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Book of Abstracts

3rd International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil


and Climate Change

Tomar, Portugal, 10th - 12th September, 2014

Organization:

Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Natural Hazards Research Center, NHRC.ipt, Portugal


Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro University, CITAB, Portugal
Lusofona University for Humanities and Technologies, DAT-DREAMS, Portugal

European Meteorological Society

Edited by
Cristina Andrade
Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Mathematics and Physics Department, Natural Hazards Researh Center,
Tomar, Portugal
Email: c.andrade@ipt.pt
Published by
Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Natural Hazards Researh Center, NHRC.ipt, Tomar, Portugal
ISBN: 978-972-9473-85-2
Title: EcoHCC14 - Abstracts Book

Editor: Instituto Politecnico


de Tomar, Polytechnic Institute of Tomar
Address: Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300-313 Tomar, Portugal
Telephone: + 351 249 328 100

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


!

Foreword

The Third International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, has been the result of a
continued effort of the Polytechnic Institute of Tomar (IPT), through the relentless dedicated commitment
of Professor Cristina Andrade of the Department of Mathematics and Physics.
Although EcoHCC14 keeps the format of previous events, the response of the scientific community
can be considered much more enthusiastic, with a substantial increase in the number of communications,
either for oral or poster presentation. This illustrates the increasing awareness of the scientific importance
of the themes to be debated, as well as, of its relevance in different areas, for human welfare, in a context
of deep changes in the way humans are organized (globalization) and in how nature responds to the
inherent induced forcings.
We are sure that EcoHCC14 will be quite successful in attaining its goals, promoting at the same time
new contacts and opportunities among the participant researchers. The Scientific Committee wishes all
the participants a pleasant and fruitful stay in Tomar.

The Chair of the Scientific Committee

Corte-Real, Professor
Joao

Contents
Foreword

Scientific Program

13

Committes
Scientific Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organizing Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Invited Speakers

21

Plenary Sessions Program


The Challenges for the XXI Century: Water Resources, Human Action, and Sustainable
Development
Antunes do Carmo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jose Simao
Anthropedogenesis and Land Use Change: influences on soil qualities and functions
Carmelo Dazzi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Probabilistic decadal prediction of extreme events in Europe

Uwe Ulbrich, Tim Kruschke, Henning W. Rust, Igor Kroner,


Gregor C. Leckebusch . . . .
Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extra-tropical cyclones affecting Western
Europe

Joaquim G. Pinto, Inigo Gomara,


Giacomo Masato, Helen F. Dacre, Tim Woollings, Rodrigo Caballero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresh water lakes and wetland vegetation during the Cretaceous expansion of flowering plants
Else Marie Friis, Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

Organized Sessions

35

Organized Sessions Program


I - Statistical approaches to drought risk and extreme precipitation assessment . . . .
Use of SPI and precipitation thresholds for drought assessment under long-term precipitation
variability
Ana Paulo, Elsa Moreira, Diogo Martins, Luis Santos Pereira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seasonal drought predictability in western Iberia using statistical-dynamical techniques
Andreia Ribeiro, Carlos Pires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trend Analysis of Drought Extremes in Iberian Peninsula Using SPI
Diogo Martins, Susana Barbosa, Paulo Matias, Ana Paulo, Carlos Pires, Luis S. Pereira .
Statistical modelling of spatial extremes: An application to extreme precipitation
Dora Prata Gomes, Manuela Neves, Elsa Moreira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II - Aeronautical Meteorology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aeronautical Meteorology: what is it and what its for
Lus Serrano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III - Climate impacts on Environment and agro-forestry systems
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Climate change challenges for European and Portuguese viticulture
A. Santos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joao

37

19
19

30
31
32

33
34

39

41
43
45
46
47
48
49
50

The Water Framework Directive: developing a model to predict the ecological status of surface
waters

A. Cabral . . . . .
Samantha Jane Hughes, Rui Cortes, Mario
Santos, Rita Bastos, Joao
Climate Change and the Pine Processionary moth in Northeastern Portugal
A. Santos, Solange Leite . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paula S. Arnaldo, Irene Oliveira, Joao

51
52

Parallel Sessions

53

PS01 1 Water Resources and Managment


Nanoparticles based Permeable Reactive Barriers as an Eco-efficient Technology for nitrate
remediation in soil and groundwater

Rui Araujo, Ana Meira Castro, Antonio


Fiuza

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diversification of resources to meet the increasing water demand in an arid region: Case
study from Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Ahmed Murad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effects of rewetting an alder carr in NE Germany with treated sewage for more than 10 years
Florian Jenn, Frank Koinzer, Hans-Jurgen

Voigt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impact analysis of riverscapes fragmentation on the conservation of bryophyte communities:
a conservation planning approach
Honrado . .
Ana Paula Portela, Cristiana Vieira, Helena Hespanhol, Bruno Marcos, Jo ao
Developing Leaf - water - air Temperature Model for High Temperature Stress Analysis of
Rice Paddy Field
Yanyan Wang, Hiroki Oue, Yoshinobu Sato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

PS06 1 Earth System Science, climate change and extreme events


Ranking of extreme precipitation events with different time scales affecting the Iberian Peninsula
Alexandre M. Ramos, Ricardo M. Trigo, Margarida Liberato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance of different cumulus parameterization schemes on WRF simulation of extratropical cyclones over North Atlantic Ocean
P.K. Pradhan, Juan A. Ferreira, Margarida L. R. Liberato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Future rainfall and drought in the Douro, Tagus and Guadiana
Selma Guerreiro, Chris Kilsby, Hayley Fowler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bryophyte communities in hydrographic regions of Europe: distribution overview and conservation in global change scenarios
C. Vieira, F.C. Aguiar, A.P. Portela, P. Raven, N. Holmes, J. Cambra, N. Flor-Arnau, C.

E. Papastergiadou,
Chauvin, G. Dorflinger,
M. Germ, P. Manolaki, M.R. Minciardi, A. Munn e,
G. Urnanic, M.T. Ferreira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regionalization of Europe based on a K-Mean Clustering Analysis of the climate change of
Temperatures and Precipitation
Teixeira, Alfredo Rocha . . . . . . . .
Carvalho, Paulo Melo-Goncalves, Jo ao
Maria Joao
Assessment of climate indices in the Iberian Peninsula in XX Century
A. Corte-Real . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cristina Andrade, Joao

65

PS03 1 Environmental policies and social impacts


Protected Areas and Water Quality in small islands: the Pico case study (Azores Archipelago)
Ana Costa, Vitor Goncalves, Pedro Raposeiro, Helena Calado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Climate Change, Environmental policies and Social impacts: Assessing public perception and
drawing a framework on Climate Change Communication tools
Maria Cecilia Trannin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design and environmental concerns

Ana Rita Silva Simoes


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

57
59
61
62
63

67
68
69

70
72
73

77
78
79

PS05 1 Soil degradation and soil quality. Soil function and land use
Potential and limits of land and soil for sustainable intensification of agriculture
Winfried E. H. Blum, Georg J. Lair, Jasmin Schiefer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Research on landuse Change in Paul do Boquilobo wetland Nature Reserve using GIS
Ceclia Baptista, Luis Santos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Influence of wildfire severity in soil and soil fertility losses
Morais, Vera Silva, Maruxa C. Malvar, Maria E. Rial-Rivas, Sergio
Nelson Abrantes, Ines
Prats, Celeste Coelho, Jan J. Keizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spatial variability of Soil Functional Ability for groundwater recharge related with Land Use in
a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal
A. Corte-Real . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elsa Sampaio, Joao

81

PS02 1 Water quality and hydrobiology


Nitrate in groundwater: sources identification and potential impact on drinking water reservoir
(Goczalkowice reservoir, Poland)

Joanna Czekaj, Andrzej J. Witkowski, Hanna Rubin, Sabina Jak obczyk-Karpierz,


Slawomir
Sitek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R Gold TZ and salinity)
Single and combined effects of anthropogenic stressors (Primextra !
to the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna

Melanie
Costa, Tania
Vidal, Fernando Goncalves, Ana Marta Goncalves . . . . . . . . .
Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere reserve
Luis Santos, Ceclia Baptista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution pattern of metals in sediments from a small-sized dam in a rural mountainous
catchment: a case study in NE Portugal
Pinto, Ana Isabel Oliveira, Ana Alenco ao,
Marta Reboredo, Andrew
Anabela Reis, Joao
Parker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biodiversity patterns and conservation of subterranean fauna from Portugal
Ana Sofia Reboleira, P. Orom, F. Goncalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

83
84
85
86

89
90
91

92
93

PS06 2 Earth System Science, climate change and extreme events


95
High resolution WRF climatic simulations in the Iberian Peninsula: Model validation
Martinho Marta-Almeida, Alfredo Rocha, Paulo Melo-Goncalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
WRF-Chem Sensitivity Vertical Resolution in an Saharan Dust Event
Carlos Teixeira, Ana Cristina Carvalho, Alfredo Rocha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Joao
Assessment of domain sensitivity in Numerical Weather Simulations applied to Mainland
Portugal
Tiago Luna, Alfredo Rocha, Margarida Belo-Pereira, Jos e Castanheira . . . . . . . . . . . 99
On the assimilation of precipitation data from a dense measurement network and its role on
the prediction of precipitation
Juan Ferreira, Ana Cristina Carvalho, Jan Jacob Keizer, Alfredo Rocha . . . . . . . . . . 100
Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Mountain Regions: The Case of Madeira Island

Delia
Gouveia-Reis, Luiz Guerreiro Lopes, Sandra Mendonca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
PS01 2 Water Resources and Managment
103
Predicted and Seasonal Dynamics of Hedgerow Olive Orchard Water use in Response to
Applied Water
Francisco Santos, Maria Manuela Correia, Renato Coelho, Margarida Vaz, Teresa Paco,
de Sousa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Adelia
Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination: comparative analysis of the DRASTIC method
using typical indices and rescheduling each parameters indices
Alcino Sousa Oliveira, Jose Martinho Lourenco, Solange Soares Almeida, Lus Oliveira
Sousa, Lus Ferreira Gomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Climate change impacts on hydrodynamics and water quality of the Mondego River estuary,
Portugal
Antunes do Carmo, Jos e Lus da Silva Pinho, B arbara

Lara Santos, Jose Simao


Filipa
Vasquez Vieira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Riparian landscapes downstream dams: effects of historical land-use change and altered
flows
Martins, Pedro Silva, Francisca Constanca Aguiar108

Maria do Rosario
Fernandes, Maria Joao
Hydrological Ecosystem Service assessment for a sustainable land and water resources
conservation in semi-arid region, West Africa
Mathieu Maurice Ahouansou, Christine Furst,

Sven Kralisch, Sampson K. Agodzo . . . . 109


PS06 3 Earth System Science, climate change and extreme events
111
Long-term variability of 400-year long precipitation and temperature series in Portugal
J.A. Santos, M.F. Carneiro, M.J. Alcoforado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Regionalization of precipitation for the Iberian Peninsula
Ana Claudia Parracho, Paulo Melo-Goncalves, Alfredo Rocha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Storm Surge Changes along the Coast of Mozambique for Future Climate Scenarios

Aderito
Aramuge, Alfredo Rocha, Paulo Silva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Recent climate change trends of extreme precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula
Carvalho, Martinho Marta-Almeida, Alfredo Rocha . . . . . 116
Sofia Bartolomeu, Maria Joao
Climate change of Precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula: CLIPE project results
A. Santos, Joaquim G. Pinto, Joao
Corte-Real 117
Paulo Melo-Goncalves, Alfredo Rocha, Joao
PS07 1 Techniques and approaches in geosciences: biostatistics, remote sensing, GIS and
modelling
119
SPI Drought class prediction driven by NAO index using loglinear models
Elsa Moreira, Luis Pereira, Carlos Pires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
A sensitivity analysis of the flood vulnerability index
Paulo Fernandez, Sandra Mourato, Madalena Moreira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Simulations with the Shallow Water Equations Model
Cristina Andrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
PS06 4 Earth System Science, climate change and extreme events
Environmental and climate changes during little ice age in Central Portugal
Cristiana Ferreira, Pierluigi Rosina, Francesc Burjachs, Luiz Oosterbeek . . . . . . . . .
Drought severity and precipitation under climate change scenarios: Application to the South
of Portugal
Ana Paulo, Sandra Mourato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On the relationship between atmospheric vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development
Juan Ferreira, Margarida L.R. Liberato, P.K. Pradhan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determination of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves

Madalena Moreira, Rita Cabral Guimar aes,


Carlos Miranda Rodrigues . . . . . . . . . . .
Recent trends of indices for extreme temperature for the Iberian Peninsula
Carvalho, Martinho Marta-Almeida, Paulo Melo-Goncalves, AlDora Fonseca, Maria Joao
fredo Rocha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

127
128
130
131
132

PS02 2 Water quality and hydrobiology


133
Removal of the Antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole by Green Clay Sorbents
Paulo Pates Ramalho, Alfredo Palace Carvalho . . . . 135
Ana Dordio, Susana Miranda, Joao
Biological quality assessment of water bodies based on zooplankton community

Fabiano Ramiro Serpe, Fernando Goncalves, Julio Cesar Rodrigues de Azevedo, Jo ao


Carlos Marques, Ana Marta Mendes Goncalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

10

Evaluation of the ecological potential of the lowland water reservoirs in Poland according to
the requirements of the Water Framework Directive
Robert Mazur, Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz, Karol Pietruczuk, Joanna Chmist . . . . . . . . . 137
PS04 1 Operational and dynamical hydrology. Ecohydrology.
Analysis of influence of depositing fine plant debris in river floodplain shrubs on the hydraulic
flow resistance
Joanna Chmist, Tomasz Kaluza, Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz, Natalia Walczak, Robert Mazur
Exportation of nutrients and pesticides in vineyards
Nelson Abrantes, Leisly Santos, Vera Silva, Dalila Serpa, Maria E. Rial-Rivas, Fernando

Goncalves, Mario
Cerqueira, Jan J. Keizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impacts of climate change on stream flow, sediment transport and chemical status of a small
basin under the influence of intensive vineyard culture
Pedro Nunes, Vera Silva, Maria Ermitas Rial-Rivas, Jan Jacob Keizer,
Dalila Serpa, Joao
Nelson Abrantes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of computer code SSIIM to modelling hydraulic parameters of local scour below
sills stabilizing the river bed

Joanna Chmist, Mateusz Hammerling,


Robert Mazur, Michal Wierzbicki . . . . . . . . . .

Hydro-climatic variability and forest perturbations in northwestern temperate forests of M exico


Jose Navar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139

141
142

143
144
145

PS07 2 Techniques and approaches in geosciences: biostatistics, remote sensing, GIS and
modelling
147
Modelling Nitrogen Transport in Variably-Saturated Soils
Abdellatif Maslouhi, Ould bamba Yacoub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Anthropogenic Pressures on Productive Soils in Corlu and Cerkezkoy
Ezgi tok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
A GIS model for assessment of geological resources - application to a granitic exploitation
area
Lus Oliveira Sousa, Jose Martinho Lourenco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Posters Session Program
153
Groundwater Monitoring for resources management in an arid region using geophysical methods
Ahmed Murad, Amir Gabr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Impacts on reservoir water storage and hydroelectric energy production under climate change
scenarios
Diana Sousa, Filipa Vitorino, Henrique Pedrosa, Sandra Mourato, Madalena Moreira . . . 158
Seasonal variations in sap flow in olive under tree irrigation regimes in very hot and dry conditions of Vilarica Valley, a region in the Northeast of Portugal

Antonio
Esteves, Manuela Correia, Francisco Lucio

Santos, M arcio
Teixeira, Anabela
Afonso Fernandes-Silva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Evaluation of the performance of models to estimate leaf conductance in olive (Cv. Cobrancosa)
in field grown conditions of Terra Quente Transmontana

Anabela Afonso Fernandes-Silva, Timoteo


C. Ferreira, Francisco J. Villalobos . . . . . . 160
Effects of drought on water quality
Anna Hrabankova, Josef Vojtech Datel, Radek Vlnas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Metagenomic overview of bacterioplankton diversity from Estremenho karst massif aquifer
(Portugal)
Daniela Figueiredo, Daniel Cleary, Pedro Saraiva, Newton Gomes, Ana Marta Goncalves,
Ana S. Reboleira, Fernando Goncalves, Joana Oliveira, Maria Teresa Condesso de Melo,
Nelson Abrantes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Water Quality Assessment of Agricultural Runoff in the Upper Mara River Basin, Kenya
Kelly Fouchy, Cynthia Wright, Paolo Paron, Thom Bogaard, Jochen Wenninger, John
Conallin, Michael McClain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
11

Export of Copper in a Basin Under Intensive Viticulture


Patrcia Ana Costa, Vera Silva, Dalila Serpa, Maria Mitas Real-Rivas, Fernando Goncalves,
Jan Jacob Keizer, Nelson Abrantes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quality of water in a small-sized dam in the mountainous region of NE Portugal
Joao
Pinto, Ana Isabel Oliveira, Andrew Parker . . . . . . .
Anabela Reis, Ana Alencoao,
An ecotoxicological approach to the assessment of environmental quality in karst aquifer
Rosa, Daniela de Figueiredo, M arcia

Ana Sofia Reboleira, Ana Marta Goncalves, Ines


Bessa, Fernando Goncalves, Nelson C. Abrantes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulations of the influence of lake area on local temperature with the COSMO NWP model
Lukas Pop, Zbynek Sokol, Kristyna Bartunkova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precipitation thresholds for drought recognition based on SPI: an application to Eastern Slovakia
Maria Manuela Portela, Artur Tiago Silva, Martina Zelenakova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characterizing drought events in Iberia during the 1901-2011 period using a gridded dataset
Gouveia, Ana Russo . . . . . . . .
Irene Montero Brazo, Margarida L. R. Liberato, C elia
Climate change of precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula: an overview of the CLIPE
project
Paulo Melo-Goncalves, J.A. Santos, Alfredo Rocha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons learned regarding homogenisation methods for climate data: a chronological review
Sara Ribeiro, Julio
Caineta, Roberto Henriques, Amlcar Soares, Ana Cristina Costa . . .
Riparian Forests in a Context of Flow Disturbance: New Tools and Approaches to Support
Ecological Research

Maria Dolores
Francisca Constanca Aguiar, Maria Rosario
Fernandes, Andr e Fabiao,
Bejarano, Christer Nilsson, David M. Merritt, Pedro Segurado, Pedro Silva, Maria Manuela
Martins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portela, Maria Joao

164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171

172

Remissive Index
173
IPT Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Usefull Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

c International Conference on Ecohydrology and Climate Change, 2014


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Scientific Program

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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Committees

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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Scientific Committee
Corte-Real (Portugal) - Chair
Joao
Celeste Coelho (Portugal)
Elsa Sampaio (Portugal)
Jan Jacob Keizer (Portugal)
Neves (Portugal)
Joao
Jose Lus Rubio (Spain)
Julio
Lima (Portugal)
Lus Chcharo (Portugal)
Madalena Moreira (Portugal)
Samantha Hughes (Portugal)
Solange Leite Mendonca (Portugal)
de Figueiredo (Portugal)
Tomas

Winfried Blum (Austria)

Organizing Committee
Cristina Andrade (Portugal) - Chair
Francisco Carvalho (Portugal)
Corte-Real (Portugal)
Joao

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


!

Invited Speakers

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


!

Plenary Sessions Program

September 10th
11:15-11:45

14:15-14:45

Speaker
Jose A. do Carmo

Room Q102
The Challenges for the XXI Century: Water Resources, Human
Action, and Sustainable Development
Room Q102

Carmelo Dazzi

Anthropedogenesis and Land Use Change: influences on soil


qualities and functions

September 11th
11:00-11:30
14:15-14:45

Speaker

Room Q102

Uwe Ulbrich

Probabilistic decadal prediction of extreme events in Europe


Room Q102

Joaquim G. Pinto

Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extratropical cyclones affecting Western Europe

September 12th
09:00-09:30

Speaker

Room Q102

Else Marie Friis

Fresh water lakes and wetland vegetation during the Cretaceous


expansion of flowering plants

Jose Antunes do Carmo

Professor Jose Simao Antunes do Carmo


Associate Professor with Aggregation, University
of Coimbra
FCTUC - Polo II of the University, Department of
Civil Engineering
3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
E-mail: jsacarmo@dec.uc.pt

Graduation in Civil Engineering; Master in Hydraulics and Water Resources; Ph.D. in Engineering
Sciences, Civil Engineering area, speciality of Hydraulics and Water Resources; Aggregation in Civil Engineering.
Author of over three dozen papers published in ISI Journals; more than a hundred publications in
National and International Congresses; about two dozen papers in National Journals; over four dozen scientific reports; about three dozen opinion articles, and more than two dozen lectures as invited speaker.
Author of the book Modelling in Fluvial Hydraulics and Environment, and eight book chapters of International Editions.
Co-Editor of three books: Wastewater treatment (Eds: G. Krantzberg, A.Tanik, J. Antunes do Carmo &
A. Indarto); River Basin Management III (Eds: C. Brebbia & J.S. Antunes do Carmo), and Water Pollution
VIII: Modelling, Monitoring and Management (Eds: C. Brebbia & J.S. Antunes do Carmo).
Regular cooperation with several International ISI Journals in reviewing papers submitted for publication, most notably: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Journal of Advances in Engineering Software, Ocean & Coastal Management, Journal of Coastal Research, Journal of Hydrology and
Ecological Modelling.
Member of the Scientific Committee of more than three dozen of National and International Congresses, and Chairman or Member of the Organizing Committee of about two dozen of National and
International Congresses.
Scientific Advisor of three Research Programs of undergraduate students pre-Bologna and postdoctoral; eleven Dissertations pre-Bologna; eleven Dissertations post-Bologna, and two Ph.D. Thesis in Civil
Engineering, speciality in Hydraulics and Water Resources, in the period October 1997 to December 2013.
Scientific Advisor of other graduation projects, and various works/projects prepared under the Erasmus
and Socrates programs.
Coordinator of the Graduation Course in Civil Engineering of FCTUC, in the period November 1999 to
December 2001.
Coordinator of the Water, Environment and Development program, held at the University of Coimbra
in the period September 1996 to September 2000; this program included two Masters and several annual
Postgraduate Courses. Coordinator of the Masters Course in Environmental Engineering, Faculty of
Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, in the period May 2004 to December 2010.
Member of the Representatives Assembly of FCTUC, in the period 2006-2009, and Member of the
Statutory Assembly of FCTUC, in the period November 2008 to May 2009.
Present interests/activities
Scientific Advisor of a Ph.D. Thesis in Environmental Engineering, of a Masters Dissertation on Hydraulics, Water Resources and Environment and a Masters Dissertation on Structural Mechanics.
Director of the Portuguese Water Resources Journal, since July 1998, and Co-Editor of the International Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, since October 2006.
Editorial Board Member of Ocean & Coastal Management Journal, of The Open Ocean Engineering
Journal, and of Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management.

