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EM102 Engineering Statics

1.

Introduction

2.

Force vectors

3.

Rigid bodies

4.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies

5.

Structural analysis

6.

Friction

7.

Distribution of forces

Dr. Elango Natarajan


Assistant Professor
Aug 2015
Statics, Fourteenth Edition
R.C. Hibbeler

Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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References

ENGINEERING MECHANICS/STATICS (12th Edition), by R.C. Hibbler.


Prentice Hall. 2010.
VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEER: STATICS, by F.P. Beer, E.R.
Johnston. McGraw Hill. 2012.

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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EM102 Engineering Statics

Topic 1: Introduction

Fundamental concepts,
unit of measurements,
procedure for analysis,
numerical accuracy.

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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MECHANICS, UNITS, NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS &


GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
In-Class activities:
a) Explain mechanics/statics.
Reading Quiz
b) Work with two types of units.
c) Round the final answer appropriately. What is Mechanics?
System of Units
d) Apply problem-solving strategies.
Numerical Calculations
Concept Quiz

Problem-Solving Strategy
Attention Quiz

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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WHAT IS MECHANICS?
Study of what happens to a thing (the technical name is
BODY) when FORCES are applied to it.
Either the body or forces can be large or small.

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Recap

Load or Force - a push or pull exerted by a body.

Types of loads static load and dynamic load


Stress - pressure or tension exerted on a

material or object.
Strain the relative change occurred due to the

application of force on a body or object.


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Recap

Modulus of elasticity

Stiffness

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BRANCHES OF MECHANICS
Mechanics

Rigid Bodies
(Things that do not change shape)

Statics

Dynamics

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Deformable Bodies
(Things that do change shape)

Fluids

Incompressible

Compressible

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Rigid body

Rigid body can be considered as a combination of


large number of particles in which all the particles
remain at a fixed distance from one another both
before and after applying a load.

The deformation of such bodies is very small.


Machines, mechanisms are considered to be rigid
bodies.
Statics, Fourteenth Edition
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Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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Statics & Dynamics

Statics deals with the equilibrium of bodies that are

either rest or move with a constant velocity.

Dynamics is concerned with the accelerated motion


of bodies.

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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READING QUIZ
1. The subject of mechanics deals with what happens to a body
when ______ is/are applied to it.
A) a magnetic field

B) heat

C) forces

D) neutrons

E) lasers

2. ________________ still remains the basis of most of todays


engineering sciences.
A) Newtonian Mechanics

B) Relativistic Mechanics

C) Greek Mechanics

C) Euclidean Mechanics

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
(Section 1.3)
Four fundamental physical quantities (or dimensions).

Length
Mass
Time
Force
Newtons 2nd Law relates them: F = m a

We use this equation to develop systems of units.


Units are arbitrary names we give to the physical quantities.
Statics, Fourteenth Edition
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Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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UNIT SYSTEMS
Force, mass, time and acceleration are related by Newtons
2nd law. Three of these are assigned units (called base units)
and the fourth unit is derived. Which one is derived varies by
the system of units.
We will work with two unit systems in statics:

International System (SI)


U.S. Customary (USCS)

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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Table 1-1 in the textbook summarizes these unit systems.

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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COMMON CONVERSION FACTORS


Work problems in the units given unless otherwise instructed!

Can you convert a force value of 47 lb into SI units?


Answer is 209.06 N

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS


(Section 1.4)

No plurals (e.g., m = 5 kg, not kgs )


Separate units with a (e.g., meter second = m s )
Most symbols are in lowercase.

Key exceptions are N, Pa, M and G.


Exponential powers apply to units, e.g., cm cm = cm2
Compound prefixes should not be used.
Table 1-3 in the textbook shows prefixes used in the SI
system
Statics, Fourteenth Edition
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Table 13 shows some of the prefixes used


in the SI system.

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DIMENSION

Dimension is a measure of physical quantity without numerical values.

Example: Length, Area, Diameter, Weight


Unit is a way to assign a number to the dimension.
Example: mm, kg.

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS
(Section 1.5)
Must have dimensional homogeneity. Dimensions have to
be the same on both sides of the equal sign, (e.g. distance =
speed time.)
Use an appropriate number of significant figures (3 for
answer, at least 4 for intermediate calculations). Why?
Be consistent when rounding off.
- greater than 5, round up (3528 3530)
- smaller than 5, round down (0.03521 0.0352)
- equal to 5, see your textbook for an explanation.
Statics, Fourteenth Edition
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CONCEPT QUIZ
1. Evaluate the situation in which mass (kg), force (N), and
length (m) are the base units and recommend one of the
following.
A) A new system of units will have to be formulated.

B) Only the unit of time have to be changed from second to


something else.
C) No changes are required.
D) The above situation is not feasible.

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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CONCEPT QUIZ (continued)


2. Give the most appropriate reason for using three significant
figures in reporting results of typical engineering calculations.
A) Historically slide rules could not handle more than three
significant figures.
B) Three significant figures gives better than one-percent
accuracy.
C) Telephone systems designed by engineers have area codes
consisting of three figures.
D) Most of the original data used in engineering calculations do
not have accuracy better than one percent.
Statics, Fourteenth Edition
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Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY


IPE: A 3-Step Approach

1. Interpret: Read carefully and determine what is given and


what is to be found/ delivered. Ask, if not clear. If
necessary, make assumptions and indicate them.
2. Plan:

Think about major steps (or a road map) that you will
take to solve a given problem.
Think of
alternative/creative solutions and choose the best one.

3. Execute: Carry out your steps. Use appropriate diagrams and


equations. Estimate your answers. Avoid simple
calculation mistakes. Reflect on and then revise
your work, if necessary.
Statics, Fourteenth Edition
R.C. Hibbeler

Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


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ATTENTION QUIZ
1. For a statics problem, your calculations show the final answer as
12345.6 N. What should you write as your final answer?
A) 12345.6 N

B) 12.3456 kN

D) 12.3 kN

E) 123 kN

C) 12 kN

2. In the three-step approach to problem solving called IPE,


what does P stand for?
A) Position

B) Plan

D) Practical

E) Possible

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C) Problem

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example_01_01

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example_01_02

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example_01_03

continued on next slide


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example_01_03 (continued)

Statics, Fourteenth Edition


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Statics, Fourteenth Edition


R.C. Hibbeler

Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.


All rights reserved.