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HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

(CE 404)

1

PRACTICE #1

Horizontal alignment

By

2016

Sight Distances

Stopping Sight Distance(SSD)

If V is the design speed in (m/sec) and t is the

total reaction time of the driver in seconds,

brakereactiondistance=d1 =vxt(meters).t=2.5sec

braking distance

a deceleration rate of at least

3.4 m/s2

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Sight Distances

Stopping Sight Distance(SSD)

2016

Sight Distances

Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

The passing sight distance is the minimum sight distance required on a two-lane,

two way highway that will permit a driver to complete a passing maneuver without

colliding with an opposing vehicle and without cutting off the passed vehicle.

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Sight Distances

Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

2016

Sight Distances

Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

2/28/2016

Sight Distances

Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

2016

Sight Distances

Passing Sight Distance (PSD)

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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Table

9

2016

Table

10

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

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Table

11

2016

Table

To find Rmin ,Vmax

12

Curve Design

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

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Superelevation

13

o Design of Superelevation

Step1:TheSuperelevationfor75percentofdesignspeed(vm/sec/kmph)iscalculated

neglectingthefriction.

Step2:Ifthecalculatedvalueofeislessthan6%(ruralroad),4%(urbanroad)thevalue

soobtainedisprovided.Ifthevalueofeasstep1exceedsemax thenprovidesmaximum

Superelevationequaltoemax andproceedwithstep3or4.

Step3:Checkthecoefficientoffrictionoffrictiondevelopedforthemaximumvalueofe

=emax atthefullvalueofdesignspeed.

Ifthevalueoffthuscalculatedislessthan0.12theSuperelevationofemax issafeforthe

designspeed.Ifnot,calculatetherestrictedspeedasgiveninstep4.

2016

Superelevation

14

o Design of Superelevation

Step4Theallowablespeed(Vam/sec.orVaKmph)atThecurveiscalculatedby

consideringthedesigncoefficientoflateralfrictionandthemaximumSuperelevation.

Iftheallowedspeed,ascalculatedaboveishigherthanthedesignspeed,thenthedesign

isadequateandprovidesaSuperelevationofeequaltoemax.

Iftheallowablespeedislessthanthedesignspeed,thespeedislimitedtotheallowed

speedVakmphcalculatedaboveandAppropriatewarningsignandspeedlimitregulation

signareinstalledtorestrictandregulatethespeed.

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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15

Normal crown

1/3 Runoff

PT

Tangent

Runout

Circular Arc

Runoff

Full

Superelevation

1/3 Runoff

PC

Normal crown

2016

Attainment of superelevation

16

Theoretical

pointoffull

superelevation

Theoretical

pointof

normal

crown

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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Superelevation

17

TodetermineSuperelevationrunoff

Step1:useMaximumRelativeGradients

2016

Attainment of superelevation

18

Step2:TheAdjustmentFactorforNumberofLanesRotatediscalculatedby

Orfromthistable

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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Attainment of superelevation

19

Step3:TheSuperelevationrunoffiscalculatedby

Step4:TheTangentrunoutiscalculatedby

Step5:TheTheoreticalpointofnormalcrowniscalculatedby

Step6:Theoreticalpointoffullsuperelevationiscalculatedby

Step7:DrawDiagram

2016

EXAMPLE 1

20

You are asked to design a horizontal curve for a twolane road . The road has 3.65m lanes . Due to

expensive excavation, it is determined that a

maximum of 10.4 m can be cleared from the road's

centerline toward the inside lane to provide for

stopping sight distance . Also, local guidelines dictate

a maximum superelevation of 0 .08 m/m . What is the

highest possible design speed for this curve ?

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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EXAMPLE 1

21

distance from the center1ine minus 1/2 the

inside lane

From table 3.1 at SSD =105 m calculate speed V= 70 km/h

2016

EXAMPLE 1

22

ok

From table 3.1 at SSD =130 m calculate speed V= 80 km/h

this is larger than 8.57m, so design speed is too high

so 70 km/h is the maximum design speed

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

11

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 2

23

station 31 + 40 . The curve has a superelevation of 0 .06 m/m and is designed for 110

km/h . What is the station of the PT?

calculate radius

f= 0.11 from table 3.5

R = 560m or we can use this equation

calculate tangent length

T=PI station -. PC station = 730m

knowing tangent length and radius, solve for central angle

2016

EXAMPLE 2

24

station 31 + 40 . The curve has a superelevation of 0 .06 m/m and is designed for 110

km/h . What is the station of the PT?

calculate length

calculate PT station

PT station =PC station +. L =24+36.3

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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EXAMPLE 3

25

friction of 0 .08, and the curve's superelevation is 0 .0 9 m/m .