Advisory Board Member of the Portuguese Journal Territorium.


Member of the Scientific Council of FCTUC, since October 2009.
Carmelo Dazzi

Professor Carmelo Dazzi


President of the European Society for Soil Conservation
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali
Universit`
a di Palermo
Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 4, 90128 Palermo, Italy
Email: carmelo.dazzi@unipa.it

Carmelo Dazzi is Full Professor of Pedology at the University of Palermo (IT) and Honorary Professor
of the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin de Arequipa, Peru.
His scientific research take into consideration mainly the genesis, classification and mapping of soils
and their evaluation; the soil-plant relationships in xeric environments; soil degradation and desertification;
anthropogenic soils, pedodiversity and pedo-ethnology.
He is member of the Panel for Soil Quality of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture; member of the Committee of International Referees of ATLAS Project - Atlas of Soil Quality Indicators, Italian Ministry of
Agriculture.
He chaired several national and international conferences and congresses and was also invited speakers in 15 national and international congresses and symposia. He has published more than two hundred
articles in national and international journals and edited 5 books. He has coordinated and/or participated
in more than 15 national and international research projects.
He is the President of the European Society for Soil Conservation (ESSC) and the Vice-President of
the Italian Society of Soil Science.
Uwe Ulbrich

Professor Uwe Ulbrich


Meteorology
Institute for Meteorology, Freie Universitat Berlin,
Germany
Email: ulbrich@met.fu-berlin.edu

Research Interests
Physical understanding of meteorological extreme events, atmospheric variability patterns, climate variability and climate change, Validation of climate models
Interdisciplinary research, impacts of meteorological extreme events and the insurance sector
Academic training and professional experience
Berlin
Since 2012: Vice-Dean for research of the Faculty of Geosciences, Freie Universit at

2007-2011: Acting Director of the Institute of Meteorology, Freie Universit at Berlin, Germany
26

Berlin
Since 2004: Professor (C3) for General Meteorology, Institute of Meteorology, Freie Universit at
2000: Habilitation in Meteorology, University of Cologne, Germany
1990-2004: Senior Scientist (permanent position), Institute of Meteorology, University of Cologne
1989: Dissertation in Meteorology, University of Cologne, Germany
1985-1990: PhD student and Post-Doc position, University of Cologne
1985: Diploma in Geophysics at the University of Cologne, Germany
1978-1985: Student of Geophysics, University of Cologne, Germany
1985-1990: Scientist, Institute of Geophysics und Meteorology, University of Cologne
Awards & Nominations 2008: Gordon Manley Weather Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society (with
A. Fink and Co-authors)
Committees Executive editor: Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
Steering committee of the MedCLIVAR project (endorsed by CLIVAR SSG)
Scientific board of the German Comittee for Disaster Reduction DKKV (deputy chair)
Berlin
Scientific board of the Research forum Public Safety and Security, Freie Universit at
Committee for Applications of the German National Grid Initiative NGI-DE (representative Geosciences)
Selected peer-reviewed ISI publications 1. Ulbrich, U., and M. Christoph, 1999: A Shift of the NAO
and Increasing Storm Track Activity over Europe due to Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Forcing. Climate
Dynamics, 15, 551-559.
2. Eckhardt, K and Ulbrich, U, 2003: Potential impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge and
streamflow in a central European low mountain range. J Hydrology, 284, 244-252 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.08.005.
3. Pinto, J. G., Spangehl, T., Ulbrich, U., Speth, P., 2005. Sensitivities of a cyclone detection and tracking
algorithm: individual tracks and climatology. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 14, 823-838.
4. Leckebusch, G.C., Koffi, B., Ulbrich, U., Pinto, J., Spangehl, T., Zacharias, S.: Analysis of frequency and
intensity of winter storm events in Europe on synoptic and regional scales from a multi-model perspective.
Climate Research, 31, 59-74.
5. Ulbrich U, Pinto JG, Kupfer H, Leckebusch GC, Spangehl T, Reyers M, 2008: Changing northern hemisphere storm tracks in an ensemble of IPCC climate change simulations J. Climate, 21, 1669-1679.
6. Ulbrich, U., G.C. Leckebusch, J. Pinto, 2009: Extra-tropical cyclones in the present and future climate:
a review. Theo. Appl. Climatology, 96, 117-131. DOI 10.1007/s00704-008-0083-8.
Joaquim G. Pinto

Professor Joaquim G. Pinto


Ass. Professor, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK
Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Germany
Email: j.g.pinto@reading.ac.uk, jpinto@meteo.unikoeln.de

Education and Qualifications


06/1996: Licenciate University of Lisbon, Portugal
07/2002: Ph.D. (Dr. rer. nat.) University of Cologne, Germany
07/2011: Habilitation University of Cologne, Germany
Appointments
1996-1998: Scientific research assistant at ICAT, University of Lisbon, Portugal

27

1998-2002: PhD student at IGMK, University of Cologne, Germany


2002-2011: Scientific assistant at IGMK, University of Cologne, Germany
Since 2011: Privatdozent (lecturer) and Research Group Leader at IGMK, University of Cologne, Germany
Since 2013: Associate Professor in regional climate and synoptic meteorology at Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK
Research Prizes 2008: The Gordon Manley Weather Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society for 2007,
presented in 2008. Prize received together with other IGMK colleagues
Selected recent peer review papers
Born K, Ludwig P, Pinto JG (2012) Wind gust estimation for Mid-European winter storms: towards a probabilistic view. Tellus A 64:17471, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.17471.
Fink AH, Brucher

T, Ermert V, Kruger

A, Pinto JG (2009) The European storm Kyrill in January 2007: synoptic evolution and considerations with respect to climate change. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:405-423.
Held H, et al. (incl. Pinto JG) (2013) Projections of global warming-induced impacts on winter storm losses
in the German private household sector. Clim Change 121:195-207.
Ludwig P, Pinto JG, Reyers M, Gray SL (2013) The role of anomalous SST and surface fluxes over the
Southeastern North Atlantic in the explosive development of windstorm Xynthia. Quart J R Meteorol Soc
doi:10.1002/qj.2253.
Neu U, et al. (incl. Pinto JG) (2013) IMILAST - a community effort to intercompare extratropical cyclone
detection and tracking algorithms. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc 94:529-547.
Pinto JG, Karremann MK, Born K, Della-Marta PM, Klawa M (2012) Loss potentials associated with European windstorms under future climate conditions. Clim Res 54:1-20.
Pinto JG, Neuhaus CP, Leckebusch GC, Reyers M, Kerschgens M (2010) Estimation of wind storm impacts
over West Germany under future climate conditions using a statistical-dynamical downscaling approach
Tellus A 62:188-201.
Pinto JG, Raible CC (2012) Past and recent changes in the North Atlantic oscillation. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 3:79-90 doi:10.1002/wcc.150.
Pinto JG, Zacharias S, Fink AH, Leckebusch GC, Ulbrich U (2009) Factors contributing to the development
of extreme North Atlantic cyclones and their relationship with the NAO. Clim Dyn 32:711-737.
Ulbrich U, Leckebusch GC, Pinto JG (2009) Extra-tropical cyclones in the present and future climate: a
review. Theor Appl Climatol 96:117-131.
Woollings T, Gregory JM, Pinto JG, Reyers M, Brayshaw DJ (2012) Response of the North Atlantic
storm track to climate change shaped by ocean-atmosphere coupling. Nature Geoscience 5:313-317
doi:10.1038/ngeo1438.
Else Marie Friis

Professor Else Marie Friis


Professor of Palaeobotany and Head of Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm
Master of Science and Ph. D. (lic. scient.) in geology, University of Aarhus, Denmark
Email: ElseMarie.Friis@nrm.se

Employment (excluding graduate and post doc experience 1971-1987)


1987-present: Professor of Palaeobotany, Head of Department, Swedish Museum of Natural History
1995: Guest-professor, Inst. Syst. Botany, Univ. Zurich, Switzerland (summer term)
2006-2008: Deputy Director of Science, Swedish Museum of Natural History
2008: Acting Director of Science, Swedish Museum of Natural History
28

2013- : Head of Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Board member of several committees, evaluation panels and Research Foundations since 1989
Co-organiser of several international meetings and symposia
Member of editorial boards of several journals
Invited speaker (including plenary and key note) at many international meetings
Member of boards of several scientific associations
Membership of academies
1990: Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
1996: Royal Swedish Academy of Science
1998: The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
1998: Royal Physiographic Society, Lund, Sweden
2002: The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)
Other academic distinctions
1985: Hans Gram Medal, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
Linne Prize in Botany, Royal Physiographic Society, Sweden
1992: Nils Rosen
1999: Honorary Vice President for the XVI Intern. Bot. Congr., St. Louis, USA
1999: Honorary doctor (filosofie doktor honoris causa), University of Uppsala, Sweden.
2003: Honorary foreign member of the Linnean Society of London
2003: Excellent researcher 2003 award from the Swedish Research Council
2005: Rolf Dahlgren Prize in Botany, Royal Physiographic Society, Sweden
2007: Geologist of the year appointed by the Swedish Association of Scientists

2009: Corresponding Member, Pal aontologische


Gesellschaft, Germany
2012: Denmarks Geology Prize 2011 from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (with Kaj
Raunsgaard Pedersen)

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c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 30

The Challenges for the XXI Century: Water Resources,


Human Action, and Sustainable Development
J. Antunes do Carmo1
1

Coimbra University, Portugal

With reference to the World Water Vision of


the World Water Council (Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000), four key points can be identified and
should be considered in relation to integrated water resources management. The first relates to a
holistic approach, on the basis of which participatory decisions will be taken that will be technically
and scientifically well-informed. The second refers
to changes in attitudes towards development and
the application of technology, paying attention to
demands to reduce waste and to be more aware
of the environment and the social aspects of the
decision-making processes. The third states that
economic, social, environmental and political aspects must be taken into account in any institutional and technological innovations or changes relating to water management. The fourth point establishes that promoting change on the scale required for a new approach to water resources management requires an appropriately mobilised continual supply of financial resources, including private sector investments and community resources.
All this demands a concentrated effort to create public awareness about the water issue, and a
strengthening of the collective bodies for managing river basins and user organisations, together
with investment in development and the transfer
of knowledge and technology dedicated towards a
better use and conservation of environmental resources.
At present, it is understood that the integrated
management of water resources should involve a
set of actions that aim to provide multiple and rational use of water resources, serving all purposes
and all users satisfactorily in terms of quantity and
quality standards, as well as in terms of the control, conservation, protection and recuperation of
these resources, with an equal distribution of costs
amongst users and beneficiaries. In other words,

the need for multiple and rational use of water


should be based on the recognition that this is a
limited natural resource, and scarce in many regions of our planet.
We should avoid treating water solely in terms
of its uses, e.g. public supply, irrigation, industry
and environment, which are often in competition
with each other. It is necessary to promote the kind
of management that takes into account the close
relationship between the use, quality and quantity of water, the well-being of people, and without
causing harm to nature.
The question is: What is the best approach and
what are the most appropriate procedures for:

Preserving water resources available both in


quantity and with the required quality;

Establish a balanced distribution of water re-

sources among consumers in order to ensure its sustainability; and

Dealing with extreme events, which are becoming more frequent and devastating.

My talk will focus on these topics. An


overview of the principles and recent approaches will be given, as well as my views
on possible directions.
Keywords
Water Resources, Human Action, Sustainable Development
References
Cosgrove W.J. and Rijsberman F.R. (2000). World
Water Vision / Making Water Everybodys Business. World Water Council. ISBN: 1 85383 730
X.
Correspondence
Email: jsacarmo@dec.uc.pt
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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 31

Anthropedogenesis and Land Use Change: influences


on soil qualities and functions
Carmelo Dazzi1
1

University of Palermo, Italy

Over the course of history Man has always


depended on the biosphere for deriving vital resources such as food, fibre, timber and fresh water. However, over the centuries and with an exponentially rising population, Man has altered significantly the structure and function of the ecosystems
in nearly every part of the world. Problems concerning the quality of the global environment arose
during the industrial era and increased alongside
the development of technology and mans needs.
The second half of the XX century was particularly
disastrous. Throughout the world, agricultural, industrial and urban development invalidated the capacity of soils to produce goods and services. In
many cases mans pressure on the soils reached
such an intensity that the pedological Order, which
represents the rule for soils, was transformed in
total disorganization, in pedological Chaos and
even in the vanishing of the pedodiversity. In the
face of these changes, it is important to integrate
and extend current operational systems for monitoring and reporting on environmental and social
conditions. Over the last decades many people
have become increasingly aware of these envi-

ronmental changes, such that they are now commonly recognized as global change. Many research projects and several environmental assessments are currently addressing these concerns at
all relevant scales, frequently in multidisciplinary
collaborations. However, integrating this wealth of
information across disciplines remains a considerable challenge. In this paper, after considering the
different influence of man on soils, a case study is
used to illustrate what has happened in a period
of 53 years to the soil quality and functions under
a strong man influence on the soilscape, consequent to a land use change. It is also stressed
that the prediction of what reasonably can happen
in the future can allow for a better comprehension
of the phenomena linked to land use change and
for stimulating local stakeholders and land managers toward a safe and sustainable land use of
the soilscapes.
Keywords
Anthropedogenesis, Land Use Change, Soil Qualities and functions
Correspondence
Email: carmelo.dazzi@unipa.it

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 32

Probabilistic decadal prediction of extreme events


in Europe
U. Ulbrich1 , T. Kruschke1 , H.W. Rust1 , I. Kroner1 , G.C. Leckebusch1,2
1
2

Freie Universitat Berlin, Institute of Meteorology, Berlin, Germany


University of Birmingham, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, United Kingdom

the prediction system based on these initialization


strategies can provide skillful probabilistic threecategory (enhanced, normal or decreased) forecasts with different lead times. Skill is estimated
by comparing the decadal predictions with climatological forecasts (always predicting climatology)
and uninitialized simulations driven by increasing
GHG concentrations.
First analyses in this respect deal with frost
days (minimum temperature below 0 C) and the
occurrence of intense extra-tropical cyclones over
the Northern Hemisphere.
It is shown, that predictions of the frequency
of frost days show significant skill for lead times of
2 5 and 2 9 years over continental areas (North
America and Eurasia) as well as the North Atlantic
when compared to climatological forecasts. However, much of this skill is due to externally forced
long-term trends. The effort of initializing predictions from estimates of actual climate states only
yields some benefit over the continents, also varying over applied initialization strategies.
Skill estimates with respect to intense cyclones
frequencies years lead times of 2 5 and 2 9
years are promising. They exhibit significant skill
for most parts of the Northern Hemisphere when
compared to climatological forecasts, while the initialization effort yields significant additional value
for the storm track regions. A comparison of the
different initialization strategies indicates only minor systematic differences in this respect.

Planning of different socio-economic stakeholders demands for reliable climate predictions


as the common approaches estimating GHG signals until the end of the current century have a
timescale beyond their typical time horizons. Facing this demand, research is being conducted to
explore the potential of decadal predictions. The
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project in its fifth
phase (CMIP5) incorporated a framework for related experiments to systematically test current
coupled climate models, as well as methods for
initialization and ensemble generation, for their capabilities in this respect.
The studies published show both the potential
and the limitations of such predictions. They typically regard mean climate parameters over various
regions. Only few studies dealing with extremes
exist so far. Meteorological extremes are of special importance in terms of their impact, however.
Additionally, it is conceivable that variations in frequency of (modestly) extreme events might be
more predictable than the evolution of mean quantities (potentially more favorable signal-to-noise ratio).
This work investigates a prediction system
which is being developed within MiKlip the German initiative for decadal prediction to make climate predictions for up to 10 years. Five different
decadal hindcast sets for the period 1961 2010
were set up, all produced by the same model system (MPI-ESM-LR), but following different strategies for initialization (anomaly-initialization and
full-field-initialization from different reanalysis data
sets as well as initialization from an assimilation experiment). Each hindcast set consists of
several ensemble members (3 10) and is integrated for ten years. It is analyzed whether

Keywords
Probabilistic decadal prediction, Extreme events,
Europe
Correspondence
Email: ulbrich@met.fu-berlin.de

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 33

Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of


extra-tropical cyclones affecting Western Europe
3 , Giacomo Masato1 , Helen F. Dacre1 , Tim Woollings4 , Rodrigo Caballero 5

Joaquim G. Pinto1,2 , Inigo Gomara

1
2
3
4
5

Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK


Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Dpto. Geofsica y Meteorologa and Instituto de Geociencias (IGEO), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Department of Meteorology and Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

rope around 50 N provides optimal conditions for


cyclone clustering. Multiple Rossby wave breaking occurrences on both the poleward and equatorward flanks of the jet contribute to the maintenance of these large-scale conditions. The analysis of the daily weather charts reveals that upstream cyclone development (secondary cyclogenesis, where new cyclones are generated on the
trailing fronts of mature cyclones) is strongly related to cyclone clustering, with multiple cyclones
developing on a single jet streak. The characterization of these four months permits a deeper understanding of the physical reasons leading to the
occurrence of cyclone families over the North Atlantic, enabling a better estimation of the associated cumulative risk over Europe.

Several of the recent winters in Western Europe have been characterized by the occurrence
of multiple and successive extra-tropical cyclones
following a similar path. The occurrence of such
cyclone clusters leads to large socio-economic impacts due to damaging winds, storm surges and
floods. Recent studies have statistically characterized the occurrence of clustering of extratropical cyclones over the Eastern North Atlantic
and Western Europe, and hypothesized potential
physical mechanisms responsible for their formation. In this study, we analyze four months characterized by multiple cyclones over Western Europe (February 1990, January 1993, December
1999 and January 2007). The evolution of the
upper level polar jet stream, Rossby wave breaking, and upstream/downstream cyclone development are investigated to infer the role of the largescale flow and to determine if clustered cyclones
are related to each other. Results show that an intensified, quasi-stationary jet extended toward Eu-

Keywords
Rossby wave-breaking, Jet stream, European
Windstorms
Correspondence
Email: j.g.pinto@reading.ac.uk

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 34

Fresh water lakes and wetland vegetation during the


Cretaceous expansion of flowering plants
E.M. Friis1 , K.R. Pedersen2
1
2

Department of Palaeobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden


Department of Geology, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 A rhus C, Denmark

Flowering plants first enter the fossil record


in the Cretaceous period, about 130-140 million
years ago as the last major group of land plants.
The group expanded dramatically during the latter
part of the Early Cretaceous and had another major expansion phase during the mid- and Late Cretaceous. Discoveries of numerous fossil flowers
from the Cretaceous period have provided a tool
for better understanding the changes in the terrestrial ecosystem associated with flowering plant radiation. Preservation of the Cretaceous fossils is
excellent and details can be studied in great depth
using synchrotron based X-ray microtomography.
The presentation will show examples of how these
fossils can be used in systematic and ecological
reconstructions and will particularly discuss the
early establishment of the modern aquatic vegetation. The fossils indicate that flowering plants in-

vaded lakes and other terrestrial water bodies very


early in their evolutionary history. At the same time
heterosporangiate water ferns also became established and proliferated markedly during the Early
Cretaceous together with the flowering plants. Undoubtedly this turnover affected the production and
diversity of fresh water ecosystems. Our preliminary studies indicate that a major change in the
aquatic vegetation took place during the Early Cretaceous, but that there are surprisingly few records
of aquatic and wetland plants from the Late Cretaceous and the establishment of many modern taxa
only took place in the in the earliest Cainozoic.
Keywords
Cretaceous, Flowering plants, Palaeobotany
Correspondence
Email: ElseMarie.Friis@nrm.se

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Organized Sessions

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Organized Sessions Program


September 10th
14:45-15:45

Organized Session 1

Statistical approaches to drought risk and extreme precipitation assessment

Room Q102

Convenor: Elsa Moreira

Ana Paulo

Use of SPI and precipitation thresholds for drought assessment under long-term precipitation variability

Andreia Ribeiro

Seasonal drought predictability in western Iberia using


statistical-dynamical techniques

Diogo S. Martins

Trend Analysis of Drought Extremes in Iberian Peninsula


Using SPI

Dora Gomes

Statistical modelling of spatial extremes: An application to


extreme precipitation

September 11th
11:30-12:45

Organized Session 2
Room Q102

Aeronautical Meteorology
A. Corte-Real
Convenor: Joao

Luis Serrano

Aeronautical Meteorology: what is it and what its for

September 12th
14:15-15:15

Organized Session 3
Room Q102

Climate impacts on Environment and agro-forestry


systems
A. Santos
Convenor: Joao

A. Santos
Joao

Climate change challenges for European and Portuguese


viticulture

Samantha Hughes

The Water Framework Directive: developing a model to


predict the ecological status of surface waters

Paula Arnaldo

Climate Change and the Pine Processionary moth in the


Northeastern Portugal

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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I - Statistical approaches to drought risk and


extreme precipitation assessment

Convenor
Elsa Moreira1
1

CMA - Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes


Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Email: efnm@fct.unl.pt

In this session the drought risk and the also the extreme precipitation will be addressed in the several
presentations in order to investigate patters, trends and do prediction. The approaches use drought indices
and the techniques applied range from extreme value theory to principal component analysis, multiple
linear regression and also the combination of dynamical and statistical techniques.

Presentations Summaries

1. Use of SPI and precipitation thresholds for drought assessment under long-term precipitation variability
Ana Paulo, Elsa Moreira, Diogo Martins, Lus S. Pereira
Long time series of precipitation (99 up to 129 years) in 10 locations across Portugal are divided into
sub-periods and SPI is computed. The influence of time period in the precipitation thresholds of SPI
drought classes was investigated. Preliminary results indicate that there is not a similar behaviour
in all the locations, calendar months and distinct periods. However a pattern showing lower values
of the 12-month cumulated precipitation SPI relative to severe drought category in the more recent
period 1976 2007 was apparent.

