near Mianwali in western Salt Range (Figure 1).
The area lies in 3233'19" N : Long. 7147'17.6 E, within the Survey of Pakistan map
number
The oldest rocks in Chidru Nala belong to Precambrian to Eocene age. The Precambrian age
Salt Range Formation that is the oldest rock sequence in the area. The Tobra Formation of the
Nilawahan Group marks the base of the Permian sequence in the study area and grades
upward into medium- to coarse-grained Warchha Sandstone, whereas Dandot Formation is
missing in the area. The Warcha Sandstone is overlain by the Sardhai Formation with a
transitional contact and is placed at the top of the highest massive sandstone bed and grades
upward into the Amb Formation, which is composed of sandy limestone, gray in color and
medium- to thick-bedded. The Amb Formation having a conformable contact grade upward
into the Wargal Formation. It grades into the overlying Chidru Formation which is Para
conformably overlain by the Mianwali Formation of early Triassic age. The upper contact of
the Mianwali Formation is marked by the Tredian Formation, which consists of sandstone,
shale and dolomite. The Tredian Formation is conformably overlain by Kingriali Formation,
which is composed of dolomite and dolomitic limestone. The upper contact of the Kingriali
Formation with the Data Formation is disconformable. The Data Formation marks the base of
the Jurassic sequence and contains red, grey and white sandstone with siltstone, shale and
mudstone and fine clay horizons. It grades upward into medium-bedded limestone, marl and
sandstone of the Shinawari Formation, which is disconformably overlain by medium-bedded,
grey limestone of Samana Suk Formation. Towards top of the Jurassic sequence overlies

Chichali, Lumshiwal formations of Cretaceous age. The Cretaceous sequence is in turn


overlain by Paleocene age rocks of the Hangu, Lockhart and Patala formations, whereas the
youngest rock exposed in the area belongs the Eocene age and is represented by Nammal and
Sakessar formations.
1.3.3 Zaluch Nala Section
The Zaluch Nala section is also located near Mianwali in western Salt Range (Fig 1).
The area lies in Lat. 3247'06.27N Long.7138'49.0 E. The rocks exposed in the Zaluch
section ranges in age from Precambrian to Eocene. The Paleozoic rocks include Jhelum
Group of Cambrian age including continental to shallow marine sandstone. Also include
limestone and dolomite (Fatmi, 1973). The younger Paleozoic rocks include Nilawahan and
Zaluch Groups of Permian age composed of continental to marine origin mostly sandstones
and limestones (Shah, 1977). The Mesozoic rocks include rocks of Musakhel Group
(Mianwali, Tredian & Kingriali Formations) of Triassic age, the Jurassic (Surghar Group)
Datta, Shinawari and Samanasuk, Chichali, Lumshiwal and Kawagarh Formations of
Cretaceous age. These rocks belong to a wide variety of environment including fluvial,
deltaic, shallow marine and deep marine (Fatmi, 1973).
1.4 Methodology
1.4.1 Fieldwork
Detailed field excursions in the Salt Range area were carried using geological maps
available at National centre of Excellence Geology, University of Peshawar and Geoscience
Advance Research Laboratory, Geological Survey of Pakistan Islamabad. Fieldwork data
were collected in the period October 2011 to November 2011. During this period three
sections across the Salt Range area were sampled
1.4.2 Laboratory work
Most of the laboratory work was performed at National Centre of Excellence in
Geology University of Peshawar and Geoscience Advance Research Laboratory Geological
Survey of Pakistan Islamabad, but also some petrographic thin sections were prepared at the
rock thin section laboratory in the Department of Geology, University of Peshawar.
1.4.2.1 Thin sections
Petrographic thin sections were made for microfacies analysis, and were studied under
a polarizing microscope fitted with a digital camera (for details see Chapters 3 and 4).

Oriented thin sections for the study of larger benthic foraminifera were also made for
identification of species.
1.4.2.2 XRD analysis
The X-ray diffraction (powder method) is used for identification and quantitative
determination of the original mineralogy of the carbonate mineral. Furthermore,
determination of the stoichiometry of dolomites may give a clue to their origin when
combined with other information e.g. texture and association with evaporites (Morrow, 1978,
1982). X-ray diffraction data is used to determine this important feature of the Dolomite.
1.5 Graphic software
The Corel Draw X5 v15.0.0.486 Portable graphic software was used for the
construction of biostratigraphic charts, rock correlation charts, and facies model diagrams.

S tud y area

Fig . 2. Loc atio n map o fIn du sBa sin o fPakistan sh owing o il area, g as area, con den sate area an d stu dy are a.