What is the stationing of the PC and PT and what is the safe

vehicle speed ?

calculate PC station

PC station =PI station -. T = 840-155.5 = 684.5 m = 6+84.5

2016

EXAMPLE 3

26

calculate radius

calculate length

calculate PT station

PT station =PC station +. L =9+84.5

calculate safe vehicle speed

Since the road is 4 lanes with 3 m lanes, the distance from the

centerline to centerline of first lane is 3 m+1.5 m

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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EXAMPLE 4

27

A new interstate highway is being built with a design speed of 110 km/h . For one

of the horizontal curves, the radius (measured to the innermost vehicle path) is

tentatively planned as 275 m . What rate of superelevation is required for this

curve?

f= 0 .11 from table 3.5

Calculate superelevation e

2016

EXAMPLE 5

28

f= 0 .11 from table 3.5

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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EXAMPLE 5

29

calculate length

2016

EXAMPLE 6

30

A horizontal curve on a single-lane freeway ramp is 122 m long, and the design speed of

the ramp is 70 km/h . If the superelevation is 10% and the station of the PC is 17 + 35,

what is the station of the PI and how much distance must be cleared from the center of the

lane to provide adequate stopping sight distance ?

station of the PC = 17 + 35

superelevation e = 10%

calculate cleared distance Mv

since the stopping sight distance SSD=105m from

table 3.1 is less than ramp long

since the ramp is single-lane, R=Rv

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

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EXAMPLE 7

31

A horizontal curve with a radius of 245 m connects the tangents of a two-lane highway that has a

posted speed limit of 60 km/h. If the highway curve is not superelevated, , determine the

horizontal sightline offset that a large billboard can be placed from the centerline of the inside

lane of the curve, without reducing the required SSD. Perception-reaction time is 2.5 sec, and f=

0.35.

Design speed = 60 km/h =16.7 m/s f= 0.35.

calculate cleared distance Mv

2016

EXAMPLE 8

32

A horizontal curve is to be designed for a two-lane road in mountainous terrain. The

following data are known: Deflection angle: 40 degrees, tangent length= 133.12 m,

station of PI: 2700+10.65, fs = 0.12, e = 0.08.

Determine:

(a) design speed

(b) station of the PC

(c) station of the PT

(d) deflection angle and chord length to the first 100 ft station

(a) From the given horizontal curve data, the radius can be calculated,

calculate the design speed

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

16

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 8

33

A horizontal curve is to be designed for a two-lane road in mountainous terrain. The

following data are known: Deflection angle: 40 degrees, tangent length= 133.12 m,

station of PI: 27+10.65, fs = 0.12, e = 0.08.

Determine:

(a) design speed

(b) station of the PC

(c) station of the PT

(b) station of the PC

c) station of the PT

2016

EXAMPLE 9

34

Building is located 5.8 m from the centerline of the inside lane of a curved section of

highway with a 122 m radius. The road is level; e = 0.10. Determine the appropriate

speed limit (to the nearest 10 km/h) considering the following conditions: stopping sight

distance and curve radius.

Mv=5.8 m

Radius = 122 m

e = 0.10

For curve radius

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

17

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 9

35

The stopping sight distance for a speed of 100 km/h and a down grade of 4.5% is most

nearly:

(A) 194.5 m

(B) 191.4 m

(C) 199 m

(D) 182.3

Answer: (C)

2016

EXAMPLE 10

36

lane 7.3 m single carriageway road has a horizontal curve of radius of 600 m. If the

minimum sight stopping distance required is 160 m, calculate in metres the required

distance to be kept clear of obstructions if the length of the curve is:

(a) 200 m;

(b) 100 m.

(a) The length of the curve 200 m > 160 m. So the required sight distance S lies

wholly within the length of the curve.

(b) The length of the curve 100 m < 160 m. So the required sight distance S lies

outside the length of the curve. Applying equation (4.9), the required offset

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

18

2/28/2016

EXAMPLE 11

37

Calculate the safe stopping for design speed of 50 kmph for (a)two way traffic on a

two lane road (b) two-way traffic on a single lane road.? Assume coefficient of

friction as 0.37 and reaction time of driver as 2.5 sec

SSD = 0.278vt + (v/254f)

= 0.278*50*2.5 + (50/254*0.37)

=61.4m

Stopping sight distance when there are two lanes= stopping distance= 61.4m

Stopping sight distance with single lane= 2*64.1 =122.8m

2016

EXAMPLE 12

38

collision of two cars approaching from the opposite direction at 90 and

60 kmph. Assume a reaction time of 2.5 sec, coefficient of friction of 0.7

and brake efficiency 50%?

f= 0.5*0.7 = 0.35

Stopping sight distance for first car, SD1=

0.278vt + (V/254f)

= 0.278*90*2.5 +(90/(254*0.35))

=153.6m

For second car, SD2= 0.278vt + (V/254f)

= 0.278*60*2.5 + (60/(254*0.35))

=82.2m

approaching cars = SD1+SD2

= 153.2+82.2

=235.4m

CE 404. Highway Engineering

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

19

2/28/2016

Thank You

39

GE201:Dr.N.A.Siddiqui

2016

20

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