2. Seasonal drought predictability in western Iberia using statistical-dynamical techniques


Andreia Ribeiro, Carlos A. Pires
In a climate change context atmospheric seasonal predictability is important to minimize drought 7
impacts and promote adaption measures. This study estimates statistical-dynamical predictions of
8 drought indices and precipitation over the western Iberia from the Global Precipitation Climatology 9 Centre (GPCC), based on seasonal forecasts from the UK Met Office operational forecasting
system 10 with lead times up to 6 months. Past ERA-Interim reanalysis data from the seasonal forecasting 11 initialization date is considered for statistical forecast hybridization techniques evaluation.
Statistical 12 downscaling is performed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple
Linear 13 Regression (MLR) techniques, and the added value of combining dynamical and statistical
techniques 14 in the prediction skill of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. The results
aim to improve 15 drought indices predictability, in particular in Portugal, and may contribute to the
predictability of 16 crops yields.
3. Trend Analysis of Drought Extremes in Iberian Peninsula Using SPI
Diogo S. Martins, Susana Barbosa, Paulo G. Matias, Ana A. Paulo, Carlos Pires, Lus S. Pereira
In this paper an extremes modelling analysis of the SPI time series with 12-month time scale computed from a regular grid of precipitation records for the Iberian Peninsula was done with the aim
of investigate trends in extreme droughts. GEV distributions were adjusted to time-series of SPI-12
minimum values and also minimum average of 3 consecutive months in each hydrological year for
the period of 1901 2013. Results indicate increase of extreme drought events in time for some
regions.
4. Statistical modelling of spatial extremes: An application to extreme precipitation
Dora Gomes, Manuela Neves
This paper reviews max-stable processes for statistical modelling of spatial extremes. Classical
geostatistics is a well-developed field for dealing with location referenced data, but it is largely based
on Gaussian processes and distributions, these are not appropriate for extremes, for which maxstable and related processes provide more suitable models.
An application is done modelling extreme precipitation data through the R package SpatialExtremes,
Ribatet et. al. 2013. Our data consist of monthly precipitation from 1941 2006 recorded at 70 sites
in Portugal. Precipitation series were compiled from the Portuguese Institute of Ocean and Atmo
sphere and the National System of Water Resources Information (Sistema Nacional de Informac ao
de Recursos Hidricos (SNIRH)), managed by the Portuguese Institute for Water database.
Ribatet, M., Singleton, R. and R Core Team (2003). Spatial Extremes: Modelling Spatial Extremes.
R package version 2.0-1.

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Use of SPI and precipitation thresholds for drought


assessment under long-term precipitation variability
A. Paulo1 , E. Moreira2 , D. Martins3 , L. Santos Pereira1
1
2
3

CEER, Biosystems Engineering Center, Institute of Agronomy, University of Lisbon, Portugal


Center of Mathematics and Applications, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal
Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciencias, University of Lisbon, Portugal

Drought indices are used to monitor and quantify drought severity. The standardized drought indices are usually derived from probability distributions of meteorological or hydrological variables of
interest and measure the deviation from normal
conditions. The Standardized Precipitation Index
is a widely used drought index and WMO (2012)
recommends its use as a universal drought index
since 2009. Other drought indices derived from
precipitation-evapotranspiration, the SPEI, or from
streamflow, the SSI, are also standardized with the
same computational algorithm as SPI.

precipitation thresholds relative to different drought


categories as attempted in some drought studies
in Portugal (Paulo and Pereira, 2008, Portela et
al., 2012).
In Portugal several studies show trends of decreasing precipitation in March (Lima et al., 2010;
Mourato et al., 2010; Paulo et al., 2012). Possible
drought aggravation in Portugal was investigated
applying generalized linear models and statistical
inference to long time series of SPI suggesting
the existence of long duration cycles (Moreira et
al., 2012). Under long-term variability if drought
is becoming more severe in recent years the precipitation is lower and normal conditions change
pushing down precipitation thresholds of severe
drought classes.

The SPI is based on the probability distribution


of the precipitation. Thus the index depends on the
record length, on the probabilistic model, e.g. the
probability distribution function and on the method
and reference period used in parameter estimation. The maximum likelihood estimation and the
gamma distribution are the SPI original formulations (McKee et. al, 1993) though l-moments and
Pearson III proposed by Guttmann (1999) have
been adopted by some authors in recent studies.

The present study aims at contributing for a


comprehensive analysis of the influence of longterm precipitation variability on drought assessment. The study is conducted in the same 10
locations of Moreira et al. (2012) with the same
precipitation records some of them extended from
year 2007 to 2012 when data was available. For
the SPI-12 computation the complete precipitation
time series was considered and also sub-periods
with a minimum record length of 30 years. The
goodness of fit of the gamma or Pearson III distribution to precipitation data and of the normal distribution to SPI-12 were tested. The structural stability of the SPI-12 time series was evaluated (Zeileis
et al., 2002) and descriptive statistics of the cumulative sum of precipitations computed. Along with
SPI-12 the precipitation thresholds corresponding
to SPI drought categories were estimated in each
period and sub-period by the inversion of the computational and statistical procedure This includes

The SPI is usually classified in drought categories, the more negative SPI values belong to a
more severe drought class. As SPI values reflect
probabilities the same SPI value computed in different locations or from distinct reference time periods expresses the same relative drought severity
within the location or within the time period. In fact
this same value corresponds to different amounts
of precipitation. The index provides a relative measure of drought severity but a more useful information for operational applications should be accompanied by an absolute measure of precipitation deficits along with the description of precipitation properties (Sienz et al., 2011) and of monthly
41

the use of the SPI upper limits of drought classes,


-1 for moderate, -1.5 for severe and -2 for extreme
drought in order to obtain the standard normal cumulative probability for those limits. Probabilities
are then transformed into precipitation amounts by
the inversion of the gamma or Pearson III distribution.
Precipitation thresholds obtained in each calendar month regarding the entire period and the
sub-periods are compared. Preliminary results indicate that there is not a similar behaviour in all
the locations, calendar months and distinct periods. However a pattern showing lower values
of the 12-month cumulated precipitation SPI relative to severe drought category in the more recent period 1976 2007 was apparent. Montalegre and Porto are exceptions as the estimated
precipitation thresholds of severe drought in this
period are above those of the antecedent period 1944 1976 in all months with the exception of March in Porto, meaning that the severe
drought identification would require higher precipitation amounts in the last period. In the location of Penhas Douradas with the higher altitude,
severe and extreme drought precipitation thresholds diminish from the initial until the more recent period. A severe drought in the last period (1976 2007) would be identified in December below a 12-month cumulated precipitation of

1037 mm while this identification would occur below 1152 mm in the period 1944 1975 and below 1241 mm in the period 1911 1943. On the

contrary in other locations as Evora


precipitation
thresholds for severe and extreme drought classes
increase in initial sub-periods and decrease only in
the more recent period. These results are dependent on the sub-periods partition and also of its
length.
Conventionally, the SPI is calculated with all
available records. Although the most extensive period of record is recommended (Gutmann 1999;
WMO 2012) changes in the statistical properties of
the precipitation distribution may occur as shown in
this study. The influence of long-term precipitation
variability on drought assessment is reflected on
the behaviour of drought class precipitation thresholds with respect to different reference periods.
SPI drought class precipitation thresholds are operational indicators to support water management
and its variation should be considered for drought
assessment in the presence of long-term precipitation variability.
Keywords
Precipitation variability, SPI precipitation thresholds, Drought assessment
Correspondence
Email: ana.paulo@esa.ipsantarem.pt

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Seasonal drought predictability in western Iberia using statistical-dynamical techniques


A. Ribeiro1 , C. Pires1
1

Instituto Dom Luiz, University of Lisbon, Portugal

Atmospheric seasonal prediction has been an


ongoing challenge, in particular for applications
related to risk management due to drought conditions. Drought is an important natural hazard
with high economic and ecological impacts, and
its predictive ability has been a major concern of
research, in particular in a climate change context. The present work aims to contribute to the
assessment and improvement of the predictability
of drought indices in the western Iberia on the seasonal scale, integrating seasonal forecasts with
lead times up to 6 months, based on the hybridization of dynamical-statistical downscaling methods.
Seasonal climate predictions have a large potential for drought warning and mitigation applications. Dynamical models are widely used for seasonal forecasts and climate dynamics understanding, and recently there has been much improvement of the numerical models skills. However,
dynamical model seasonal forecasts require computationally intensive resources and the forecast
skill on the seasonal scale remains marginal in the
extratropics (Cohen and Jones, 2011). To overcome these shortcomings, the combination of statistical methods and dynamical model outputs has
emerged has a commonly and useful approach for
seasonal forecasts (e.g. Peng et al. 2014).
The purpose of this work is to test statistical
forecast hybridization techniques by using dynamical seasonal forecast outputs as predictors on a
statistical downscaling approach, based on multiple linear regression models. In addition, past
reanalysis data from the forecasting initialization
date is combined with the seasonal forecast, gathering a hybrid set of predictors from both dynamical and statistical backgrounds. This contributes
to an improved understanding of the relevance of
combining dynamical and statistical techniques in
the prediction of extremes in seasonal forecasting,
in particular in what regards droughts.
Monthly precipitation data are extracted from

the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre


(GPCC) with a spatial resolution of 1 in latitude
and longitude, with a total of 21 grid cells covering the western Iberian territory. The standard
precipitation index (SPI) is computed based on
the monthly precipitation time series, over a time
period of three months, providing a measure of
anomalies in precipitation (McKee et al., 1993).
The forecasting skill of the drought index is
here assessed using ensemble mean forecasts of
proxies of atmospheric circulation patterns (predictors) from the European Centre for Medium-Range
Weather Forecast (ECMWF) data arquive at different lags (1 to 6 months). This study uses monthly
means of geopotential height at 500hPa and total
precipitation from the UKMO forecasting system,
which provides ensemble means (monthly means
averaged over all ensemble members) since 1987
with lead times from 0 to 6 months.
In order to integrate past information in
the statistical-dynamical prediction estimations of
precipitation, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis of
geopotential height at 500hPa and total precipitation from the seasonal forecasting initialization
date is considered.
Based on the monthly geopotential data at
500hPa over the North Atlantic-European (NAE)
region (25 -55 N, 80 W-40 E), atmospheric indices are computed from both reanalysis and forecasts data sets using Principal Component Analysis (PCA).
For each considered Iberian region, season
(DJF, MAM and SON), and lead time, multiple linear regression models are established during the
period 1987 2008, taking each SPI (3-months)
time series as predictands. The statistical models
based on reanalysis data considering lead times
overlapping 1 and 2 months of information (1 and 2
month lead forecast) show high skill scores during
winter in comparison with the models based on the
forecasts. The hybrid models results show a great
43

improvement of the forecasting skill by integrating


past reanalysis and dynamical model predictions.
The results add substantial information on the use
of seasonal predictions for regional drought predictability, in particular in Portugal, and may contribute to the predictability of crops yields.

dictability assessment and hybridization of seasonal drought forecasts in Western EuropePHDROUGHT.

Acknowledgments: This research is supported


by the PTDC/GEO-MET/3476/2012 project Pre-

Correspondence
Email: afsribeiro@fc.ul.pt

Keywords
Seasonal forecasts, Precipitation, Drought indices

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Trend Analysis of Drought Extremes in Iberian Peninsula Using SPI


D. Martins1 , S. Barbosa1 , P. Matias2 , A. Paulo2,3 , C. Pires1 , L.S. Pereira2
1
2
3

IDL, Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal


CEER, Biosystems Engineering Center, Institute of Agronomy, University of Lisbon, Portugal
ESAS, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, Portugal Portugal

Drought extremes in the Iberian Peninsula are


studied applying the Generalized Extreme Values
(GEV) Theory to Standardized Precipitation Index,
SPI-12 month, computed with gridded (1 1 )
reanalysis precipitation from GPCC covering the
period 1901 to 2013. Two different GEV models
are applied at all grid points to test the stationarity of the extremes, i.e, to identify possible trends
for aggravation or attenuation of extreme drought
events.
Droughts may occur in all climates, but their
characteristics and impacts vary significantly from
region to region. Drought indices, such as SPI,
are used to quantify and characterize droughts
and can be computed with different time-scales.
Precipitation records for the Iberian Peninsula (IB)
from the GPCC Precipitation Combined Full V6
and V4 Monitoring Data Product available with a
spatial resolution of 1 1 and covering the period 1901-2013 are used. This dataset has 88 grid
points over IB.
For the SPI computation, the 12 month timescale was used since it is the most commonly
used to monitor and characterize droughts. For
this study instead of considering the absolute minimum value of SPI-12 in the hydrological year, the
minimum average of 3 consecutive months in the
year is retained. These SPI minimum values are
extracted in each hydrological year creating new
SPI time-series with 112 observations to be used
in the extremes modelling analysis.
The generalized extreme values distribution is
applied to these new series of minimum SPI-12

values considering both stationary and time varying models, by fitting a linear equation to model
the location parameter through time. To select between models the likelihood ratio test was applied.
The adjustment of the GEV distributions
showed that for all cases the parameters (location,
scale, and shape) estimated with the method of
maximum likelihood are significant. The probability plots and quantile plots also indicate a good adjustment of the distribution to all time-series, when
the traditional GEV model was applied with stationary parameters. The GEV models with nostationary location parameters also show good adjustments for all the 88 grid points.
Considering a significance level of 95%, extremes of 25 out of 88 grid points are better adjusted with the model that accounts for variations in
the location parameter. From those 25 grid points
a group of 6 grid points show a clear upward trend
for the decrease of extreme droughts and refer
to Galiza, North of Portugal. The remaining 19
grid points indicate an increase of extreme drought
events in time forming 3 main groups of grid points:
one in the Northeast of Iberia, close to the Pyrenees with 3 grid points, another in the South of
Spain, in Andalusia, and a larger region with 8 grid
points in the border between central Portugal and
Spain.
Keywords
Extreme analysis, Droughts, SPI
Correspondence
Email: dsmartins@isa.utl.pt

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Statistical modelling of spatial extremes: An application to extreme precipitation


D.P. Gomes1 , M. Neves2 , E. Moreira1
1
2

CMA and FCT-UNL, Portugal


CEAUL and ISA-UL, Portugal

Statistics of extreme events for spatial settings


has shown a great development in recent years.
Quantify and characterize the behaviour of environmental phenomena such as precipitation levels, wind speed, or daily temperatures, with data
collected in specific locations, is a topic of enormous importance. A single extreme event may
affect several locations, and their spatial dependence has to be appropriately taken into account.
In light of recent concerns over climate change, the
use of robust mathematical and statistical methods
for such analyses has grown in importance.
Classical geostatistics, mostly based on multivariate normal distributions, is inappropriate for
modelling tail behaviour and statistical modelling.
Extending well-developed tools of univariate extremes to model spatial extreme data is an active
area of research. One of the challenging issues
in spatial extreme value modelling is the need for
using spatial extreme value techniques in high dimensions. Several statistical tools, among which
spatial max-stable processes, have been used in
the most recent decades for modelling spatial extreme data. A review of spatial extreme methods
based on latent variables, copulas and max-stable
processes can be seen in Davison et. al. (2012).
Max-stable processes arise naturally when
studying extremes of stochastic processes and
therefore play a major role in the statistical mod-

elling of spatial extremes. Different spectral characterization of max-stable processes exist such
those by de Haan (1984) and Schlather (2002).
In this paper we present the general form of the
finite dimensional distributions of max-stable process and lists several widely used parametric maxstable models based on Schlather (2002), Brown
and Resnick, (1977), Kabluchko et al., (2009) and
Davison et al., (2012). Some summary measures
of the spatial dependence as well inferential procedure are also given.
Our database consists of monthly precipitation
data collected from 1941 2006 in several locations in South of Portugal. Precipitation series
were compiled from the European climate assessment (ECA) dataset and the National System of
Water Resources Information (Sistema Nacional
de Recursos Hdricos (SNIRH),
de Informacao
managed by the Portuguese Institute for Water)
database. Another feature of this work is to explore
some functions existing in R environment, mainly
those included in Spatial Extremes, Ribatet (2013).
Keywords
Extreme spatial precipitation, Max-stable processes, R Software
Correspondence
Email: dsrp@fct.unl.pt

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II - Aeronautical Meteorology

Convenor
A. Corte-Real1
Joao
1

ICAAM - Evora
University, Evora,
Portugal

DAT-DREAMS, Lusofona
University of Humanities and Technologies, Lisbon, Portugal
Email: jmcr@uevora.pt

Presentations Summaries

1. Aeronautical Meteorology: what is it and what its for


Luis Serrano

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Aeronautical Meteorology: what is it and what its


for
L. Serrano1
1

DAT, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal

ago, thus forming a minimal weather network for


meteorological support to aviation, operational, effective and available every day, producing OBSERVATIONS + FORECASTS for aeronautical purposes, a circumstance absent for the last 30 years.
Fulfilling all the five objectives above, we conclude
that aeronautical meteorology is nothing more than
the weather geared specifically for aviation activities, having as fundamental guide lines Security, Comfort (passengers and cargo) and Economy (global, and aeronautical). As will be seen,
the absence of aeronautical meteorological protection, can lead to the failure of safety for passengers, cargo and, eventually for the aircraft. Meteorological support to aviation is only possible due to
an efficient organization at global and national levels, involving the efforts of at least two world wide
Entities - WMO and ICAO, as well as the national
Meteorological Services, Civil Aviation Authorities
and Airports, and many, many skilled people who
work with dedication, every day, in aeronautical
meteorology - Meteorologists and Meteorological
Technicians.

The Aeronautical Meteorology in the vectors:


1. Air Safety;
2. Comfort;
3. Economics;
4. Organization;
5. Example on the ground.
The three key objectives of this Workshop, presented under the ECOHCC14 International Conference, of which the Department of Transports

and Aeronautics of the University Lus ofona


of Humanities and Technologies is one of the organizing
institutions, are: analyse the importance of Aeronautical Meteorology in Aviation Safety, Comfort,
and Economy. A lateral objective is the Organization of Aeronautical meteorology from world, national and local perspectives. Finally, an Example
on the ground in Angola, is offered; this is, the
reporting of the operational start (with the participation of a local host) of routine daily aerodrome
forecasts, namely TAFs, for aerodromes of Luena,
Huambo, Cabinda, Benguela, Lubango and Ondjiva (and the settlement of Luanda TAFs also at
this time); also, the adjustment of Observations
for aeronautical purposes: METARs, running in 6
aerodromes in the interior of Angola, since a year

Keywords
Aeronautical meteorology, Forecasts, Observations
Correspondence
Email:

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III - Climate impacts on Environment and


agro-forestry systems

Convenor
A. Santos1
Joao
1

Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB
Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD
Vila Real, Portugal
Email: jsantos@utad.pt

Climate is widely recognised as a major factor controlling environmental and agro-forestry systems,
which, in the broader definition of climate, are indeed part of the whole climate system. This holistic
and multidisciplinary viewpoint is already in use in many research activities worldwide, including in the last
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report (AR5). In effect, only by integrating the different
components of the climate system, such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, soils and ice, is possible to go
a step forward in our current understanding of these systems. The present session does not obviously
aim to give an exhaustive overview of all fields of research, where climate plays a central role, but rather
present some illustrations of them, namely hydro-ecological modelling, climate change impacts on the Pine
Processionary moth in Northeastern Portugal and on the Portuguese viticultural sector. In these studies,
the role of climate is clear and the likely impacts of future climate change are referred, also seeking for
adequate measures to mitigate its detrimental impacts.
Presentations Summaries
1. Climate change challenges for European and Portuguese viticulture
J.A. Santos
2. The Water Framework Directive: developing a model to predict the ecological status of surface waters

A. Cabral
Samantha Jane Hughes, Rui Cortes, M ario
Santos, Rita Bastos, Joao
3. Climate Change and the Pine Processionary moth in Northeastern Portugal
A. Santos, Solange Leite
Paula S. Arlando, Irene Oliveira, Jo ao

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Climate change challenges for European and Portuguese viticulture


J.A. Santos1
1

Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Tras-osMontes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real, Portugal, jsantos@utad.pt

The wine industry has high historical, cultural


and socioeconomic relevance over most of central
and southern Europe. In the specific case of Portugal, in 2013, this sector represented over than 2%
of the total national exports, with an annual revenue over 700 Me. These figures clearly illustrate
the key role played by the winemaking sector in the
national trade budget and in the Portuguese economy as a whole. Nevertheless, the wine industry
faces several challenges, such as very tough international competition and marketing, brand certification and international trade laws, stock management, increasing consumer rights and demands
and environmental sustainability issues. Furthermore, owing to the well-known strong impact of climate on grapevine physiological development, and
thereby on wine production and quality, the ongoing climate change is amongst the major threats
to this sector. Climate change may significantly
modify the suitability of a given region for growing specific grapevine varieties, or even for viticulture when some specific thresholds are surpassed (e.g. excessive heat or water stresses).
Climate projections at regional to local scales enable a timely planning of appropriate adaptation
and/or mitigation measures to climate change impacts. Using bioclimatic indices for viticultural zoning, such as the classic Huglin, dryness, cool night
and hydrothermal indices, as well as innovative
composite and categorical indices, the suitability

of a given region to viticulture or to grow specific


grapevine varieties is discussed under present and
future climates. Climate models combined with
dynamical and statistical downscaling methodologies allow high (< 20 km grid spacing in Europe) to very high spatial resolution viticultural zoning (< 1 km grid spacing illustrated for Portugal).
The projected changes can put at risk the sustainability and future competitiveness of the sector in
some parts of Europe and Portugal (e.g. excessive dryness in southern Europe/Portugal). However, in the short-term, the implementation of advanced and efficient irrigation systems, the application of leaf sunscreens, well-balanced phytosanitary practices, land use changes or, in the longterm, changes in training systems, vineyard microclimates (solar orientation, elevation), varietal section and genetic breeding of more robust varieties,
are just some examples of measures that can be
carried out to face climate change. From an optimistic viewpoint, climate change can indeed be an
opportunity for the development of the winemaking
sector, e.g. through increases in the production
chain efficiency, or by replacing old practices with
more sustainable and eco-innovative practices.
Keywords
Viticulture, Climate change, Portugal
Correspondence
Email: jsantos@utad.pt

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The Water Framework Directive: developing a model


to predict the ecological status of surface waters
S. J. Hughes1,2 , R. Cortes1,2 , M. Santos1,3 , R. Bastos1,3 , J. A. Cabral1,3
1

e de Tecnologias Agroambientais e Biologicas, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro,


CITAB - Centro de Investigacao
Apartado 1013, Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2

LEF - Laboratorio
de Ecologia Fluvial University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, Quinta de Prados, 5001-801
Vila Real, Portugal

Laboratorio
de Ecologia Aplicada, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila
Real, Portugal

The Water Framework Directive requires all waterbodies meet good status by the end of the 1st
management cycle in 2015. Different monitoring
networks, defined for different purposes (surveillance, operational and investigative) in Annex V of
the WFD are used to report overall status based
on Ecological Status (Biological Quality Elements
- BQE, physicochemical and hydromorphological
support elements) and Chemical Status (Priority
and Dangerous Substances). River Basin Managers need to know the status of all waterbodies
within River Basin Districts including those not included in monitoring networks in order to take appropriate action via Programmes of Measures for
those that will not meet good status. This is
a difficult task when there are no long term data
series, scant data or limited financial resources,
such as the case of Portugal. These obstacles
can be overcome by using existing data from monitored waterbodies to build models and extrapolate
to non-monitored waterbodies. We present a simple preliminary model using land use data, existing
monitoring data of WFD intercalibrated BQE and
support elements from just under 100 sites covering three River Basin Districts (RBD) in northern Portugal. We built a simple static model taking into account hierarchically organized drivers of

change, to extrapolate ecological status to nonmonitored lotic waterbodies. Non-redundant data


sets of land use data were derived for all waterbodies from CORINE satellite imagery data and
geological maps using Patch Analyse for ArcGIS.
Using Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference
and the Akaike Information Criterion on monitoring data, best Ordinary Least Square (OLS) models of explanatory geological and land use variables were derived for physicochemical support
and intercalibrated metric response variables. At
a lower spatial level, physicochemical parameter estimates averaged across all calculated OLS
models were derived for intercalibrated metric response variables. Constants and coefficients derived from the two types of models on land use
and geological data to calculate physiochemical
parameters and metrics and a final weighted value
was calculated. The ultimate goal is to couple
monitoring assessment and the described modelling techniques for WFD management and decision making processes under different climate
change and land use scenarios.
Keywords
Water framework directive, Models, Waterbodies
Correspondence
Email: shughes@utad.pt

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Climate Change and the Pine Processionary moth in


Northeastern Portugal
P. S. Arnaldo1,2 , I. Oliveira 2,3 ,J. A. Santos2,4 , S. Leite2,4
1

Tras-os-Montes
and Alto Douro University, Forest and Landscape Architecture Department, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Center of the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro
University, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
3

Tras-os-Montes
and Alto Douro University, Mathematics Department, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
4

Tras-os-Montes
and Alto Douro University, Physics Department, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2

to maximum temperature above 30 C, mean temperature above 23 C, minimum temperature above


17 C, relative humidity lower than 60% and precipitation values lower than 10 mm. Using the same
thresholds for future climatic conditions simulated
by the COSMO-CLM model, the period for the pine
processionary moth emergence will be expanded,
starting much sooner. Contrasting with the actual
emergence period, the insect is projected to have
favorable climatic conditions to start emerging in
May. This might have serious implications in the
forest ecosystems, concerning not only ecological
issues, but also forest management.

