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2/28/2016

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING
(CE 404)
1

PRACTICE #1

Horizontal alignment
By

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Sight Distances
Stopping Sight Distance(SSD)

brake reaction distance


If V is the design speed in (m/sec) and t is the
total reaction time of the driver in seconds,
brakereactiondistance=d1 =vxt(meters).t=2.5sec
braking distance

braking distance on grade


a deceleration rate of at least
3.4 m/s2

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Sight Distances
Stopping Sight Distance(SSD)

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Sight Distances
Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

The passing sight distance is the minimum sight distance required on a two-lane,
two way highway that will permit a driver to complete a passing maneuver without
colliding with an opposing vehicle and without cutting off the passed vehicle.

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Sight Distances
Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Sight Distances
Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Sight Distances
Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Sight Distances
Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Table
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2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Table
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CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Table
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2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Table
To find Rmin ,Vmax

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Stopping Sight Distance in Horizontal


Curve Design

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Superelevation
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o Design of Superelevation
Step1:TheSuperelevationfor75percentofdesignspeed(vm/sec/kmph)iscalculated
neglectingthefriction.

Step2:Ifthecalculatedvalueofeislessthan6%(ruralroad),4%(urbanroad)thevalue
soobtainedisprovided.Ifthevalueofeasstep1exceedsemax thenprovidesmaximum
Superelevationequaltoemax andproceedwithstep3or4.
Step3:Checkthecoefficientoffrictionoffrictiondevelopedforthemaximumvalueofe
=emax atthefullvalueofdesignspeed.

Ifthevalueoffthuscalculatedislessthan0.12theSuperelevationofemax issafeforthe
designspeed.Ifnot,calculatetherestrictedspeedasgiveninstep4.
2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Superelevation
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o Design of Superelevation
Step4Theallowablespeed(Vam/sec.orVaKmph)atThecurveiscalculatedby
consideringthedesigncoefficientoflateralfrictionandthemaximumSuperelevation.

Iftheallowedspeed,ascalculatedaboveishigherthanthedesignspeed,thenthedesign
isadequateandprovidesaSuperelevationofeequaltoemax.
Iftheallowablespeedislessthanthedesignspeed,thespeedislimitedtotheallowed
speedVakmphcalculatedaboveandAppropriatewarningsignandspeedlimitregulation
signareinstalledtorestrictandregulatethespeed.

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Superelevation runoff and Tangent runout


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Normal crown
1/3 Runoff

PT
Tangent
Runout

Circular Arc
Runoff
Full
Superelevation

1/3 Runoff

PC

Normal crown

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Attainment of superelevation
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Theoretical
pointoffull
superelevation

Theoretical
pointof
normal
crown

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Superelevation
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o Calculate superelevation runoff and Tangent runout


TodetermineSuperelevationrunoff
Step1:useMaximumRelativeGradients

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

Attainment of superelevation
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Step2:TheAdjustmentFactorforNumberofLanesRotatediscalculatedby

Orfromthistable

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Attainment of superelevation
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Step3:TheSuperelevationrunoffiscalculatedby

Step4:TheTangentrunoutiscalculatedby

Step5:TheTheoreticalpointofnormalcrowniscalculatedby

Step6:Theoreticalpointoffullsuperelevationiscalculatedby

Step7:DrawDiagram
2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 1
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You are asked to design a horizontal curve for a twolane road . The road has 3.65m lanes . Due to
expensive excavation, it is determined that a
maximum of 10.4 m can be cleared from the road's
centerline toward the inside lane to provide for
stopping sight distance . Also, local guidelines dictate
a maximum superelevation of 0 .08 m/m . What is the
highest possible design speed for this curve ?

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

10

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 1
21

necessary middle ordinate distance is the


distance from the center1ine minus 1/2 the
inside lane

Assume the SSD = 105 m


From table 3.1 at SSD =105 m calculate speed V= 70 km/h

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 1
22

calculate middle ordinate distance

this is less than 8.57 m

ok

Assume the SSD = 130 m


From table 3.1 at SSD =130 m calculate speed V= 80 km/h

calculate middle ordinate distance


this is larger than 8.57m, so design speed is too high
so 70 km/h is the maximum design speed
CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 2
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A horizontal curve on a single-lane highway has its PC at station 24 + 10 and its PI at


station 31 + 40 . The curve has a superelevation of 0 .06 m/m and is designed for 110
km/h . What is the station of the PT?

calculate radius
f= 0.11 from table 3.5
R = 560m or we can use this equation
calculate tangent length
T=PI station -. PC station = 730m
knowing tangent length and radius, solve for central angle

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 2
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A horizontal curve on a single-lane highway has its PC at station 24 + 10 and its PI at


station 31 + 40 . The curve has a superelevation of 0 .06 m/m and is designed for 110
km/h . What is the station of the PT?
calculate length

calculate PT station
PT station =PC station +. L =24+36.3

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

12

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 3
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surface is determined to have a coefficient of side


friction of 0 .08, and the curve's superelevation is 0 .0 9 m/m .
What is the stationing of the PC and PT and what is the safe
vehicle speed ?

calculate PC station
PC station =PI station -. T = 840-155.5 = 684.5 m = 6+84.5

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 3
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calculate radius
calculate length

calculate PT station
PT station =PC station +. L =9+84.5
calculate safe vehicle speed
Since the road is 4 lanes with 3 m lanes, the distance from the
centerline to centerline of first lane is 3 m+1.5 m

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

13

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 4
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A new interstate highway is being built with a design speed of 110 km/h . For one
of the horizontal curves, the radius (measured to the innermost vehicle path) is
tentatively planned as 275 m . What rate of superelevation is required for this
curve?

