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STEEL-CORD

TIRES

METALS MATRIX
COMPOSITES

CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC


GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC

METALS

Physics Chemistry Materials Engineering

REPRESENTATION AT VARIOUS LENGTH SCALES


Average Properties:
Large-scale
statistical quantities

Lattice
Positions,
Interfacial
energies etc.

Particle
position/
momentum,
potential

Lower order
Descriptors (Grain
sizes,ODF,OCF etc.)

Micro-

Continuum

structural
Atomistic
Electronic
Length Scales

nm

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

mm

mm

Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory

The name metallography was initially used in the early 1700s to signify the
description of metals and their properties.
It was first used in its modern sense in 1892, that is, to define the study of the
internal structure of metals and alloys in relation to their physical, chemical
and mechanical properties.
Thus it can be seen that its procedures permeate all aspects of the
understanding and development of metals and their alloys.
Moreover, these techniques are widely used, or at least readily adapted to the
study of engineering materials, although full use of this commonality has only

been achieved comparatively recently with the replacement of courses in


metallurgy by courses in materials science and engineering.

METALLOGRAPHY
1. QUALITATIVE METALLOGRAPHY
2. QUANTITATIVE METALLOGRAPHY

1. QUALITATIVE METALLOGRAPHY

What is to be obtained ?
Present Phases
Grain Orientation
Type of Faults
Cracks, Porosities,
Non-Metallic Inclusions;

Oxides,
Silicates,
Sulfides,
Alumina, Nitrides, Carbonitrides

Particle Shape

Non-Metallic Inclusions

Non-Metallic Inclusions

A micrograph of bronze revealing a cast dendritic structure

Macrostructures

Microstructures

2. QUANTITATIVE METALLOGRAPHY

What is to be obtained ?
Phase Quantities
Grain Size
Phase Distributions
Particle Size
Particle Volume Fraction
Particle Distribution
Particle Composition

Grain Size Determination


How to report an average grain size?
Draw few random straight lines through the
micrograph.
The grain boundaries intersecting each line are
counted.
The average grain size is obtained by dividing
the total length of the lines by the number of
intersections taking into account the
magnification used to produce the micrograph.

METALLURGICAL MICROSCOPES
OPTICAL MICROSCOPY,
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY,,
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Microscopic techniques
Optical microscopy used to
obtain an enlarged image of
a small object. In general, a
compound
microscope
consists of a light source, a
condenser, an objective, and
an ocular or eyepiece, which
can be replaced by a
recording device such as a
photoelectric tube or a
photographic plate. The
optical microscope is limited
by the wavelengths of the
light used and by the
materials
available
for
manufacturing the lenses.

Optical Microscopes

Image analyzing system

Optical Microscope

Metallurgical microscope with 10


to 2000 magnification and a
camera attachment