The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea


pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) (Lep., Thaumetopoeidae) is one of the most destructive insects in Pinus
and Cedrus in many countries. In the last three
decades, climate change have led to a substantial expansion of its range and high attack rates
in areas previously unaffected by the insect were
observed. A 3year analysis of the effect of several climatic elements on the T. pityocampa adult
emergence was made and one climatic change
scenario was tested in order to predict the insect behaviour in the future. Results showed that
the mean air temperature was the climatic element with the best single regression fit to adult
emergence, whereas the minimum air temperature
and the relative humidity provided the best multiple regression fits. Results also demonstrated
that higher emergence of adults are often related

Keywords
Pine processionary, Climate change, Northeastern
Portugal
Correspondence
Email: parnaldo@utad.pt

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Parallel Sessions

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PS01 1 Water Resources and Managment

September 10th
Room Q203

Author

09:15 - 09:30

Nanoparticles based Permeable Reactive Barriers as an


Eco-efficient Technology for nitrate remediation in soil and
groundwater

Rui Araujo

09:30 - 09:45

Diversification of resources to meet the increasing water


demand in an arid region: Case study from Abu Dhabi
Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Ahmed Murad

09:45 - 10:00

Effects of rewetting an alder carr in NE Germany with


treated sewage for more than 10 years

Florian Jenn

10:00 - 10:15

Impact analysis of riverscapes fragmentation on the conservation of bryophyte communities: a conservation planning approach

Ana Paula Portela

10:15 - 10:30

Developing Leaf - water - air Temperature Model for High


Temperature Stress Analysis of Rice Paddy Field

Yanyan Wang

10:30 - 10:45

Debate

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Nanoparticles based Permeable Reactive Barriers as


an Eco-efficient Technology for nitrate remediation
in soil and groundwater
R. Araujo1 , A. M. Castro2 , A. Fiuza
1
1
2

Universidade do Porto, Portugal


Instituto Politecnico do Porto, Portugal

The need to increase agricultural yield led,


among others, to an increase in the consumption of nitrogen based fertilizers. As a consequence, there are excessive concentrations of nitrates, the most abundant of the reactive nitrogen (Nr) species, in several areas of the world.
The demographic changes and projected population growth for the next decades, and the economic shifts which are already shaping the near
future are powerful drivers for a further intensification in the use of fertilizers, with a predicted increase of the nitrogen loads in soils. Nitrate easily diffuses in the subsurface environments, portraying high mobility in soils. Moreover, the presence of high nitrate loads in water has the potential
to cause an array of health dysfunctions, such as
methemoglobinemia and several cancers. Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) placed strategically
relatively to the nitrate source constitute an effective technology to tackle nitrate pollution. Ergo,
PRB avoid various adverse impacts resulting from
the displacement of reactive nitrogen downstream
along water bodies. A four stages literature review
was carried out in 34 databases. Initially, a set of
pertinent key words were identified to perform the
initial databases searches. Then, the synonyms
of those initial key words were used to carry out a
second set of databases searches. The third stage
comprised the identification of other additional relevant terms from the research papers identified
in the previous two stages. Again, databases
searches were performed with this third set of key
words. The final step consisted of the identification
of relevant papers from the bibliography of the relevant papers identified in the previous three stages
of the literature review process. The set of papers
identified as relevant for in-depth analysis were assessed considering a set of relevant characteriza-

tion variables.
A PRB consists of a permanent or replaceable
reactive media placed in the subsurface which is
often installed by trenching, across the flow path of
the contaminant plume, which must move through
it as it flows, usually under its natural gradient, and
therefore creating an in situ passive treatment system. Such system is primarily tailored for shallow
groundwater, where contaminants are immobilized
or transformed to nontoxic products by means of
physical-chemical or biological processes. The installation of PRB containing organic carbon in its
composition, e.g. from wood dust, wood chips, or
other, has been proven successful for the dinitrification of groundwater. This technology relies on
the biologic activity of denitrifying bacteria to reduce nitrate into inert nitrogen gas. Nevertheless,
the use of nanoparticles in PRB is relatively novel
and emergent for soil and groundwater remediation. Among the most widely studied nanoparticles
for soil and groundwater remediation is zero-valent
iron (ZVI). The extensive use of nanoparticulate
ZVI in environmental engineering applications derives not only from its versatility and economic reasonableness, high reactivity, large specific area,
effectiveness of delivery to contaminated areas,
thus their effectiveness in rapidly reducing a diverse array of priority source zone contaminants,
but also by its allegedly non-toxicity. However,
to be effective, nanoscale ZVI has to adequately
be stabilized, otherwise due to ferromagnetism the
nanoparticles will rapidly aggregate in media, giving rise to micro or milimetric aggregates, which reduce the environmental remediation effectiveness
of the nanoparticles.
The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI),
nanoscale Fe3O4, nano zero-valent iron as
bimetallic Fe/Cu, zero valent iron nanoparticles

produced via the reduction of FeSO4 by NaBH4,


Poly[ (1 4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-ghicopyranose]
based zero valent nickel nanocomposite, NZVI
supported by polystyrene resins in the chemical
reduction of nitrate leads to varying amounts of
nitrite, ammonia, ammonium and occasionally to
nitrogen gas. Liu (2013) demonstrated the effectiveness of obtaining nitrogen gas from nitrate by
a two stage PRB comprised of ZVI and activated
carbon as an immobilizing media for a denitrifying
microbial consortium. A major advantage of PRB
resides in its cost-effectiveness to control significant contaminated plumes in shallow groundwater. The method might involve a substantive initial capital investment, which increases with the
depth of the PRB. Once installed, the PRB often
requires negligible maintenance or further operational costs, a distinctive feature when compared
with alternative groundwater treatment methods
such as, e.g. pump and treat. Long (2011) refers
several examples of PRB for dinitrification that
sustain high levels of nitrate removal for extended
lengths of time.

58

This work highlights that nitrate pollution is a


relevant contemporary environmental and health
issue with foreseeable exacerbation in the long
term, and to which the application of remediation
approaches is required. Therefore, PRB is a relevant possible approach to address both point and
non-point sources of nitrate pollution in soil and
groundwater. The use of PRB for dinitrification applications involves cheap organic carbon sources
to consummate the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen
gas. The use of ZVI nanoparticles can be very relevant in stimulating the biologic activity but also in
inducing the media characteristics that make the
biotic denitrification activity viable. Moreover, PRB
present a set of advantages that makes this technology an eco-efficient one, since denitrification
can be effectively accomplished by such a structure throughout extended periods of time, with minimal maintenance costs.
Keywords
Permeable reactive barriers, Nitrate, Eco-efficient
Correspondence
Email: demsso9000758@fe.up.pt

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Diversification of resources to meet the increasing


water demand in an arid region: Case study from
Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
A. Murad1
1

United Arab Emirates University (UAE), United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi Emirate is situated in one of the


most stressed area in water resources in the world.
Water resources in Abu Dhabi Emirate, which is
located to the west and southeast of the United
Arab Emirates (UAE), is very scarce as the area is
mainly characterized by low amount of rainfall and
high rate of evaporation and temperature. Rainfall in Abu Dhabi Emirate is scanty and it averages
from 23.2 mm in 2010 to 21.5 mm in 2011, which
is beyond the average rainfall of the whole UAE.
There are conventional and non-conventional water resources in Abu Dhabi Emirate and those resources are groundwater, desalinated water and
treated wastewater. Previously, groundwater was
the principal source of water for human uses, however, with the time, desalinated water became the
main source of life in the Emirate. Groundwater
resources in the Emirate are limited source as it
depends mainly on the rainfall recharge. The average groundwater withdrawal in Abu Dhabi Emirate
in 2011 is 2,217.9 MCM comparing with 2,862.1
MCM in 2005. It is observed the average annual withdrawal of groundwater is reducing with
the time, where it reduced by 22.5% during the period of 2005-2011. Also, it is noted that regulation
enforcement accompanied with long-term vision to
sustain the water resources in the Emirate lead to
such reduction. As a consequence of groundwater deterioration and withdrawal, groundwater reserves in the Emirate reduced by 1.7% during the
period of 2005-2011, and it reduced from 646,750
MCM in 2005 to 635,620 MCM. Available data
showed that about 79% of groundwater reserves
are saline and only 3% of available groundwater
is fresh. To meet the deficit in groundwater resources, production of desalinated water in the
Emirate in 2011 increased by 3.8% and reached
999.2 million cubic meter (MCM) compared with
962.3 MC in 2010. The total consumption of desalinated water in 2011 was 961.5 MCM compar-

ing with 873 MCM in 2010. It is clearly shown that


both consumption and production are increasing
with time and this might be ascribed to economic
development and population growth. Political stability of the UAE also lead to increase the migration
which increased the consumption of water.
Treated wastewater is another source of nonconventional water resources and is increasing to
meet the demand. The total production of treated
wastewater increased from 148.3 MCM in 2005 to
243.1 MCM in 2011. However, the total quantity
of treated wastewater reuse increased from 103
MCM in 2005 to 133.5 MCM in 2011. Statistics
data showed that treated wastewater is emerging source for water resources in Abu Dhabi Emirate. Generally, non-conventional water resources
in the Emirate including both desalinated water
and treated wastewater increased from 770 MCM
in 2005 to 1095 MCM in 2011 with an increase of
9.6% compared with 2010. The main utilization
for water resources in Abu Dhabi Emirate is agriculture sector, where the total consumption of water for this sector decreased from 2,736.2 MCM in
2008 to 2,382.1 MCM in 2011. Provided data indicates that the groundwater consumption for irrigation was decreased from 2,585.9 MCM in 2008
to 2,217.9 MCM in 2011. However, the reuse
of treated wastewater for irrigation increased from
124.1 MCM in 2008 to 133.5 MCM in 2011. Generally, it is observed that the total consumption of different resources of water decreased during the period of 2008-2011, where the total cultivated area
increased slightly changed from 235,169.1 hectare
in 2008 to 235,235 hectare in 2011.
The Government of Abu Dhabi Emirate made
significant efforts to secure the water resources
through different approaches such as intensive
awareness campaigns, regulation enforcement
and sources diversification. Such measurements
help the decision makers in the Emirate to secure
59

the water resources for future generations. In order for better management, it is essential to assess
the water resources in the Emirate in regular basis.

Abu Dhabi Emirate, Groundwater, Desalinated water


Correspondence
Email: ahmed.murad@uaeu.ac.ae

Keywords

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Effects of rewetting an alder carr in NE Germany


with treated sewage for more than 10 years
F. Jenn1 , F. Koinzer1, H-J. Voigt1
1

Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Germany

A small previously drained alder carr south


of Berlin, Germany, that has been rewetted with
treated sewage since 2000, was investigated in
the recent years to determine effects on soil, surface water and groundwater. First pedological and
geochemical results indicated that peat degradation did not stop completely after rewetting, but
that conditions had improved. This could also be
confirmed by vegetation mapping, which showed
an increase of typical, moisture-loving species of
eutrophic fens. However, further release especially of nutrients was expected because of highly
variable water levels. Presently, the interactions
of soil, rewetting water, groundwater, and surface
water are investigated. The monitoring wells and
staff gauges that had been built at the beginning

of rewetting (Moller
and Kade, 2004) were mostly
still functional, but had not been operated for since
2001. Therefore, no continuous time series are
available, but initial and current state can be compared. Changes have mainly been observed in
shallow groundwater:
Major-ion composition changed within less
than a year of rewetting from a dominance of
Ca2+ , SO42 , and HCO3 to a higher percentage of N a+ and K + , which corresponds to the
treated sewage water, and a reduced share of
sulphate. Currently, the influence of N a + and
K + has only increased a little, but HCO 3 dominates anion composition quite strongly which confirms the decomposition of organic matter from degraded peat and sewage. Although there is no
continuous aquitard, deeper groundwater in general does not show influence by sewage water.
Only in direct proximity to the sewage canal slight
changes have been observed.

Nitrogen concentrations in groundwater in the


central part of the forest have decreased since
rewetting started (e.g. TN from 2.0 to
1.2mg/l). The periphery, which has received little water, is rather dry and peat degradation prevails; nitrogen concentrations are still high. Close
to the canal, no noticeable changes in groundwater nitrogen have been observed, but concentrations are surprisingly low (around 0.5mg/l). The
rewetting water has average TN in the range of 6
to 8mg/l. The drainage ditches on the opposite
end of the forest have considerably lower values.
In total, rewetting did not worsen the nitrogen situation, and in some case even improved it.
However, rewetting lead to a release of phosphorus by reduction of the Fe(III) compounds,
where P is adsorbed. This happens especially in
winter, when water levels are highest and anaerobic conditions prevail. In the strongly rewetted
central part, orthophoshpate concentrations up to
0.12mg/l have been measured in the groundwater, and up to 0.08mg/l at the periphery. Release
of phosphorus has been aggravated by strong water level changes in the past due to little management. Procedures for a more suitable regulation of
rewetting water have been developed.
Keywords
Groundwater, Fen, Rewetting
References

Moller
K., Kade N. (2004) Behandeltes Abwasser
als Ressource. Schriftenreihe Kompetenzzentrum
Wasser Berlin, Band 3.
Correspondence
Email: jennf@tu-cottbus.de
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Impact analysis of riverscapes fragmentation on the


conservation of bryophyte communities: a conservation planning approach
A. P. Portela1 , C. Vieira2 , H. Hespanhol2, B. Marcos2 , J. Honrado2
1
2

Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Portugal


em Biodiversidade e Biologia Evolutiva, Laboratorio Associado, InBIO, Portugal
CIBIOUP & Rede de Investigacao

The objective was to assess the fragmentation


on bryophyte communities of the northern Portugal riverscapes caused by energy and communication elements elements such as dams, small hydropower schemes, wind farms, roads and railways, summarizing impact zones and analysing
their implications on the conservation of these
communities known to be surrogates of fluvial
habitat integrity and quality.
We used databases on fluvial bryophytic communities (2000 2013), from 257 locations in
the North of Portugal. Floristic composition was
classified using Wards hierarchical classification
and species dominance characterized. Community types were spatialized for the study area using
BIOMOD2 species distribution modelling package
according to flow accumulation, summer precipitation, annual average temperature, local slope,
altitude and solar radiation. Impact areas of
each fragmentation elements were spatialized using ArcMap 10.1 (ESRI) and spatial coincidence
between fragmentation elements and their influence buffers and community types distribution accounted. The impact of fragmentation elements
and human pressure was analysed using Zonation
4.0.0 spatial conservation planning software and
geographical information related to landcover and
nature conservation areas.
We obtained 4 types of bryophytic communities

characterized by different core species. The communities distribution was the expected according
to core species chorological patterns. The impacts
are mainly due to main roads, yet wind farms and
dams are the second cause of impact for mountainous and Mediterranean assemblages, respectively. The conservation planning approach carried out with Zonation spatially highlights human
impact - as we include increasing influence of the
human presence (through agriculture and urban
mosaics interference and fragmentation elements
buffers), the top fraction of the landscape (areas
with higher biological value) becomes smaller and
more fragmented.
These results allowed us to analyse the impact of energy and communication elements, identify cumulative impact areas and conservation areas intended for bryophytic communities that are
spatially restricted in the context of Portuguese,
Iberian and European biodiversity.
Acknowledgements: FEDER funds through COM
PETE and FCT under the project Monitorizac ao
Ambientais - Moda Biodiversidade em Avaliac oes
BiA (PTDC/AAC-AMB/114522/2009).
Keywords
Biodiversity, Riverscapes, Fragmentation
Correspondence
Email: ana.senra.portela@gmail.com

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Developing Leaf - water - air Temperature Model for


High Temperature Stress Analysis of Rice Paddy Field
Y. Wang1 , H. Oue2 , Y. Sato2
1
2

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Ehime University, Japan


Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Japan

field in Ehime University, Japan.


Four plots (2 2m) are set in the paddy field,
and the water depths are 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm
and 15 cm, respectively. Water temperature and
canopy temperature are measured every one hour
by infrared thermometer THI-500 (Tasco, Japan).
For each plot, we choose three plants to measure
canopy temperature every 10 cm, and take average of the sunny side and shade side temperature.
Based on the observed data, a new leaf - water - air temperature model is developed, and it can
provide reference for high temperature stress analysis of rice.

High temperature stress is one of the major


agro-meteorological disasters during the growth of
rice.
If rice is affected by sustained high temperatures above 35 C , leaf temperature will rise, and
reduce the leaf assimilative capacity, then accelerate plant respiration, and affect rice pollen development and stigma vitality. Therefore, it will lead
to spikelet sterility, or grain filling period shortening, and finally reduce the seed setting rate and
yield.
In order to relieve high temperature stress,
many researchers have explored the strategies in
sowing adjustment, high temperature resistant variety breeding, chemical regulation, etc., but the
influence of water depth was not emphasized. In
this paper, we explore paddy rice leaf temperature
factors by controlling the water level in the paddy

Keywords
High temperature stress, Canopy temperature,
Water depth
Correspondence
Email: wangyanyanehime@hotmail.com

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PS06 1 Earth System Science, climate change and


extreme events

September 10th
Room Q102

Author

09:15 - 09:30

Ranking of extreme precipitation events with different time


scales affecting the Iberian Peninsula

Alexandre M. Ramos

09:30 - 09:45

Performance of different cumulus parameterization


schemes on WRF simulation of extra-tropical cyclones
over North Atlantic Ocean

P.K. Pradhan

09:45 - 10:00

Future rainfall and drought in the Douro, Tagus and Guadiana

Selma Guerreiro

10:00 - 10:15

Bryophyte communities in hydrographic regions of Europe: distribution overview and conservation in global
change scenarios

C. Vieira

10:15 - 10:30

Regionalization of Europe based on a K-Mean Clustering


Analysis of the climate change of Temperatures and Precipitation

Carvalho
Maria Joao

10:30 - 10:45

Assessment of climate indices in the Iberian Peninsula in


XX Century

Cristina Andrade

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Ranking of extreme precipitation events with different time scales affecting the Iberian Peninsula
A. M. Ramos1 , R. M. Trigo1 , M. Liberato1,2
1
2

Instituto Dom Luiz (IDL), Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal


Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Portugal

Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian


Peninsula during winter months have major socioeconomic impacts such as flooding, landslides,
and extensive property damage and life losses.
Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and with relatively few stations.
An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events was developed based on the extensive
use of the most comprehensive database of daily
precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula
(IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2 (approximately 1622 km at latitude
40 N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is
based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, Spain02 for Spain, and
PT02 for mainland Portugal.
The daily precipitation data from 1950 to 2008
are compared with the precipitation climatology to
achieve a daily normalized departure from the climatology. The magnitude of an event is given daily
through an index that is obtained after multiplying
1) the area (in percentage) that has precipitation
anomalies above two standard deviations by 2) the
mean values of these anomalies over this area.
With this criterion we are able to evaluate not only
the spatial extent of the precipitation events but
also their spatially integrated intensity (Ramos et
al., 2014).
New results will be shown in order to stress
out the hydrological responses to different length

precipitation extremes. This is provided with the


presentation and discussion of rankings that take
into account the sum of the normalized anomalies
over different time periods (3 days, 5 days and
10 days). Finally, it should be noted that these
different precipitation rankings will be presented
considering not only the entire Iberian Peninsula
but also smaller domains corresponding to major river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Minho,
Douro, Tejo, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro).
Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT
para a Ciencia

(Fundacao
e a Tecnologia, Portugal) through project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).
Keywords
Iberian Peninsula, Extreme precipitation, Ranking
events
References
Ramos et al.
(2014) A ranking of highresolution daily precipitation extreme events for
the Iberian Peninsula. Atmosph. Sci. Lett., doi:
10.1002/asl2.507.
Correspondence
Email: amramos@fc.ul.pt

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Performance of different cumulus parameterization


schemes on WRF simulation of extra-tropical cyclones
over North Atlantic Ocean
P. K. Pradhan1 , Juan A. Ferreira1 , Margarida L. R. Liberato 1,2
1
2

Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real, Portugal


Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

In this study the role of the cumulus parameterization schemes in the simulation of extra-tropical
cyclones (ETCs) over the North Atlantic Ocean is
examined. The high-resolution mesoscale model
ARW-WRF is used with two interactive nested domains, at 25 km and 8.33 km resolutions, for
the simulation of intense ETCs, such as Xynthia,
Gong and Stephanie, occurring during recent winters (2010 2014). The initial fields and timevarying boundary variables and sea surface temperature were taken from the National Centers
for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis (FNL) available at 10 10 resolutions. For
each ETC, nine experiments are performed using three different cumulus schemes such as New
Kain Fritsch (NKF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and
Grell-3d (Gr3D) with a fixed UW CAM planetary
boundary layer (PBL) scheme and WSM6 as microphysics. The major objective of these experiments is to identify the best convection scheme
that could forecast the precipitation, track, and
landfall over the Iberian Peninsula well in advance.