Calculate coefficient of side friction


f= 0 .11 from table 3.5
Calculate superelevation e

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 5
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Calculate coefficient of side friction


f= 0 .11 from table 3.5

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

14

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 5
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calculate length

calculate degree of curvature

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 6
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A horizontal curve on a single-lane freeway ramp is 122 m long, and the design speed of
the ramp is 70 km/h . If the superelevation is 10% and the station of the PC is 17 + 35,
what is the station of the PI and how much distance must be cleared from the center of the
lane to provide adequate stopping sight distance ?
station of the PC = 17 + 35

superelevation e = 10%

ramp long L = 122m

Design speed = 70km/h


calculate cleared distance Mv
since the stopping sight distance SSD=105m from
table 3.1 is less than ramp long
since the ramp is single-lane, R=Rv

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

15

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 7
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A horizontal curve with a radius of 245 m connects the tangents of a two-lane highway that has a
posted speed limit of 60 km/h. If the highway curve is not superelevated, , determine the
horizontal sightline offset that a large billboard can be placed from the centerline of the inside
lane of the curve, without reducing the required SSD. Perception-reaction time is 2.5 sec, and f=
0.35.

Radius = 245 m Perception-reaction time = 2.5 sec


Design speed = 60 km/h =16.7 m/s f= 0.35.
calculate cleared distance Mv

calculate the required SSD.

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 8
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A horizontal curve is to be designed for a two-lane road in mountainous terrain. The
following data are known: Deflection angle: 40 degrees, tangent length= 133.12 m,
station of PI: 2700+10.65, fs = 0.12, e = 0.08.
Determine:
(a) design speed
(b) station of the PC
(c) station of the PT
(d) deflection angle and chord length to the first 100 ft station

(a) From the given horizontal curve data, the radius can be calculated,
calculate the design speed

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

16

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 8
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A horizontal curve is to be designed for a two-lane road in mountainous terrain. The
following data are known: Deflection angle: 40 degrees, tangent length= 133.12 m,
station of PI: 27+10.65, fs = 0.12, e = 0.08.
Determine:
(a) design speed
(b) station of the PC
(c) station of the PT
(b) station of the PC
c) station of the PT

PC station =PI station - T. = 25+77.5

PT station =PC station + L = 25+77.5

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 9
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Building is located 5.8 m from the centerline of the inside lane of a curved section of
highway with a 122 m radius. The road is level; e = 0.10. Determine the appropriate
speed limit (to the nearest 10 km/h) considering the following conditions: stopping sight
distance and curve radius.

Mv=5.8 m

Radius = 122 m

For stopping sight

e = 0.10
For curve radius

to the nearest 10 km/h

to the nearest 10 km/h


CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

17

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 9
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The stopping sight distance for a speed of 100 km/h and a down grade of 4.5% is most
nearly:
(A) 194.5 m
(B) 191.4 m
(C) 199 m
(D) 182.3

Answer: (C)

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 10
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lane 7.3 m single carriageway road has a horizontal curve of radius of 600 m. If the
minimum sight stopping distance required is 160 m, calculate in metres the required
distance to be kept clear of obstructions if the length of the curve is:
(a) 200 m;
(b) 100 m.

(a) The length of the curve 200 m > 160 m. So the required sight distance S lies
wholly within the length of the curve.

(b) The length of the curve 100 m < 160 m. So the required sight distance S lies
outside the length of the curve. Applying equation (4.9), the required offset

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

18

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 11
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Calculate the safe stopping for design speed of 50 kmph for (a)two way traffic on a
two lane road (b) two-way traffic on a single lane road.? Assume coefficient of
friction as 0.37 and reaction time of driver as 2.5 sec
SSD = 0.278vt + (v/254f)
= 0.278*50*2.5 + (50/254*0.37)
=61.4m
Stopping sight distance when there are two lanes= stopping distance= 61.4m
Stopping sight distance with single lane= 2*64.1 =122.8m

2016

CE 404. Highway Engineering

EXAMPLE 12
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Calculate the minimum sight distance required to avoid a head-on


collision of two cars approaching from the opposite direction at 90 and
60 kmph. Assume a reaction time of 2.5 sec, coefficient of friction of 0.7
and brake efficiency 50%?
f= 0.5*0.7 = 0.35
Stopping sight distance for first car, SD1=
0.278vt + (V/254f)
= 0.278*90*2.5 +(90/(254*0.35))
=153.6m
For second car, SD2= 0.278vt + (V/254f)
= 0.278*60*2.5 + (60/(254*0.35))
=82.2m

Sight distance to avoid head-on collision of two


approaching cars = SD1+SD2
= 153.2+82.2
=235.4m
CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

19

2/28/2016

Thank You
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CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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