Simulated results of MSLP, wind, cloud and precipitation show that the NKF and Gr3D cumulus parameterization schemes produced the best simulations in terms of intensity, storm-tracks, and high
level cloud structures. In addition simulated precipitation distribution with NKF cumulus scheme
shows better representation than Gr3D and BMJ
and closely agreeing with TRMM and station observations.
Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT
para a Ciencia

(Fundacao
e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).
Keywords
Extra-tropical cyclone, Cumulus parameterization
scheme, Mesoscale model
Correspondence
Email: prabodha@utad.pt

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Future rainfall and drought in the Douro, Tagus and


Guadiana
S. Guerreiro1 , C. Kilsby1 , H. Fowler1
1

Newcastle University, United Kingdom

Future rainfall and drought for the transboundary basins of the rivers Douro, Tagus and Guadiana were studied using the latest generation of climate models. Fifteen climate models were chosen
to cover the whole range of mean future changes
in rainfall and temperature (available from CMIP5
model runs for RCP8.5). By choosing enough
models to cover the space of uncertainty we hope
to provide useful and transparent plausible future
scenarios that can be used by others to test an array of adaptation alternatives.
Due to the climate models spatial scale and
intrinsic biases, downscaling and bias-correction
must be performed and in this study two methods
were used: change factor and empirical quantile
mapping.
To analyse future rainfall, a 30 year time-slice
approach (changes between 1961 1990 and
2041 2070) was compared with a transient approach (linear trends between 1961 2100). For
the time-slice approach, there was considerable
spread within model projections despite the two
downscaling methods producing similar results.
The majority of models projected a reduction in annual rainfall in the three basins for the 2050s with
the ranges of projected changes being between 33% and +7% in the Douro, -33% and +10% in
the Tagus and -41% and +10% in the Guadiana.
Almost all models projected rainfall decreases for
the spring and autumn.
In terms of long-term rainfall trends (1961
2100) only winter showed some significant posi-

tive trends. In spring (MAM) and autumn (SON)


the majority of models showed negative projected
trends that reach -6% per decade in the Douro and
-7% per decade in the Tagus and the Guadiana.
The transient approach showed that a considerable part of the climate model disagreement in the
projection of future rainfall using the time-slice approach was due to the choice of 30-year intervals
within natural possibly cyclic patterns of rainfall.
Drought conditions in the three basins from
1961 to 2100 were also analysed using two
drought indices (DSI-12 and SPI-12). It was shown
that the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI-12)
was not appropriate to use in these basins due
to problems in choosing and fitting distributions
to aggregated monthly rainfall, which lead to very
low SPI-12 values indicative of extremely intense
droughts. Using the Drought Severity Index (DSI12) there was a wide range of future drought projections: some models show little or no change (or
a cyclic behaviour) while others project decades
of extreme drought conditions. In the Guadiana
basin, all but three models show a worsening of
drought conditions in the future and by the end of
the century several climate models projected that,
on average, more than half of the basins area will
be experiencing severe or extreme drought.
Keywords
Climate change, Rainfall, Drought
Correspondence
Email: selma.guerreiro@ncl.ac.uk

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Bryophyte communities in hydrographic regions of


Europe: distribution overview and conservation in
global change scenarios
C. Vieira1 , F.C. Aguiar2 , A.P. Portela3 , P. Raven4 , N. Holmes5 , J. Cambra6 , N. Flor-Arnau6 , C. Chauvin7 ,
8 , M. Germ9 , P. Manolaki10,11 , M.R. Minciardi12 , A. Munne
12 , E. Papastergiadou10, G. Ur
G. Dorflinger
9,14
2
nanic
, M.T. Ferreira
1

em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, CIBIO-UP & Rede de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto,


Centro de Investigacao
Portugal
2
Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Portugal
3
Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Portugal
4
Environmental Agency, Bristol, United Kingdom
5
Alconbury Environmental Consultants, Huntingdon, United Kingdom
6
University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
7
IRSTEA, Bordeaux, France
8
Water Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Lefkosia, Cyprus
9
University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
10
University of Patras, Patras, Greece
11
Open University of Cyprus, Cyprus
12
ENEA, Saluggia Research Centre, Italy
13
CatalanWater Agency, Barcelona, Spain
14
Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia

The assessment of biogeographic differences


between bryophyte communities from different fluvial scenarios should ideally achieved using biologic and environmental field data from standardized pan-European surveys. Aquatic bryophyte
communities result from local environmental filters
and larger scale filters such as the interactive effects of climate change with other anthropogenic
stressors. It is likely expected that these communities will go through changes in their chorological
patterns and representativeness, and vary along
hydrographic regions.

terize habitat features. We used datasets with


bryophytic information from 340 sampling locations of rivers of eight European countries - Portugal, Spain, France, Slovenia, Italy, Greece, Cyprus
and Austria. Sampling methods followed the European standards.
Wards hierarchical classification method was
used to obtain the bryophyte community types,
and species dominancy was assessed. Community types were spatialized for the study area using BIOMOD2 species distribution modelling package using geographical information related to hydrologic, climatologic and physiographic parameters.
Floristic data included 104 bryophytes, of which
93 were mosses and eleven liverworts. We obtained five bryophytic community types characterized by different core species, and segregated
along diverse gradients of the fluvial environmen-

This study aims to characterize and explain


the ecological segregation of bryophyte species
across the European hydrographic regions. We
used floristic and environmental data collected
for intercalibration purposes under the EU Water Framework Directive, and when available, data
from River Habitat Survey was used to charac70

tal conditions. Species richness and its distribution patterns are closely associated with the climate features, and strongly reflect the hydrologic
regimes. The higher species richness has been
detected in the mountainous community type,
which was present in all the surveyed countries.

ages between bryophytes communities and fluvial


landscape characteristics is a powerful mean to
establish the basis for the definition of impacts of
global change stressors in fluvial landscapes and
simulate models of climate and fluvial change scenarios.

With this work we reinforce the importance of


fluvial landscape heterogeneity conservation for
the sustainability of European aquatic bryophyte
richness and diversity. The exploration of the link-

Keywords
Species distribution, Change, Bryophytes
Correspondence
Email: ccvieira@fc.up.pt

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Regionalization of Europe based on a K-Mean Clustering Analysis of the climate change of Temperatures and Precipitation
M.J. Carvalho1, P. Melo-Goncalves1 , J. Teixeira1 , A. Rocha1
1

University of Aveiro, Portugal

Climate change is a subject whose importance


has been growing in several scientific fields such
as air quality, agriculture, fisheries, water management, and tourism. Therefore, model-based projections of the future climate are highly relevant. In
order to study climate change on a regional scale
using Earth System Models, regions with similar climate change patterns need to be defined.
The aim of this work is to divide the European
domain into regions of similar projected climate
changes. In order to do so, we used MPI-ESM-LR
r1i1p1 simulations of daily precipitation, minimum
and maximum temperatures for the recent-past
(1986 2005) and long-term future (2081 2100)
provided by the Coupled Model Intercomparison
Project (CMIP5). The difference between the longterm future and recent-past daily climatologies of
these three variables was determined. Aiming to
objectively identify the grid points with coherent climate changes, a K-Means Cluster Analysis was
applied to these differences. This method was performed for each variable independently (univariate
version), and for the aggregation of the three vari-

ables (multivariate version). A mathematical approach to determining the optimal number of clusters (K) was pursued. However, due to the method
characteristics, a sensitivity test to the number of
clusters was performed by analysing the physical
consistency of the results, as well as their coherence with the established literature. Note that this
procedure is a new approach, since is uses the climate differences (i.e. climate change) of one (or
several) variables instead the values of each variable in each climate. Furthermore, this method allows the determination of regions based on multiple variables. Results from this method are in accordance with results found in the literature, showing overall similar regions of changes. The regions
found by this analysis can then be used to perform
climate change studies focused on specific European regions.
Keywords
Europe, Climate change, k-means
Correspondence
Email: mariajcarvalho@ua.pt

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Assessment of climate indices in the Iberian Peninsula in XX Century


C. Andrade1,2 , J.A. Corte-Real3,4
1

Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Natural Hazards Research Center, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300-313 Tomar,
Portugal
2
CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta dos Prados, Apart. 1013, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
3
University Lusofona of Humanities and Technologies, DAT/DREAMS, Campo Grande 376, 1749-024, Lisboa, Portugal
4

ICAAM, University of Evora,


Nucleo

da Mitra, Apartado 94, 7002-774, Evora, Portugal

tics in between. Statistically significant correlations


were also found between the Marsz Oceanity Index and both Conrad-Pollak and Johansson Continentality Indices at a 95% confidence level, revealing a good agreement of results between these indices.
Acknowledgments: This work is supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for
Science and Technology, under the project PEstOE/AGR/UI4033/2014.

The oceans and continents strongly influence


the climate of a region. Aiming at understanding
these influences in the Iberian Peninsula, the spatial distributions of precipitation, air temperature
and four climatic indices are analysed during the
period 1901 2012. This study is focused on the
annual Conrad-Pollak and Johansson Continentality Indices, as well as Kerner and Marsz Oceanity
Indices. Gridded precipitation and air temperature
datasets were used for the period between 1901
and 2012 on a monthly basis. Results show for this
period, hyper-oceanic (maritime) characteristics in
the northernmost portion of Iberia, continental in
the inner region between Extremadura, Castilla La
Mancha and Andalucia, and maritime characteris-

Keywords
Oceanity Indices, Continentality Indices, Iberian
Peninsula
Correspondence
Email: c.andrade@ipt.pt

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PS03 1 Environmental policies and social impacts

September 10th
Room Q102

Author

11:45 - 12:00

Protected Areas and Water Quality in small islands: the


Pico case study (Azores Archipelago)

Ana Costa

12:00 - 12:15

Climate Change, Environmental policies and Social impacts: Assessing public perception and drawing a framework on Climate Change Communication tools

Maria Cecilia Trannin

12:15 - 12:30

Design and environmental concerns

Ana Rita Silva Sim oes

12:30 - 12:45

Debate

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Protected Areas and Water Quality in small islands:


the Pico case study (Azores Archipelago)
A. Costa1 , V. Goncalves1 , P. Raposeiro1, H. Calado1
1

CIBIOAzores, Azores University, Portugal

In Pico island, five lakes have been monitored


in the framework of the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. WFD put aquatic ecology
at the base of management decisions, for which a
huge amount of monitoring data has to be generated. However, these data are usually poorly
accessible for purposes beyond the WFD, even
though it is recommended that there should be
further integration of the aims of sustainable water practice and management into other policies,
which may interact with, and therefore potentially
either support or undermine the Directive. Lakes
mirror the quality of the landscape not only literally
but also because the quality of their water strongly
reflect the pressures inflicted by human activities,
due to the response of aquatic organisms to environmental stress. Considering the proportion of
the protected area in Pico Island it would be reasonable to expect water quality of numerous lakes
and ponds in Pico island to be excellent. However, in Pico, only two out of the five lakes monitored since 2005, display good quality. In spite
of their location in several protected areas in the
Pico Island Natural Park, these lakes are subjected
to several pressures, mostly related to cattle production activities that became reflected in a lower

quality water and are particularly severe in Capit ao


and Peixinho lakes. Lakes in more pristine areas
lake Paul and Caiado present a better quality mirroring the lower impact of human activity. WFD
demands that every body of water should achieve
EU good water status for quality, so we consider
that these WFD monitoring data should be used

to pursue preservation and management goals of


the protected areas. In this context it is important
to rethink actual protected areas limits, to understand in what way protected areas can contribute
to the needs and the objectives of conservation,
and to put into practice management measures
to ensure the integrity of freshwater ecosystems.
In fact, WFD reinforces the existing EU environmental ideology of preservation, protection and improvement by establishing a common approach to
the setting and enforcement of environmental objectives for all groundwaters, surface waters and
coastal waters, thus ensuring ecosystem integrity.
Biological monitoring can also support protected
areas management plans, by providing guidance
for restoration measures and evaluation of their
success. WFD institutionalizes ecosystem-based
objectives as the overriding criteria in water policy and decision making, effectively formalizing the
environment as a user of water and establishing it
on an almost equal footing with human economic
activities. In Pico, measures like the impeachment of the land cover and bird management and
control are advised measures to be integrated in
protected areas integrated management plan that
is being developed within the SmartParks Project.
Future challenges include long-term monitoring of
restoration measures, prioritisation of measures
according to recovery.
Keywords
Protected areas, Water quality, Azores
Correspondence
Email: accosta@uac.pt

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Climate Change, Environmental policies and Social


impacts: Assessing public perception and drawing
a framework on Climate Change Communication tools
M.C. Trannin1
1

Universidade Estacio de Sa, Brazil

In face of uncertainties associated with natural disasters, a challenge in climate change risk
management is improving adaptive capacity to environmental change and developing flexibility in response to crises and surprises. Even when our
understanding of the problem is still incomplete in
relation to the projected increase of frequencies
in flood and droughts and its relation to Climate
Change, we are required to analyse the complexity
of the phenomena, the vulnerability and the adaptation challenges that societies have to face. Assessing public awareness seems to be crucial, especially with undergraduate students, who will be
soon decision makers. There is a lack on Climate
Change Awareness and effectiveness of Climate
Change Communication studies up this moment,
and we strongly believe that this research will provide important data for both scientists and policy

makers. We have conducted a Survey in Brazil, interviewing 300 undergraduate Students, from private and public Universities. The goals were to
assess their perception of Climate Change and its
impacts, focusing on disaster preparedness, trust
or distrust in media information, Government and
Climate Scientists. The idea is to develop data
to build a possible framework in order to recreate communication tools, techniques and actions
to build up resilience to natural disasters, identifying the publics to be targeted, determining products to reach these publics, and designing an action plan.
Keywords
Climat Change Perception, Risk Management and
Public Policies, Climate Change Communication
Correspondence
Email: t.mariacecilia@gmail.com

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Design and environmental concerns


1
A.R.S. Simoes
1

Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Portugal

Graphic design consists in finding solutions,


creating and adding value to the product; therefore its applications areas are extremely diverse
(graphic, product, multimedia, editorial, among
others). Graphic designers are increasingly concerned with sustainability issues and their projects
are a reflection of that. In 1964, 22 designers
signed the manifesto First Things First whose intention was to express their discomfort regarding
the way how people viewed design. They tried
to show that the aim of this profession is not to
promote consumption (that is the job of marketing) but rather useful, long lasting democratic communication. Most recently in 2000, this manifesto
was signed again by some prominent designers
because the motives underlying the original manifesto are still up-to-date. Graphic designers continue to be associated with marketing professionals. But their professional activity is so vast (signatures, books and periodicals, catalogues, scientific
journals, etc.) that advertise is a minimal part of
their job.
With increasing awareness raising about socioenvironmental responsibility graphic designers
started to change their Design paradigms. This
gave rise to concepts such as eco-design and sustainable design. Sustainable design is about the
strategies, concepts and tools used to devise solutions that meet sustainability concerns. Fiksel

defined eco-design as a number of design practices used in the creation of eco-efficient products
and processes or a design system in which performance meets environmental and health and safety
concerns during the whole life cycle of a product or
process. That is, these concepts imply that the solutions created by designers are sustainable alternatives from the creation to the production of the
graphic object itself.
The project presented herein was carried out
within Graphic Design III of the bachelors degree
in Design and Graphic Arts Technology of the Polytechnic Institute of Tomar recently completed. The
aim of this course was to develop graphic material
for a NGO called World Wide Fund (WWF) with a
view to raising awareness to the urgent matter of
the deforestation in the Congo Basin. The development of these graphic solutions aimed to raise
peoples awareness to the significance of this forest, as one of the lungs of the world. Therefore
the sustainability aspects could not be overlooked
and hence the need to use paper and recycled
materials, as well as the use of only three colours
were a priority in this project.
Keywords
Graphic design, Eco-design, Sustainable design
Correspondence
Email: anarssimoes@hotmail.com

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PS05 1 Soil degradation and soil quality. Soil function and land use

September 10th
Room Q203

Author

11:45 - 12:00

Potential and limits of land and soil for sustainable intensification of agriculture

Winfried E. H. Blum

12:00 - 12:15

Research on landuse Change in Paul do Boquilobo wetland Nature Reserve using GIS

Ceclia Baptista

12:15 - 12:30

Influence of wildfire severity in soil and soil fertility losses

Nelson Abrantes

12:30 - 12:45

Spatial variability of Soil Functional Ability for groundwater


recharge related with Land Use in a dry Mediterranean
agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal

Elsa Sampaio

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Potential and limits of land and soil for sustainable


intensification of agriculture
W. Blum1 , G.J. Lair1 , J. Schiefer1
1

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) Vienna, Austria

In view of the increasing world population and


losses of productive land through urbanisation, industrialisation and soil deterioration, such as erosion, salinisation, compaction and others, the land
productivity per surface unit must be increased for
meeting the food security of future populations.
However, in many areas we are already at the limit
of agricultural productivity, with severe impacts on
the environment through contamination of water
resources, loss of biodiversity and further impacts.
Therefore, it is necessary to find soils with high
resilience and performance, which are able to produce more with less environmental impacts. With
this paper we want to demonstrate, that with careful evaluation of land and soil characteristics a sustainable intensification (SI) of agricultural land use
can be performed.
We have analysed the arable soils of 25 European countries using 6 parameters, such as soil
depth, pH, cation exchange capacity, clay and silt
content, content of organic matter and slope conditions. With these parameters we could define
those lands, where agricultural production should
be extensified in order to protect the environment,
those, where no intensification is possible or only
under specific conditions and areas, where agricultural intensification is possible. Data have been
taken from arable sites according to Corine Land
Cover (CLC, 2006) across 25 EU- member states,
from LUCAS topsoil survey 2009, and from the Eu-

ropean Soil Data Base (ESDB) 2.0 1:1,000,000.


Maps with different scores according to defined
threshold levels were established for each indicator. Finally all maps were overlaid in ArcGIS to receive the potentials for SI. To validate our results,
a comparison with the Muencheberg Soil Quality
Rating (SQR) for Germany was performed. The
results show, that sites suitable for SI are also the
most productive and less hazardous sites according to the SQR.
Only on 41% of the arable land in Europe intensification is possible. On 12% SI can only be
recommended with restrictions, on 43% no recommendation can be given and on 4% even extensification is needed in order to reduce environmental harm. However, in some countries like Austria, Belgium, Latvia, Netherlands, Slovakia and
the United Kingdom on more than half of the arable
land SI is possible.
In Portugal only 12.9% of the analysed arable
land is available for SI and almost 70% cannot be
recommended for SI or should even be extensified.
The main limiting factors for SI in Portugal are the
low cation exchange capacity, followed by pH and
low content of organic carbon.
Keywords
Sustainable agriculture, Soil resilience, Soil performance
Correspondence
Email: winfried.blum@boku.ac.at

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Research on landuse Change in Paul do Boquilobo


wetland Nature Reserve using GIS
C. Baptista1 , L. Santos1
1

Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Portugal

The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland


ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status,
representing one of the most important habitats for
the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis) in Portugal.

trial land use types such as forests and grassland.


Through the synthesis land use dynamic degree
for the two sub-periods, the land use changes during the period 1990 to 2012 increased comparing
with that during the period 1969 to 1990 due to the
management strategies and governmental acquisition of property from private owners. The wetland
nature reserve must focus on wetland land use
changes in future, so as to achieve effective conservation, bearing in mind climate changes and
evolution of natural habitats.

Taking the maps of the wetland nature reserve


from 1969, 1990 and aerial photography of 2012
as data source, based on the images interpretation and classification, the land use changes during the period 1969 to 2012 were analysed through
land use class. The results indicated that from
1969 to 2012, as the result of natural factors and
human disturbances, the natural areas increased,
bringing the conversion from agricultural to terres-

Keywords
Nature reserve, Landuse, GIS
Correspondence
Email: cecilia@ipt.pt

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Influence of wildfire severity in soil and soil fertility


losses
N. Abrantes1 , I. Morais1 , V. Silva1 , M.C. Malvar1 , M.E. Rial-Rivas1, S. Prats1 , C. Coelho1, J.J. Keizer1
1

CESAM & Departamento de Ambiente, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

In the last few decades, the number of wildfires


has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe,
including Portugal. Besides a range of direct impacts, wildfires can produce profound changes in
geomorphological and hydrological processes during a period commonly referred to as the windowof-disturbance. It is now increasingly recognized
that these indirect wildfire effects depend strongly
on fire severity, i.e. the heating-induced changes
in vegetation and litter cover as well as in topsoil
properties such as infiltration capacity, aggregate
stability and soil water repellency. Nonetheless,
the exact role of fire severity in post-fire hydrological and erosion processes is still poorly quantified in many parts of the world, including Portugal. Another important gap in fire-related research
continues to be the impacts of wildfire on soil fertility losses, in particular through erosion by water. Both research gaps are currently being addressed by the FCT-funded FIRETOX project, following a wildfire that took place in July 2013. The
study area is located in the municipality of Sever
do Vouga, Aveiro District, in north-central Portugal. In the burnt area and the surrounding unburnt
areas, six study sites were selected and, immediately after the fire, instrumented with slope-scale
runoff plots and, in the case of the burnt sites, also
with slope-scale sediment fences. Two of the sites

were unburnt, one being covered by a Eucalyptus globulus plantation and the other by a Pinus
pinaster plantation. In addition to these two control sites, two sites had suffered a low-severity fire
and another two sites a high-severity fire, in both
cases involving a eucalypt as well as pine plantation. Following the instrumentation of the sites,
runoff was measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals
and, whenever possible, runoff samples collected
for subsequent analysis in the laboratory with respect to total suspended sediments content and
total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations.
Preliminary analysis of the results suggested that
fire severity played a much more important role
than forest type in post-fire soil and soil fertility
losses. While the occurrence of fire markedly increased soil (fertility) losses, this effect was much
stronger following a high-severity than low-severity
fire. In the case of the pine stands, this effect of fire
severity could be attributed to post-fire pine needle cast, with pine needles being scorched by the
low-severity fire and being combusted by the highseverity fire.
Keywords
Wildfires, Soil losses, Nutrients
Correspondence
Email: njabrantes@ua.pt

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Spatial variability of Soil Functional Ability for groundwater recharge related with Land Use in a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal
E. Sampaio1,2 , J.A. Corte-Real1,3
1
2
3

ICAAM - Institute of Mediterranean Agrarian and Environmental Sciences ? Universidade de Evora,


Portugal

Department of Geosciences, Universidade de Evora, Portugal


DAT/DREAMS, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal

The protection of water resources is important


in what concerns the quality and availability of water. Groundwater recharge is defined as the quantity of freshwater derived from precipitation that infiltrates vertically downward from the land surface
to below the root zone. At this point the water may
move laterally to discharge in streams or downward to enter an aquifer. Soil Functional Ability
to recharge aquifers (SFAgr) and Land use are
essential to study the environmental sustainability
and agricultural production capability once groundwater is a key component of a healthy watershed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatial continuity of Soil Ability
for groundwater recharge and different Land Uses
in a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment in
Alentejo, Portugal. This will be achieved by building a SFAgr, generated with combination of four

properties related to water infiltration and percolation into the soil: depth, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and drainable porosity. The results show that the spatial dependency of groundwater recharge was highest for bulk density and
drainage porosity and smaller for depth. The spatial distribution of SFAgr in the watershed related to
Land uses, indicated that the better situations are
where soils have bulk density rounding 1,2 covered
by oak more pasture or bulk density rounding 1,0
covered by pasture or annual crops. The worst situation are soils with bulk density greater than 1,5
even with oak trees more pasture.
Keywords
Soil variability in space, Groundwater recharge,
Land Use
Correspondence
Email: ems@uevora.pt

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PS02 1 Water quality and hydrobiology

September 10th
Room Q203

Author

16:00 - 16:15

Nitrate in groundwater: sources identification and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczalkowice
reservoir, Poland)

Joanna Czekaj

16:15 - 16:30

Single and combined effects of anthropogenic stressors


R Gold TZ and salinity) to the freshwater
(Primextra!
cladoceran Daphnia magna

Melanie
Costa

16:30 - 16:45

Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere reserve

Luis Santos

16:45 - 17:00

Distribution pattern of metals in sediments from a smallsized dam in a rural mountainous catchment: a case study
in NE Portugal

Anabela Reis

17:00 - 17:15

Biodiversity patterns and conservation of subterranean


fauna from Portugal

Ana Sofia Reboleira

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Nitrate in groundwater: sources identification and


potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczalkowice reservoir, Poland)
1, S. Sitek1

J. Czekaj1 , A.J. Witkowski1 , H. Rubin1 , S. Jakobczyk-Karpierz

University of Silesia, Poland

Goczalkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26


km2 , volume - 100 hm3 at a typical water level)
is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most
important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Region (Southern Poland). Under
interdisciplinary research project Integrated system supporting management and protection of water reservoir (ZiZOZap) hydrogeological survey of
Quaternary aquifer was conducted. Main focus is
on evaluating groundwater - surface water interaction in the catchment area of the reservoir.
The study combines multi-scale hydrogeological and hydro-chemical field studies with groundwater flow modelling. 22 piezometers, included
17 nested, have been installed in the catchment
area. 13 piezometers are located in two transects
- northern and southern - to evaluate the groundwater hydrodynamic system, the relationship between groundwater and surface water and to assess chemical composition and groundwater quality and their changes in time and space. A groundwater flow model was developed to simulate the
groundwater-surface water interaction. Results
show:
1. significant difference between southern and
northern part of the catchment,

Chemical sampling of groundwater was conducted


twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and
ammonium were 255 mg/L, 0,16 mg/L and 3,48
mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the significant difference in chemical composition between northern
and southern part of the catchment was indicated.
The possible nitrogen sources have been identified as (a) agriculture (manure and fertilizers) (b)
sewage water and inappropriate waste-water management (c) intensive fish farming.
An attempt to evaluate potential influence of
nitrate-contaminated-groundwater on drinking water reservoir quality and identify sources and possible processes determining nitrate concentration
in groundwater was made. Thus, several methods were used i.e. dual stable isotope approach
and geochemical modelling. Study results are presented in the paper.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported
by the UE Innovate Economy Operational Programme, Priority 1 Research and development of
modern technologies, Subaction 1.1.2 Integrated
system supporting management and protection of
water reservoir, Project number: POIG 01.01.0224-078/09.

2. potential zones of GW-SW exchange,

Keywords
Nitrate, Groundwater-surface water interaction,
Isotopes

3. seasonal
and
water-managementdependent interaction.

Correspondence
Email: joanna.czekaj@us.edu.pl

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Single and combined effects of anthropogenic stresR Gold TZ and salinity) to the freshsors (Primextra!
water cladoceran Daphnia magna
M. Costa1 , T. Vidal1 , F. Goncalves1 , A.M. Goncalves1,2
1
2

Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal


Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal

The growing demand of human populations


has led to an increase in the use of synthetic products, mainly pesticides. These xenobiotics may
produce effects that go beyond target organisms
and ecosystems, affecting for example the aquatic
biota of agroecosystems. Another stressor that affects freshwater systems and its populations, particularly those near coastal waters, is salinization.
This process is caused by an increase in sea levels and salt water intrusions in brackish and freshwater courses. Bearing this in mind, the acute
and chronic effects of a commercial formulation
R Gold TZ) was studof an herbicide (Primextra !
ied on freshwater cladoceran populations and a
first attempt was conducted in order to determine
the combined effects of this stressor and salinizaR Gold TZ is a widely used hertion. Primextra!
bicide in corn/maize cultures, which is a relevant
culture in Portugal and in Europe. Daphnia magna
was the model organism chosen, since it occupies
a key position in the food web of lentic systems.
An increase in salinity produces drastic changes in
community structure of freshwater systems, sometimes in an irreversible fashion. Thus, freshwater
species must cope with salinity stress in a way proportional to their degree of tolerance.

results showed the herbicide caused a significant


effect on the life history of D. magna, affecting all
parameters. Indeed, a significant reduction in fecundity and a developmental delay (increase in
age at first reproduction), as well as a significant
decrease in the number of broods produced per
female was observed. As a consequence of the
lower fecundity and of the developmental delay,
the intrinsic rate of increase (r) was also significantly reduced. Number of offspring was the most
affected parameter, being drastically reduced with
the increase in herbicide concentration. At the second phase of the work, combined effect of salinity
(NaCl) and the herbicide were conducted based
on literature data. The concentrations used ranged
R Gold
from 6.81 mg/L to 9.26 mg/L for Primextra!
TZ and a single NaCl concentration (2.90 g/L),
above the EC20 value referred in literature. Culture medium was used as the negative control
treatment. Preliminary results show a higher rate
of mortality and a greatly developmental delay in
the treatments compared with the results from the
R Gold TZ),
first phase (single effect of Primextra!
suggesting a synergistic effect rather than additive.
Keywords
Daphnia magna,
pogenic stressors

Experiments with the commercial formulation


were based in successive dilutions of a stock solution of the herbicide in a semi-synthetic medium.
Acute and chronic EC50 were determined. The

Toxicity bioassays,

Correspondence
Email: melaniecosta92@ua.pt

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Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo


Biosphere reserve
L. Santos1 , C. Baptista1
1

Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Portugal

The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB


Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret
(Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include
industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well
as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted on the water quality. Results from the
established monitoring programme (evaluation of
thirteen physicochemical and microbiological environmental parameters), after 3 years, allowed
the comprehension of seasonal patterns of water
quality which both benthonic macroinvertebrates

biomonitoring and chemical water analysis classify


as critical to very critical water quality.
Statistical analysis of data attributed water
quality variation to pollution inputs and seasonality correlated to water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data suggesting a depurative function of
the wetland. The observed patterns enable comparative result analysis thus allowing the implementation of an adequate monitoring of such an
important natural resource.
Keywords
Water quality, Bioindicators, Wetlands
Correspondence
Email: lsantos@ipt.pt

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Distribution pattern of metals in sediments from a


small-sized dam in a rural mountainous catchment:
a case study in NE Portugal
1 , M. Reboredo1 , A. Parker3
A. Reis1 , J. Pinto2 , A.I. Oliveira2 , A. Alencoao
1
2
3

Department of Geology, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal


Department of Biology and Environment, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
Soil Research Group, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK

stream sediments of unpolluted rivers, in particular As, Cr, Pb and Zn. Spatially, the contents are
higher in the margins, near the confluence of the
tributaries in the upstream zone of the reservoir.
Here, peaks of contents of As, Cr, Ni and Fe occur in the right margin, were the depth of water is
higher, and Cu, Zn and V in the left margin. One
of the tributaries show increased contents of Pb,
Ni, Cu, As, Cr, and also. Manganese show higher
values in the tributaries. In the sampling sites located downstream the reservoir there is a general
decrease of contents of the studied metals. Phosphorus shows higher contents in sampling sites located in the downstream part of the reservoir.
The distribution pattern of contents of metals
along the reservoir indicates an increase in the
upstream zone; downstream the contents show
a decrease. This pattern is in accordance with
the sedimentation pattern usually observed in dam
reservoirs located in mountainous regions. The
contents of P indicate dispersion downstream the
reservoir, suggesting its transference through the
water column to the sediments deposited in the
bottom. The dynamic regime of mountainous
rivers also influence this distribution pattern, as
well as the movement of the water in the reservoir,
leading to a significant wash of finer material, even
in the Dry Period, when the river regime decreases
to its lower level.

This contribution reports results of a geochemical study developed in a small-sized dam, constructed for electric power generation, with an area
of 15 km2, and maximum water depth of about 10
m (at the end of the Dry Period), located in a mountainous rural region (Vila Real in NE Portugal). The
bedrock is composed of crystalline rocks, mainly
granites; the land use is mainly forest and agriculture, with scattered urban settlements. Previous
studies performed in the area drained by the tributaries upstream the reservoir, on oxic fluvial sediments shows considerable contents of metals associated to the finer particles (< 63m). The aim
of this study is to evaluate the contents and their
distribution pattern of selected metals and P in the
bottom sediments of the reservoir, considering the
land use (rural/urban) of drained area.
A total of 9 samples of bottom sediments from
the reservoir were collected at the end of the Dry
Period, 2 of them were collected in the tributaries
near the confluence with the reservoir. The sediment samples (< 63m fraction) were decomposed with aqua regia. The concentrations of As,
Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Zn and V were
obtained by ICP-AES (recovery rates: 87% - 99%;
precision of the measurements: 5%). The metal
contents in sediments are in the ranges (g/g):
As (3061); Cr (22122); Cu (31-83); Fe (2565834911); Mn (295 836); Ni (5-71); Pb (49 160);
Zn (207 334); V (7 17). Phosphorus shows
contents range of 1875 3124g/g .

Keywords
Sediment, Metals, Reservoirs
Correspondence
Email: anarreis@utad.pt

The contents of the studied metals are relatively higher than the reference values of the

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Biodiversity patterns and conservation of subterranean


fauna from Portugal
A.S. Reboleira1, P. Orom2 , F. Goncalves1
1

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario
de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Departamento de Biologa Animal, Facultad de Biologa, Universidad de La Laguna. 38206 La Laguna. Tenerife. Islas Canarias,
Spain

species similarity analysis, several factors were


tested to explain diversity in individual caves.
Evapotranspiration and the consequent high productivity on the surface may be an important determinant of species richness in the different karst
units, however depth of the caves and the unique
geological features of every massif play an more
important role.
Because subterranean animals are among the
most rare, threatened and worldwide under protected, we rank sites to prioritize conservation in
karst areas of Portugal. Criteria for ranking is
based on four quantitative measures: 1) species
richness, 2) number of endemics, 3) weighted richness and 4) weighted observed and estimated
richness.

Our knowledge about the subterranean fauna


from karst areas of Portugal has increased significantly over the last years. Intense field work
in caves of Portugal brought to light several new
species for science. New species richness patterns of cave-dwelling species have emerged, and
a better knowledge of hypogean species distribution, revealed new biogeographical and species
richness patterns for the cave fauna of the western Iberian Peninsula.
We have assess total biodiversity for karst
caves of Portugal, including missing species, using
accumulation curves and incidence-based estimators, and estimated species on a regional scale.
Despite of the southernmost province of Portugal,
the Algarve, being richer in cave-adapted species,
the central karst massifs are still very promissing
for biodiversity studies.

Keywords
Troglobiont, Stygobiont, Caves
Correspondence
Email: sreboleira@ua.pt

We mapped the distributions of all hypogean


species in karst areas of Portugal. Based on

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PS06 2 Earth System Science, climate change and


extreme events

September 10th
Room Q102

Author

16:00 - 16:15

High resolution WRF climatic simulations in the Iberian


Peninsula: Model validation

Martinho Marta-Almeida

16:15 - 16:30

WRF-Chem Sensitivity Vertical Resolution in an Saharan


Dust Event

Carlos Teixeira
Joao

16:30 - 16:45

Assessment of domain sensitivity in Numerical Weather


Simulations applied to Mainland Portugal

Tiago Luna

16:45 - 17:00

On the assimilation of precipitation data from a dense


measurement network and its role on the prediction of
precipitation

Juan Ferreira

17:00 - 17:15

Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Mountain Regions: The Case of Madeira Island

Gouveia-Reis
Delia

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High resolution WRF climatic simulations in the Iberian


Peninsula: Model validation
M. Marta-Almeida1 , A. Rocha1 , P. Melo-Goncalves1
1

Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

A high resolution atmospheric modelling study


has been done in order to estimate climate change
projections for two future time periods in the
Iberian Peninsula. The dynamic downscaling approach adopted used the Max Planck Institute
Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to drive the WRF
running in climate mode. Three domains, online
nested, were used covering part of the North Atlantic and Europe, with a resolution 81 km, and
reaching 9 km in the innermost domain which covers the Iberian Peninsula. Three periods were
studied: (i) historical (1986 to 2005); (ii) medium
term future (2046 to 2065); and (iii) long term fu-

ture (2081 to 2100). For the future simulations,


the IPCC greenhouse gas concentration scenario
RCP8.5 has been adopted. For validation purposes, an additional configuration, forced by ERAINTERIM data was ran. This work describes
the downscaling parametrizations, and compares
climatologically the two historical simulations in
terms of extreme values of surface temperature
and precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula.
Keywords
Iberian Peninsula, WRF, Extremes
Correspondence
Email: m.martalmeida@gmail.com

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WRF-Chem Sensitivity Vertical Resolution in an Saharan Dust Event


J.C. Teixeira1 , A.C. Carvalho2, A. Rocha1
1
2

Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal


Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

The Saharan dust event that occurred between


June 20th and 30th 2012 influenced atmospheric
radiative properties over NW Africa, the Iberian
Peninsula, the Western Mediterranean basin, extending to France and Southern England. This
event is well documented by satellite imagery, by
air quality stations over the Iberian Peninsula and
by the AERONET NASA network.
According to MODIS satellite images, few fire
hot spots were sensed over the Iberian Peninsula
during this period making this event an opportunity to study the influence of dust aerosol in the atmosphere during summer time, excluding the influence of major wildfires usually occurring over Portugal.
The WRF-Chem model was run only on dust
mode with a parent domain of 18 km resolution, covering Europe and North Africa. Five setups differing in the number of vertical levels were

tested. The simulation performance was assessed


by comparing the model results with CALIPSO lidar data.
Simulations show that the model is able to simulate the higher level dust aerosol transport. However, the results are susceptible to the vertical resolution used. This is due to the thickness of the
transport layers which is, at times, lower than the
vertical resolution of the model. When comparing
model results to observed vertical profiles it becomes evident that while being able to reproduce
the more coarse features, the model is unable to
produce the smaller-scale ones at the horizontal
and vertical resolution tested.
Keywords
Atmospheric Chemistry, Modelling, Dust
Correspondence
Email: jcmt@ua.pt

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Assessment of domain sensitivity in Numerical Weather


Simulations applied to Mainland Portugal
T. Luna1 , A. Rocha2 , M. Belo-Pereira3, J. Castanheira2
1
2
3

IDAD, Instituto do Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, Portugal


Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal
Instituto Portugues do Mar e Atmosfera, Portugal

model driven by 0.5 0.5 GFS analysis was


used.
The Model skill was assessed by comparing
the hourly forecasts with observations from 10 m
wind speed, 2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity and sea level pressure fields.
Acknowledgments: This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project CLIPE
(PTDC/AAC-CLI/111733/2009).

Numerical weather simulations are of extreme


importance since these valuable tools allow us
to study and forecast weather conditions. Nevertheless, to produce a realistic result, numerical
weather prediction (NWP) models require a comprehensive study of its configurations and a correct
setup.
Several studies have been performed to evaluate the sensitivity of NWP models to parameterizations and initial conditions, but the impact of
domain geometry is somehow less studied and/or
documented.

Keywords
NWP, Domains resolution, Domain geometry

In this work, the sensitivity of a NWP model to


the domain geometry and resolution have been assessed over Mainland Portugal, for three extreme
weathers events. In this study, WRF-ARW v3.5.1

Correspondence
Email: tiagoluna@ua.pt

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On the assimilation of precipitation data from a dense


measurement network and its role on the prediction
of precipitation
J. Ferreira1 , A.C. Carvalho2, J.J. Keizer3, A. Rocha4
1

Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
CENSE, Departament of Science Environmental Engineering, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de
Lisboa, 2829-516, Portugal
3
CESAM and Dept. Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
4
CESAM and Dept. Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
2

In the scope of regional climate downscaling, with special focus on precipitation in complex terrain, a dense precipitation network covering a small area was installed at the west
flank of the Caramulo mountain range, northcentral Portugal. For the period of operation of
this network, an assimilation study was carried
out using precipitation data from the SNIRH national network (http://snirh.apambiente.pt/) covering mainland Portugal. This assimilation exercise
involved downscaling the ERA-Interim reanalysis
(http://data-portal.ecmwf.int/data/d/interim daily/),
through the application of the WRF-ARW model,
with the aim of improving the prediction of precipitation compared to without assimilation.

over the study region with its complex, mountainous topography. The model configuration design
includes three nested domains and the simulation
periods concern the rainfall events during the first
half of 2012. The WRF-ARW is forced with the
ERA-Interim reanalysis. Comparisons are made
with the predictions of the control experiment, without data assimilation, and also with the experiment
in which the SNIRH precipitation data over Portugal were assimilated.
Acknowledgments: This study was supported
by FEDER funds through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE and by Portuguese national funds through
para a Ciencia

FCT - Fundacao
e a Tecnologia,
within the framework of Project RESORT, Ref a
PTDC/CTE-ATM/111508/2009.
Keywords
Precipitation, Data Assimilation, Portugal

As a next step, the data from the Caramulo is


are being tested for their usefulness in predicting
the observed precipitation. The WRF-ARW and,
in particular, its data assimilation module WRFVAR, in its 4DVAR mode, is used to assimilate,
with a high spatial resolution, the precipitation data

Correspondence
Email: juan@utad.pt

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Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Mountain


Regions: The Case of Madeira Island
D. Gouveia-Reis1,2,3, L. Guerreiro Lopes1,3,4 , S. Mendonca1,2
1
2
3
4

University of Madeira, Portugal


CEAUL, University of Lisbon, Portugal
CIMO, Polytechnic Institute of Braganca, Portugal

ICAAM, Universidade de Evora,


Portugal

In mountain regions, particularly during the wet


season, heavy rainfall may trigger flash floods,
landslides and debris flows. Although rare, such
events can be catastrophic and seriously affect
the landscape or damage houses and infrastructures. Losses of lives and negative economic
and social impacts can also be caused by such
events. Therefore, the need for appropriate statistical models of extreme hydro-meteorological
events becomes clear, particularly in the current
context of climate changes. However, in many
mountain regions such as Madeira Island, the
lack of sufficiently long series of rainfall measurements at different time scales, leads to the challenge of estimating statistical characteristics of extreme precipitation from relatively short records.
Moreover, in mountainous regions, rainfall distribution is strongly influenced by factors such as the
rugged topography and the direction and intensity
of winds, which make point and spatial analysis
of the available data a difficult topic. In this pa-

per, spatial dependence of precipitation data is addressed through an analysis of annual maximum
daily rainfall values from 12 rain gauge stations located in Madeira Island, a mountainous volcanic
island located in the north-east Atlantic Ocean,
characterised by a complex and rugged topography. The influence of factors such as altitude, distance between stations and their proximity of the
sea on the spatial distribution of rainfall over the
island is also analysed and compared in two different periods of time.
Acknowledgments: Research partially supported
by the Portuguese Foundation for Science
and Technology (FCT) through the PhD grant
SFRH/BD/39226/2007, and by project PEstOE/MAT/UI0006/2014.
Keywords
Statistics of extremes, Copula functions, Extreme
rainfall
Correspondence
Email: delia@uma.pt

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PS01 2 Water Resources and Managment

September 11th
Room Q102

Author

09:00 - 09:15

Predicted and Seasonal Dynamics of Hedgerow Olive Orchard Water use in Response to Applied Water

Francisco L. Santos

09:15 - 09:30

Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination: comparative analysis of the DRASTIC method using typical indices
and rescheduling each parameters indices

Alcino Sousa Oliveira

09:30 - 09:45

Climate change impacts on hydrodynamics and water


quality of the Mondego River estuary, Portugal

Lara Santos

09:45 - 10:00

Riparian landscapes downstream dams: effects of historical land-use change and altered flows

FernanMaria do Rosario
des

10:00 - 10:15

Hydrological Ecosystem Service assessment for a sustainable land and water resources conservation in semiarid region, West Africa

Mathieu
Ahouansou

10:15 - 10:30

Debate

Maurice

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Predicted and Seasonal Dynamics of Hedgerow Olive


Orchard Water use in Response to Applied Water
F. Santos1 , M.M. Correia1, R. Coelho1, M. Vaz1 , T. Paco2 , A. de Sousa1
1
2

Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas (ICAAM), Portugal


CEER, Biosystems Engineering, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Portugal

Olive trees are usually irrigated in southern


Portugal and given the area devoted to this perennial crop it represents a large demand on regional
water resources. Several very intensive hedgerow
(1700 to 2000 trees per ha) orchards have recently
been established in the region to take advantage
of the European Commission decision of allowing the expansion of Portuguese olive tree planting quota. With enhanced olive production and
yield depending on irrigation, a precise estimation of transpiration (Ep) under non-limiting conditions is required to set up the upper limit of irrigation requirements and chart deficit irrigation water use. A distinct feature of Ep of olives is the
tight coupling to the atmosphere, modulated by
canopy conductance and vapour pressure deficit.
For the hedgerow (cv. Arbequina) olive orchard of
this study this was evaluated in 2012 by predicting
daily Ep with the Penman-Monteith big leaf equation coupled to the Orgaz et al. (2007) model of
bulk daily canopy conductance (Gc) for unstressed
canopies (PM-model). Dynamics of predicted Ep
were compared to daily Ep field values obtained
from sap velocity data from a regulated deficit irrigation (treatment A) and a sustained deficit irrigation (treatment B). Daily Ep at the stand scale (mm
day1 ) was obtained by dividing tree transpiration
by the area of tree planting (3.75 1.35m). Tree
rows were supplied with water by a single drip irrigation line serviced by 2.3 (treatment A) and 1.6
l h1 (treatment B) emitters, respectively, spaced
0.75 m apart throughout the entire length of the
emitter row lines. The PM-model effectively simulated and traced out the seasonal variability of Ep,
validating the models applicability to hedgerow orchards in southern Portugal. Results show that
transpiration of treatment A trees was not limited

by water availability except at pit hardening, from


end of June to the end of July, when the regulated
deficit was applied as convenient for this low sensitive period to water stress. Conversely, tree transpiration of treatment B was limited by water availability throughout the irrigation season, from mid
June to the end of September. Evolution of midday
stem water potential and stomatal conductance
corroborated the seasonal dynamics of Ep for both
treatments, suggesting a good irrigation supply for
treatment A and a sustained deficit irrigation for
treatment B. A total of 296 mm of irrigation water
was applied to treatment A (1st June to September
30th) for an equivalent amount of 206 mm to treatment B. Cumulative tree Ep for the same period
and treatment was 320 and 185 mm, respectively,
while rainfall was 29.4 mm. The 30% difference
in irrigation water application resulted in stem leaf
water (st) differences between treatments. Also
from June onward, treatment B midday leaf stomatal conductance (gs) quickly declined to lower values then treatment A, never recovering and stayed
rather flat and low throughout September. Results
seem to indicate that the PM equation coupled to
the Orgaz et al. (2007) model of bulk daily canopy
conductance is capable of predicting irrigation requirements for unstressed olive canopies. Furthermore, in association with continuous tree sap flow
velocity measurements, it can be used to set up
the upper limit of irrigation requirements and chart
deficit irrigation applications in hedgerow olive orchards of cv. Arbequina in southern Portugal.
Keywords
Hedgerow olive irrigation, Transpiration of cv. Arbequina, Olive transpiration model
Correspondence
Email: fls@uevora.pt

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Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination: comparative analysis of the DRASTIC method using typical indices and rescheduling each parameters indices
A.S. Oliveira1 , J.M. Lourenco1 , S.S. Almeida2 , L.O. Sousa1 , L.F. Gomes3
1
2
3

Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal


Universidade do Porto, Portugal
Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal

The problems related with the groundwater contamination are nowadays unquestionable.
Consequently various methodologies have been
developed to assess vulnerability of aquifers to
contamination. The DRASTIC method is a robust
tool because quantifies the vulnerability based on
a multitude of parameters, or hydrogeological indicators, susceptible of weighting, that minimize the
subjectivity inherent to the evaluation process. A
more rigorous evaluation of the DRASTIC maps
should take into account a rescheduling of each
one of the parameters instead of the adoption of
the typical ones, according to the variation of the
parameters spatial characteristics. Particular attention should be given to parameters that fit variations of the index value around the typical value,
because the more accurate index definition will
better characterize the parameter concerned, decreasing its subjectivity. This is what happens, for
example, with the parameters Aquifer Media and
Impact of Vadose Zone, which, when framed in
fractured media aquifer systems, should be accompanied by a previous evaluation of fracturing
intensity. The intensity of fracturing will thus be
an adjustment factor which must be considered towards a greater precision in the index definition

of the respective parameter, and consequently the


parameter itself.
This methodology is applied to the region of
Vimioso, NE of mainland Portugal, where crystalline rocks, metasediments and granitoids are
dominant, which, from the hydrogeological point
of view, fall under fractured aquifers systems.
The GIS maps elaborated in this research show
the differences between the application of DRASTIC method with the typical indices and when
those values were rescheduled. Comparing these
methodologies it is found that in some areas the
DRASTIC value increases, while in other areas decreases or is not significantly altered. From the
spatial planning point of view, about defining the
vulnerability of aquifer systems to pollution, the application of this methodology thus contributes to
reducing the inherent subjectivity of the evaluation
processes, approximating the results to the reality.
Keywords
DRASTIC, Groundwater contamination, Aquifer
vulnerability
Correspondence
Email: soliveir@utad.pt

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Climate change impacts on hydrodynamics and water quality of the Mondego River estuary, Portugal
L. Santos1 , J.S.A. do Carmo1 , J.L.S. Pinho2 , B.F.V. Vieira2
1
2

University of Coimbra, Portugal


University of Minho, Portugal

The Mondego River estuary is a transitional


water body, located on the central west coast of
Portugal. This estuarine system comprises many
ecosystems of high biological productivity, which
are heavily dependent on the balance created between the dynamics of the sea and the river flow.
It is a particularly sensitive area, which will probably be affected by the negative effects of climate
change. Such effects, which are provided in many
widely publicized studies, will likely lead to a global
sea level rise and increasingly frequent and intense storm situations. According to several well
known studies, by the end of the 21st century, the
global mean sea level rise should never be less
than 0.50 m and may exceed one meter.
The Mondego estuary is divided into two channels - the north and south - by the Murraceira Island. The northern channel is deeper (5-10 m
during high tide, tidal range 0.5-3.5 m). It is hydrodynamically the most active, receiving most of
the marine tidal water and most of the fresh water from Mondego River. As a consequence, high
daily salinity fluctuations are registered and the
residence time is relatively low (typically 2 days).
The southern channel is shallower (2-4 m during

high tide), and is characterized by large areas of


intertidal flats exposed during low tide.
This paper presents hydrodynamic results and
analyses of the stratification processes (salinity
and temperature) in this estuarine system, considering climate change scenarios predicted by IPCC.
In order to characterize the occurrences of flooding phenomena, wave propagation and assess the
influence of sea levels rising on water quality, numerical simulations were performed using a 3D
version of the Delft3D model and a 2D version of
Coulwave. Analysis of the saltwater potential affecting agricultural activities and wave propagation
from offshore to the northern channel that may affect navigation are presented for different scenarios. This work intends to contribute for the study of
adaptation measures and the selection of proper
management and planning strategies within this
natural water system.
Keywords
Climate change, Sea-level rise, Numerical modelling
Correspondence
Email: lara.santos@student.dec.uc.pt

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Riparian landscapes downstream dams: effects of


historical land-use change and altered flows
M.R. Fernandes1 , M.J. Martins1 , P. Silva1 , F.C. Aguiar1
1

Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Portugal

Dams are undoubtedly one of the major driving forces of change in fluvial systems. They alter the aquatic and riparian ecology by affecting
river hydrology in quality, quantity and timing of
downstream flows. On the other hand, riparian
landscapes are usually constrained by land-use.
The main goal of this study is to quantify and understand the changes of riparian vegetation in hydropower rivers. We mapped riparian woody vegetation located at riverbanks, banks and islands in
three rivers of Portugal regulated by the dams Touvedo, Vilarinho das Furnas and Fronhas. Each
river was partitioned into 250 m long sampling
units, downstream the dam up to the entrance of a
tributary. Land-use patches were also mapped in
a 200 m-buffer and classified as managed and unmanaged forest, impervious, intensive and extensive agriculture, and scrubland. A temporal comparison using pre- vs. post-dam high-resolution
imagery was performed. Imagery was mosaicked
and georreferenced using control points, and recent images were degraded to the historical images spatial resolution. A GIS was used to store
and organize the data obtained from the on-screen
photo interpretation.

Weighted Class Area and Edge Density as well as


for land-uses and independent t-tests for the remaining landscape metrics (Area Weighted Mean
Patch Fractal Dimension and Patch Size Coefficient of Variation). For the paired analysis, a new
approach was devised to correct the spatial offset
of the sampling units between historical and current imagery.
Area of riparian woody vegetation increased in
all river locations in the post-dam period for all
case studies. Differences pre vs. post-dam were
significant, except for banks and islands of Touvedo. Post-dam riparian patches were larger, although with lower spatial complexity. Vilarinho das
Furnas case study presented the major changes,
both in area and complexity of riparian patches.
Land-uses changed for all case studies in the fiftyyear-period, with a relevant decrease for the intensive agriculture.
We observed no significant differences in the
riparian vegetation inside the channel (banks and
islands) for Touvedo, possibly related to the type
of dam operation, a run-off-river dam with slightly
regulated flows. However, Fronhas, a storage
dam, and Touvedo present similar patterns for
riverbank vegetation, probably due to a combined
effect of land-use and hydrology.

Five ecological meaningful landscape metrics,


related with shape complexity, area and edge effect of riparian woody patches were computed.

Keywords
Riparian vegetation changes, Historic imagery,
Regulated rivers

We tested for significance the differences between the post- and pre-dam periods for riparian
landscape metrics and for percentages of landuses. We used paired t-tests for Mean Patch Size,

Correspondence
Email: mrfernandes@isa.ulisboa.pt

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Hydrological Ecosystem Service assessment for a


sustainable land and water resources conservation
in semi-arid region, West Africa
M.M. Ahouansou1 , C. Furst
2 , S. Kralisch3 , S.K. Agodzo4
1
2
3
4

West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), Benin
Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Germany
Department of Geography, Chair of Geoinformatics, Geohydrology and Modelling, Germany
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

increase of runoff, actual evapotranspiration and


percolation in the areas dominated by cropland
(80% of the area) while groundwater recharge,
sediment and nitrogen retention are difficult to
achieve, mainly because in these areas with unsustainable provision of hydrological ecosystem
services any land and water conservation practice
does not exist. The contrary situation has been observed in the areas of the catchment located in the
Benin national park of Pendjari (a protected area)
where the dominant land cover are mixed forest,
woodland and shrubland.
From these findings, it has been suggested that
further land degradation and loss of natural vegetation must be avoided and their restoration should
be promoted in order to safeguard land and water
resources. Also, the restoration measures should
be focused on the development and promotion of
agroforestry system in cultivated arable land and
the afforestation of water banks to effectively increase hydrological ecosystem services through
the marginal reduction of provision services.

Current land use change in Benin semi-arid


regions, West Africa, causes problems related to
the water availability in space and in time, which
are linked to the provision of some hydrological
ecosystem services. The aim of this study was to
assess the provided hydrological ecosystem services by each land use type for a sustainable land
and water resource management while maintaining agricultural demand in the area where water
scarcity is crucial and conversion of natural vegetation to agricultural land are expanding over the
years. To achieve this goal the web-based planning support tool GISCAME was applied for the
Dassari catchment.
The analyses of the hydrological ecosystem
services was assessed at hydrological response
units level using a distributed hydrological model
named J2000 and reported to each land use/land
cover type. To assess in a spatially explicit manner,
the current land use impact on surface water and
groundwater provision, soil moisture, actual evapotranspiration, potential nitrogen and sediment retention were shown using the web-based planning
support tool GISCAME in order to identify potential
pathways for land and water resources conservation.

Keywords
Hydrological Ecosystem Service, Water resource,
Land use
Correspondence
Email: mauriceahouansou@gmail.com

As results, it has been observed a considerable

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PS06 3 Earth System Science, climate change and


extreme events

September 11th
Room Q203

Author

09:00 - 09:15

Long-term variability of 400-year long precipitation and


temperature series in Portugal

J.A. Santos

09:15 - 09:30

Regionalization of precipitation for the Iberian Peninsula

Ana Claudia Parracho

09:30 - 09:45

Storm Surge Changes along the Coast of Mozambique for


Future Climate Scenarios

Aderito
Aramuge

09:45 - 10:00

Recent climate change trends of extreme precipitation in


the Iberian Peninsula

Sofia Bartolomeu

10:00 - 10:15

Climate change of Precipitation extremes in the Iberian


Peninsula: CLIPE project results

Paulo Melo-Goncalves

10:15 - 10:30

Debate

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Long-term variability of 400-year long precipitation


and temperature series in Portugal
J.A. Santos1 , M.F. Carneiro1, M.J. Alcoforado2
1

Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Tras-osMontes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Portugal
2
Centro de Estudos Geograficos, IGOT, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

Knowledge from past climates is also needed


for developing reliable climate change projections
for the future. Only through a proper understanding of the past mechanisms underlying climate
variability and change will it be possible to understand future climates. An analysis of the variability in the reconstructed time series is of major relevance, not only in detecting changes in the
corresponding statistical distributions, but also in
isolating potential governing mechanisms. Even
though climate change over the last three centuries can be deduced from instrumental records
in some regions, there are several spatial and
temporal gaps, particularly in the pre-instrumental
era. Temperature and precipitation reconstructions are essential for understanding past climates,
but also highlight the need for more research in
southwestern Europe. Furthermore, climate reconstruction in Portugal can supply valuable information for assessing the role of anthropogenic
forcing on climatic variability, a region that is expected to undergo significant warming and drying
in the next decades. As inter-annual variability is
of secondary relevance for climate change assessments, reconstructed precipitation and temperature time series are analysed in terms of their lowfrequency (long-term) variability. Significant trends
and a number of quasi-periodic oscillations is acknowledged on both the annual and seasonal ba-

sis. Several statistical approaches are used for


this purpose. 1) Non-parametric trend analyses,
such as Mann-Kendall progressive analyses and
Spearman trend tests, are performed to identify
statistically significant trends and change points in
the time series. 2) Low-pass filters are applied so
that low-frequency oscillations or regularities can
be detected on the time domain. 3) Spectral analysis, using either FFT or maximum entropy estimations, are also used for the analysis on the frequency domain. 4) Singular spectral analysis and
wavelet analysis enable assessments on time and
frequency domains concomitantly. Low-pass filtered annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature time series for Portugal are eventually delivered. These series can thereby be used in future
research on decadal to centennial climate variability in Portugal.
Acknowledgments: This work is supported by
European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE) and
by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation
for Science and Technology) under the project
KlimHist (PTDC/AAC-CLI/119078/2010).
Keywords
Climate reconstructions, Long-term variability, Portugal
Correspondence
Email: jsantos@utad.pt

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Regionalization of precipitation for the Iberian Peninsula


A.C. Parracho1 , P. Melo-Goncalves1 , A. Rocha1
1

CESAM and Dept. Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

Temporal variability of precipitation over the


Iberian Peninsula (IP) has high spatial gradients.
Therefore, statistics of the temporal behaviour of
precipitation and derived quantities over the IP
must be estimated taking into account these spatial gradients. Some statistics can be displayed
over a map; however there are statistics, such as
Probability Density Functions at each location of
the IP, that are impossible to be displayed in a map.
Because of this, it is mandatory to reduce the number of degrees of freedom which, in this case, consists of a reduction of the time series representative of the IP domain. In order to overcome this
problem, we present here a spatial partition of the
IP region into areas of similar precipitation. For
that, daily E-OBS precipitation data for the years
between 1961 and 1990 was used. The land-only
high resolution data was obtained on a regular grid
with 0.25 resolution in the IP domain. This data
was subjected to a K-means Cluster Analysis in
order to partition the IP into K regions. The Clustering was performed using the squared Euclidean
distance. Six clusters (IP regions) were identified. Note that in the Cluster Analysis algorithm,
the variables are the time values of PRP, and the
observations are the grid points. This results on
K = 6 clusters of IP grid points defining six IP regions that share the same time-varying behaviour
of precipitation.

The IP regionalization was identified from annual and seasonal precipitation daily-time varying
IP fields. The annual precipitation discriminates
the following regions: (i) northwest Iberia (Spanish
Galiza and Portuguese Minho); (ii) northwest Portugal (Beira Litoral); (iii) a large region ranging from
the center to the western and southwestern shores
of the Iberia; (iv) another large region extending
from the center to the eastern and southeastern
shores of the IP; (v) north (Asturias) and northeast
Spain (Pyrenees); and, finally, (vi) a northeastern
Iberia near France.
The regions obtained for the four seasons of
the year are similar. These results are generally
consistent with the thermodynamic characteristics
described in the available literature.
Finally we emphasize: (i) that the methodology
used here, based on Cluster Analysis, can be used
to regionalize other areas of the world, and (ii) the
identified regions of the IP can be used to represent the Iberian precipitation by six time series that
can be subjected to further analysis whose results
can be presented in a concise manner that would
be impossible to be presented otherwise.
Keywords
Precipitation, Cluster Analysis, Regionalization of
the Iberian Peninsula
Correspondence
Email: claudiabernardes@ua.pt

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Storm Surge Changes along the Coast of Mozambique for Future Climate Scenarios
A. Aramuge1 , A. Rocha1 , P. Silva1
1

University of Aveiro, Portugal

The combined effects of atmospheric pressure


and wind forcing on sea level, produces oscillations known as storm surges. Due to its geographical localization, Mozambique is affected by
tropical cyclones which are formed in the Indian
Ocean, most of time causing storm surges along
the coast. The sea level oscillations respond continuously to astronomical, oceanography and atmospheric pressure and near-surface winds interactions over a wide range of periods. When a
low atmospheric pressure system coincides with
a high water spring tide, extreme sea level can
be expected representing potential disaster condition for the population and infrastructures along the
coast. The increase of the intensity and frequency
of tropical cyclone occurrence can have effects in
the behaviour of storm surge, regarding its generation, propagation and dissipation. Therefore,
knowledge about the storm surge behaviour is of
a greater practical importance. This study uses
an analytical model to estimate sea level, particularly extreme sea level (storm surges) to be used
with pressure and wind generated by climate models which consider climate changes. Here, we
are mainly concerned in the validation of the analytical model for Mozambique, concentrating on
the influence of changing storm climate scenarios
on surges. It aims to provide an overview of the
relevant mechanisms and to describe approaches
by means of which the impact of future climate
change on the storm surge can be understood and
quantified. To achieve this we force the model with
pressure and wind data recorded to generate sea
level time series which are later compared against
sea level gauge records. The tide gauge records
database of Mozambique is not continuous since
it has many missing data and is limited for only
some tide gauges. The station of Maputo is the
only one with nearly completed data of about 13
years. Due to this scarcity of tide gauge data availability we have used 30 years data sets of sea level
pressure, wind speed and direction for Maputo to
proceed with this study. Hourly sea level records,

from the selected tide gauge station and hourly averages of the atmospheric pressure and wind, at
the selected meteorological station in Mozambique
were used. Oscillations with patterns of the astronomical tide were extracted from the tide gauge
records using the Thompson low-pass filter. The
inverted barometric effect, which is the response
of sea level to change in atmospheric pressure,
was used with sea level pressure data to obtain
the storm surge level. Moreover the wind setup effects, which was decomposed in an onshore and
alongshore components, were also taken into account. Statistical techniques were applied to analyse the data and results. Approaches and methodologies are described and the results and remaining problems discussed. For a given future climate
scenarios, the storm surge changes effects can
be estimated with some confidence. The analysis of the distribution curves of relative and cumulative frequencies, allowed the definition of three
classes of storm surges namely: significant, very
significant and highly significant for the percentile
that appears above 95, 99 and 99.9 respectively.
The model was validated with very encouraging
result, showing statistically a good approximation
between the storm surge height obtained from the
tide gauge and that from the sea level pressure
and wind. Next, the analytical model was used
with atmospheric and wind data generated by climate change simulations, to evaluate changes in
the statistical properties of storm surges for future climate change scenarios along the Mozambican coast. The data from present climatological period, from 1986-2005, were computed by using the analytical model. The obtained results, for
the present period, were compared with the results
obtained from the computed future climatological
data scenarios for analyse. The results suggest
some enhancement of extreme surge elevations.
Keywords
Tropical cyclone, Storm surge, Climate change
Correspondence
Email: aderito@ua.pt

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Recent climate change trends of extreme precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula


S. Bartolomeu1 , M.J. Carvalho1, M. Marta-Almeida1 , A. Rocha1
1

CESAM and Dept. Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

During the last decades, extreme precipitation


events have been the target of numerous studies all over the world, particularly to evaluate their
eventual changes under the possible range of climate change scenarios with consequences on human society. As such, there is a growing need for
a more detailed knowledge of precipitation climate
change. To address this study presents a spatial
and temporal analysis of the trends in precipitation
indexes for the Iberian Peninsula (IP) for the period
between 1986 and 2005 considered as reference
period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) to evaluate recent climate change.
Simulations were performed using the Weather
Research and Forecast (WRF) model, which was
forced by the MPI-ESM-LR, because it is considered to be one of the best overall models in simulating the European climate. With a horizontal
resolution of 9 km, daily simulations of accumulated precipitation were used and the extreme precipitation indexes recommended by Expert Team
for Climate Change Detection Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI) were calculated. Then, interannual trends of the indexes were computed using the Theil-Sen Method and the Mann-Kendall
Trend test in order to evaluate their statistical significance. The results show an increase in the total
amount of precipitation in wet days during the winter (in the northern Portuguese coast) and a decrease during the spring (except in the north of the
IP), summer and mostly during the autumn. An

increase in Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) is seen


in the spring (in the south of Spain), autumn and
especially summer, which is the season that contributes the most to the positive annual trend. On
the other hand, the trend in Consecutive Wet Days
Index (CWD) is negative during the summer and
autumn. There are positive trends in the north of
Portugal and in the northwest region of Spain, due
to the contributions of winter and spring. Throughout the years under analysis, there is a negative
trend of number of days with extreme precipitation
during the summer and autumn and an increase of
days during the winter. In the annual analysis, the
trend for these events decreases in the central and
northern part of the IP, and increases in the central
and southern regions.
Acknowledgements: This study was supported
by FEDER funds through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE and by Portuguese national funds through
para a Ci encia

FCT - Fundacao
e a Tecnologia, within the framework of the following projects:
RESORT Project Reference
PTDC/CTEATM/111508/2009; CLIPE Project Reference PTDC/AAC-CLI/111733/2009; CLICURB
EXCL/AAG-MAA/0383/2012.
Keywords
Precipitation events, Iberian Peninsula, Recent climate change
Correspondence
Email: sofiabartolomeu@ua.pt

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Climate change of Precipitation extremes in the Iberian


Peninsula: CLIPE project results
P. Melo-Goncalves1 , A. Rocha1 , J.A. Santos2 , J.G. Pinto3 , J. Corte-Real4
1
2
3
4

University of Aveiro & CESAM, Portugal


CITAB, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
University of Reading, UK
DAT/DREAMS, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal

The main aims of the project Climate change


of Precipitation extreme episodes in the Iberian
Peninsula (IP) and its forcing mechanisms CLIPE are (i) to diagnose the climate change signal in the Precipitation extremes over the Iberian
Peninsula (IP), and (ii) to identify the underlying physical mechanisms. For the first purpose,
a multi-model ensemble of 26 Regional Climate
Model (RCM) simulations, from the European ENSEMBLES project, is used. These experiments
were generated by 11 RCMs, driven by 6 General Circulation Models (GCMs) under both historic conditions (1961-2000) and SRES A1B scenario (2001-2100), and also by ERA data for the
recent-past period. In this project, daily precipitation and 500mb geopotential height, for the periods 1961 1990 (recent past), 2021-2050 (recent future), and 2071-2100 (distant future), are
used. Using extreme statistics of Precipitation
(ETCCDI indices), climate change is presented by
high spatial resolution maps of climate-mean differences and trends using a non-parametric approach. A brief discussion between the differences between these results and those obtained
by equivalent parametric methods is presented.
Note that the non-parametric approach consists
of (i) median climatology differences tested by the
Mann-Whiteney test, and trends estimated by the
Theil-Sen method tested by the Mann-Kendall test.
The corresponding parametric approach consists
of (i) mean climatology differences, and trends estimated by a least-squares linear regression, both
tested by t-Student based tests. Some statistics
cannot be displayed in a map, such as Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of time-varying spatial fields. This is case of precipitation over the IP
and its derived quantities, which have high spatial
gradients. Note that the ENSEMBLES RCMs have

approximately 2500 grid-points (each one with a


time series) in the IP. Hence, such a large number of PDFs cannot be presented in a short document. Therefore, it is mandatory to reduce the
number of degrees of freedom over the IP, i.e.
to reduce the number of time series representative of the precipitation time-varying spatial field
over the IP. This reduction can be achieved by
partitioning the IP into a reasonable number of
regions and each region can thereby be represented by a representative precipitation time series. A k = 6 cluster analysis of daily precipitation (where the grid points are taken as observations and the daily values are taken as variables) is applied herein. The time series representative of these six IP regions are then subject
to further climate change analysis. Particularly, the
PDFs estimated for the near and distant future climates of each region are compared to the PDF
estimated for the recent-past climate. KolmogorovSmirnov tests are applied to assess the statistical difference between future and recent-past
PDFs. Regarding the second main objective of
the CLIPE project, a k = 4 means clustering was
applied to the daily 500 hPa geopotential height
over the North Atlantic-European (NAE: 90W-30E,
20N-80N) region, yielding four weather circulation regimes (WCRs): Blocking, Zonal or NAO+,
Atlantic Ridge, and Greenland Anticyclonic. For
each one of the four WCRs, PDFs of each one
of the six IP regions are estimated. These results
provide climate change projections of precipitation,
as well as its derived quantities (such as extreme
indices) associated to each WCR and for each IP
region. The interpretation of these results helps
associating regional climate changes with largescale circulation changes.
Acknowledgments:
117

This study was supported

by FEDER funds through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE


and by Portuguese national funds through FCT
para a Ci encia

- Fundacao
e Tecnologia, within
the framework of the project CLIPE (PTDC/AACCLI/111733/2009), and the project Urban Atmo-

spheric Quality, Climate Change and Resilience


EXCL/AAG-MAA/0383/2012.
Keywords
CLIPE, Iberian Peninsula, Extreme Precipitation Events
Correspondence
Email: pmg@ua.pt

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PS07 1 Techniques and approaches in geosciences:


biostatistics, remote sensing, GIS and modelling

September 12th
Room Q102

Author

09:45 - 10:00

SPI Drought class prediction driven by NAO index using


loglinear models

Elsa Moreira

10:00 - 10:15

A sensitivity analysis of the flood vulnerability index

Paulo Fernandez

10:15 - 10:30

Simulations with the Shallow Water Equations Model

Cristina Andrade

10:30 - 10:45

Debate

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SPI Drought class prediction driven by NAO index


using loglinear models
E. Moreira1 , L. Pereira2 , C. Pires1
1
2

Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal


Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

Loglinear modelling for 4-dimensional contingency tables was used with categorical time series of SPI drought class transitions for short term
prediction of drought severity, 1 and 2 months
ahead. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)
time series in a 12-month time scale were computed from 13 precipitation grid points locations in
Portugal from 1902 to 2014. The aim was modelling two-month step transitions under the influence of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) teleconection indice. Odds and respective confidence intervals were calculated in order to estimate the probability of a drought class transition over another.
The models were calibrated and the predictions

validated using several periods in the past, particularly for periods when the drought was initiating
and establishing, and when it was dissipating.
The prediction results produced by these models were compare with the results produced by
the same modelling for two-month step transitions
without the driven of the NAO indice using several
skill scores.
Keywords
Contingency tables, Confidence intervals, Transition probabilities
Correspondence
Email: efnm@fct.unl.pt

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A sensitivity analysis of the flood vulnerability index


P. Fernandez1,2 , S. Mourato1,3 , M. Moreira1
1
2
3

Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas (ICAAM), Universidade de Evora,


Portugal
Instituto Politecnico de Castelo Branco, Escola Superior Agraria, Portugal
Instituto Politecnico de Leiria, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Portugal

Floods are one of the most common and widely


distributed natural risks to life and property, and
the frequency of floods and flooding is increasing.
Floods have been one of the most important natural hazards in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people, and heavy
economic losses.
The vulnerability is multi-dimensional because
is affected by various factors (physical, economic,
environmental and social), is scale dependent because can be expressed at different scales and
also is dynamic because the characteristics that influence vulnerability are continuously changing in
time and space.
The purpose of this article is examining aggregation methods sensitivity to create a flood vulnerability index (FloodVI model). Understanding
the impacts of aggregation methods in index construction is important to measure metrics designed
to represent the flood vulnerability. The FloodVI
model was applied to the municipality of Vila Nova
de Gaia (Portugal) in which several flood events
occurred in a recent past.
For this study the following data were used:
Geographic Information of Portugal Statistics
(Census 2011) and land use map. The vulnerability includes several variables or characteristics
such as: building density; number of floors; construction period; building structure; housing occupancy; gender; education level; age; unemployment rate; household composition; economic activity sector; land use; and urban growth.
The FloodVI model examined the spatial patterns of vulnerability to flood hazards at the neigh-

bourhood level in order to describe and understand


the flood vulnerability phenomenon.
The FloodVI model was built by a multivariate
statistical technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), because this procedure offers an alternative to otherwise subjective variable selection by
objectively simplifying a large number of variables
into a few uncorrelated variables called components. Four components aggregation approaches
were considered: sum of the component scores;
first component, weighted sum using the explainable variance to weight each component; and cluster analysis (K-means).
The sum and the weighted sum combinations
approaches presented similar results. The results
of aggregation by cluster analysis are substantially
different from the other combination approaches.
The creation of FloodVI index provides a meaningful tool that provides a comparison among
places, which can assist in the allocation of preparedness resources and the selective targeting
of areas that may need additional help in the aftermath of flood event. The spatial distribution
of flood vulnerability provides a useful mechanism
for conveying information to policymakers, and allows them to visualize differences between the civil
parishes or between the neighbourhoods within
municipalities.
Keywords
Flood vulnerability index, Index aggregation, Principal components analysis
Correspondence
Email: palex@ipcb.pt

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Simulations with the Shallow Water Equations Model


C. Andrade1,2
1

Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Natural Hazards Research Center, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300-313 Tomar,
Portugal
2
CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta dos Prados, Apart. 1013, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

Meteorology is a wide field that involves almost


every area of exact sciences. Atmospheric scientists use computer models and sophisticated observing systems to describe and understand the
atmosphere. The combination of mathematical
modelling, computer simulations and high performance computing are powerful methodologies to
solve or simulate these complex systems.
In this study a shallow water equations models
(SWE) of propagation of disturbances in water and
other incompressible fluids is implemented in Matlab and is used to illustrate several atmospheric
phenomena. The SWE was implemented using a
Taylor-based method, the Lax-Wendroff scheme, a
numerical technique proposed in 1960 by P.D. Lax
and B. Wendroff. This scheme is second-order accurate, which only requires one previous time-step.
Several atmospheric and oceanographic simulations implemented in Matlab are going to presented: simulations of an impulsive disturbance
like a water drop hitting a fluid surface (Tsunami

simulation) in 3D, equatorial trapped waves and


barotropic instability in 2D, among others.
High-definition 3D simulations of gravity waves
and the so-called trochoid waves in the ocean are
also going to be presented using Unity. These
ocean waves were implemented by means of a
regular mesh, with an associated texture representing the ocean.
Acknowledgments: This work is supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for
Science and Technology, under the project PEstOE/AGR/UI4033/2014. I also acknowledge the
Patrcio from the Mathesupport of Professor Joao
matics and Physics Department of the Polytechnic
Institute of Tomar.
Keywords
Shallow Water Equations Model,
Waves, Simulation
Correspondence
Email: c.andrade@ipt.pt

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PS06 4 Earth System Science, climate change and


extreme events

September 12th
Room Q203

Author

09:45 - 10:00

Environmental and climate changes during little ice age in


Central Portugal

Cristiana Ferreira

10:00 - 10:15

Drought severity and precipitation under climate change


scenarios: Application to the South of Portugal

Ana Paulo

10:15 - 10:30

On the relationship between atmospheric vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development

Juan Ferreira

10:30 - 10:45

Determination of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency


Curves

Rita Cabral Guimar aes

10:45 - 11:00

Recent trends of indices for extreme temperature for the


Iberian Peninsula

Dora Fonseca

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Environmental and climate changes during little ice


age in Central Portugal
C. Ferreira1 , P. Rosina2,3 , F. Burjachs4,5,6 , L. Oosterbeek2,3
1
2
3
4
5
6

Instituto Terra e Memoria, Portugal


Instituto Politecnico de Tomar (IPT), Portugal

Centro de Geociecias, Grupo Quaternario e Pre-Historia,


Universidade de Coimbra, uID73-FCT, Portugal
Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanc ats (ICREA), Spain
IPHES - Institut Catal`a de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolucio Social (IPHES), Spain
`
Universitat Rovira I Virgili (URV), Area
de Prehist`oria, Spain

A core collected in Paul


(swamp) do Boquilobo allowed us to reconstruct the environmental changes occurred in Central Portugal during the
Little Ice Age (LIA) - XV-XIX century AD. The Paul

do Boquilobo is a Natural Reserve, located in the


confluence of the Almonda River with the Tagus
River in Central Portugal. The water for this important humid area is supplied by the seasonal
flooding of the mentioned rivers, so its extension
changes throughout the year. In the summer only
the lowlands are permanently flooded. Today Paul

do Boquilobo is a protected area, surrounded by


cultivation areas, particularly corn production.
Palynological analyses (pollen and non-pollen
palynomorphs) were performed, in order to elaborate the Holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of
this region. In this work we present the data of the
upper part of the sequence, corresponding to LIA
(based on an AMS dating).

The results indicate that forest recover began at approximately 1800 AD. Non-pollen palynomorphs suggest local alterations, possibly
linked to the historical evolution of the swamp itself. It seems that there was a change in human
activity around 1650 AD, when Plantago sp. disappeared from the record, suggesting a reduction
of grazing activity around the marsh. This may be
related to the Iberian war and global instability in
the colonies trade, following the resuming of Portuguese independence in 1640.
Colder and moister conditions prevailed during
the LIA, at least until 1800 AD. During this period
the agricultural production changed, but there is no
necessary relation to the climate changes.
Keywords
Palynology, Little Ice Age, Central Portugal
Correspondence
Email: ferreira.cris.00@gmail.com

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Drought severity and precipitation under climate change


scenarios: Application to the South of Portugal
A. Paulo1 , S. Mourato2
1
2

School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Santarem, Portugal


School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Drought is a phenomenon inherent to climate


variability, resulting from the occurrence of less
than normal precipitation during a significant period of time. Late IPCC reports point to a precipitation decrease in the Mediterranean region. In the
future droughts may become more severe and/or
more frequent.

responds to different amounts of precipitation or


precipitation deficits. The use of SPI or other standardized drought index in climate change studies
does not provide useful information unless it is accompanied by an absolute measure of precipitation deficits.
The objective of the present study is to obtain precipitation thresholds for the SPI drought
categories under historical conditions and climate
change projections in order to highlight the differences between the reference period and the climate change precipitation for the same drought
categories.
McKee drought categories were
adopted with SPI< 2 classified as extreme
drought, 2 SPI< 1.5 as severe drought and
1.5 SPI< 1 as moderate drought.

Drought indices are used to quantify drought


severity. The Standardized Precipitation Index SPI
is based on the probability distribution of precipitation. Series of monthly precipitation, cumulated
over a given moving temporal window denoted as
time scale are used to obtain SPI. Time scales
are used to differentiate the effects of a precipitation breakdown on human activities and water resources availability. Shorter time scales, 1 up to
3 months, are more adequate to assess drought
in agriculture and longer time scales, e.g. 12 to
24 months more appropriate to hydrologic studies. The SPI algorithm consists on the fitting of a
distribution to the cumulated precipitation in each
calendar month. Gamma or Pearson-III distributions are the more common. The cumulative probability of the observed precipitation sum in each
month is obtained from the fitted distribution and
is transformed in the SPI value by the inversion of
the standard normal distribution. The SPI has no
dimensions and measures the deviation from normal conditions. It is usually classified in drought
categories, the more negative SPIs belong to a
more severe drought category while positive values indicate no drought. As SPI values reflect
probabilities the same SPI value in different locations or in distinct reference time periods expresses the same relative drought severity but cor-

The study area encompasses the river basins


of Sado (7578 km2 ), Mira (1589 km2 ) and Guadiana (11583 km 2 ), in the South of Portugal. In
this area 34 rainfall stations with daily precipitation
records and no missing data in the period of interest were identified. Data was made available
by the national water resources information system SNIRH.

Time series of SPI were computed for the historical period 1961-1990 and for the period 2071
2100 considering precipitation projected with three
regional climate models forced by two global climate models under the A2 emission scenario. The
SPI was computed on a 3 and 12 month time
scales. The goodness of fit of the gamma or Pearson III distributions were evaluated through several
non-parametric tests. The normality of the SPI index was also tested. The fitting was better for the
12 than for the 3 month time scale.
128

As expected from a standardized index the frequency of drought categories of the scenarios and
of the reference period are similar. The temporal course of the index has also the same pattern
both for the scenarios and reference period. The
drought frequency is similar in 1961 1990 and for
climate change projections meaning that the SPI
fluctuations around normal conditions within each
time series present the same behaviour. But normal conditions of the reference period are not the
same of the projected climate. Thus the precipitation thresholds of drought categories projected
by the climate models are consistently below the
ones of the period 1961 1990. In the period
1961 1990 the amount of precipitation below
which a drought is categorized as severe is fairly
above the one obtained in the climate change
models in all the rainfall stations. In many stations

the SPI-12 precipitation threshold of the extreme


drought class (SPI= 2) obtained for the 19611990 reference period is greater than the threshold of the severe drought class (SPI= 1.5) in the
climate scenarios. Maps are produced for a better
comparison and visualization of results.
SPI drought severity threshold categories
translated into precipitation amounts are useful information that may support drought studies under
climate change scenarios and on the impacts of
climate change on extreme events and water availability.
Keywords
SPI drought index, Mapping drought severity
thresholds, Climate change scenarios
Correspondence
Email: ana.paulo@esa.ipsantarem.pt

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On the relationship between atmospheric vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development
J. Ferreira1 , M.L.R. Liberato1,2 , P.K. Pradhan1
1
2

Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Instituto Dom Luiz, IDL, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal

In the scope of the STORMEx project (MidLatitude North Atlantic Extreme Storms Variability:
Diagnosis, Modelling Dynamical Processes and
Related Impacts on Iberia), past extra-tropical cyclones with high impact in the Iberian Peninsula
were simulated using the WRF-ARW model in order to get more insight about the mechanisms associated with the cyclones generation and more
detail regarding the impacts associated with these
storms. This study seeks to investigate the role
of atmospheric water vapour on extra-tropical cyclones development over the North Atlantic Ocean
and more specifically to investigate the linkage between Atmospheric River conditions leading to explosive development of extra-topical cyclones.

ulate the explosive development as well as the approximate track of the storms. Analysis of 900 hPa
specific humidity and wind speed, Integrated Water Vapour (IWT) and vertically Integrated Vapour
Transport (IVT), with Mean Sea Level Pressure
(MSLP) show the dependence of the storms development with atmospheric water vapour, ranging from not simulating any depression at all in
the simulations with lowest atmospheric water
vapour content, to simulating extra-tropical depression without explosive development and simulations predicting extra-tropical cyclones when the
atmospheric water vapour content reaches the values near the ones of the control run.
Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT
para a Ciencia

(Fundacao
e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).
Keywords
Extratropical Cyclones, Atmospheric Rivers, Modelling

Several WRF-ARW simulations for the extratropical storms were made, in which the water
vapour content of the initial and boundary conditions was manipulated. The control run consists
of a two domain, one way nested configuration,
with resolutions 27/9 km, for the coarser and inner
domains, respectively, forced by the FNL analysis. Several numerical experiments, with the same
configuration and physical parametrizations were
performed, in which the water vapour content of
the forcing data is modified. An overall analysis of
the control run shows that the model is able to sim-

Correspondence
Email: juan@utad.pt

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Determination of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency


Curves
1 , C.M. Rodrigues1
M. Moreira1 , R.C. Guimaraes
1

ICAAM, Universidade de Evora,


Portugal

When an event such as a rainstorm takes


place, it must be considered as a single event. If
the record contains many events, it has become
customary to consider only events which are so
widely spaced as to be logically independent. In
these approach it is important to study the statistical independence of these events and the methodology used must be objective in order to guaranty
the independence of events.
Another problem is how to calculate Intensity
Duration Frequency (IDF) curves that can better

represent those events.


The objective of the present study is to discuss
statistical events independence and the IDF deduction to predicted future extreme rainfall, including extrapolation to bigger return period.
Keywords
Intensity-duration-frequency curves, Design rainfall, Extreme rainfall events
Correspondence
Email: rcg@uevora.pt

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Recent trends of indices for extreme temperature for


the Iberian Peninsula
D. Fonseca1 , M.J. Carvalho1, M. Marta-Almeida1 , P. Melo-Goncalves1 , A. Rocha1
1

CESAM and Dept. Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

Climate change and extreme climate events


have a significant impact on societies and ecosystems. As a result, climate change projections, especially of changes in extreme temperature events,
become increasingly important, since these impacts on the well-being of the population and
ecosystems. However, most such studies are
based on coarse global climate models (GCMs). In
this study, we perform a downscaling simulation to
evaluate high resolution recent trends of extreme
temperature indices. The model used to force
the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model
was the MPI-ESM-LR, which has been shown to
be one the more robust models to simulate European climate. The domain used in the simulations includes the Iberian Peninsula and the simulation covers the 1986 2005 period (i.e. recent past). In order to study extreme temperature
events, trends were computed, using the TheilSen method, for a set of temperature indexes defined by the CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on
Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI).
For this, daily values of minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) temperatures were used. The trends
of the indexes were computed for annual and sea-

sonal values and the Mann-Kendall Trend test was


used to evaluate their statistical significance. The
results suggest an increase in the number of warm
days, warm nights and tropical nights, especially
during the summer and negative trends for cold
nights and cold days for the summer and spring.
The results for the annual number of days with a
TX above 25 C (summer days) shows a positive
trend (1 day/year) in the north of Portugal, which
is statistically significant. It seems that the summer is the season of the year most responsible for
this trend. The Results for other indices of extreme
temperature are discussed.
Acknowledgments: This study was supported
by FEDER funds through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE
and by Portuguese national funds through FCT para a Ciencia

Fundacao
e a Tecnologia, within
the framework of the following projects: RESORT
Project Reference PTDC/CTE-ATM/111508/2009.
Keywords
Extreme temperature indices, Iberian Peninsula,
Recent climate change
Correspondence
Email: dora.leticia@ua.pt

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PS02 2 Water quality and hydrobiology

September 12th
Room Q204

Author

09:45 - 10:00

Removal of the Antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole by Green


Clay Sorbents

Ana Dordio

10:00 - 10:15

Biological quality assessment of water bodies based on


zooplankton community

Fabiano Ramiro Serpe

10:15 - 10:30

Evaluation of the ecological potential of the lowland water


reservoirs in Poland according to the requirements of the
Water Framework Directive

Robert Mazur

10:30 - 10:45

Debate

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Removal of the Antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole by Green


Clay Sorbents
A. Dordio1 , S. Miranda1 , J.P.P. Ramalho1 , A.P. Carvalho1
1

Dep. Qumica, Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Evora,


Portugal

Contamination of water resources with pharmaceuticals has been one of the top concerns
of environmental sciences in the latest years, the
matter having received very significant media coverage recently. Antibiotics in particular have been
gathering considerable attention and are amongst
the most serious worries due to the development
of antibiotic resistant bacteria as result of prolonged exposure. In particular, antimicrobials and
their metabolites are being detected in significant
amounts in water supplies, and although no evidence exists that human health is affected by
minute doses of antibiotics over long periods of
time, changes have been observed in ecosystem
functions. In addition to antimicrobial resistance,
other effects have been observed such as a delay in cell growth of bacteria, limited denitrification, and shifts in community composition. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a broad-spectrum biostatic
sulfanilamide, has become a point of interest because of its prevalence in contaminated wastewaters at concentrations correlated to bacterial resistance and genetic mutations in organisms. Taking
into account the widespread use of sulfonamides
and their potential environmental effects, there is
importance in developing new technologies for removing SMX and similar compounds from points
of discharge. In fact, most wastewater treatment
plants are inefficient for the removal of most micropollutants, especially hardly biodegradable organic xenobiotics which are present in wastewaters at low concentrations, as these conventional
systems were only designed for removing bulk pollutants. Several advanced technologies have been
evaluated as options to treat these contaminants,
e.g. advanced oxidative processes or membrane
filtration, but despite the sometimes high removal
efficiencies attained, these technologies are too
expensive to be considered as viable solutions on
a large scale. Adsorption, alone or as part of a

more complex water or wastewater treatment process, has been seen as playing a very important role in the removal of many organic xenobiotic pollutants. In this regard, the choice of adsorbent materials is crucial. However, pollutants removal efficiency is not the sole selection criterion,
as the cost of the materials may provide or preclude economic viability of the water/wastewater
treatment system. Therefore, the quest for efficient adsorbents that are widely available, and do
not require expensive processing in order to be
used (thereby allowing lower production costs) is
a very important aspect of research aimed to manage this environmental problem. In this work we
present the study of sorption properties of clay
materials (LECA and vermiculite) for the removal
of SMX from water. The dependence of removal
efficiencies on the antibiotic initial concentrations,
contact time with the adsorbents and other system/environment conditions was assessed. The
two clay materials were compared in terms of their
more balanced performance towards the removal
of the pharmaceutical tested and the materials are
suggested as a useful component of a water or
wastewater treatment system designed for the removal of this contaminant (and others of similar
type). Vermiculite was shown to be more efficient
than LECA in the adsorption of the pharmaceutical and the one with faster kinetics. In other to
gain a deeper insight into the characteristics that
favor the removal of this compound by mineral surfaces, quantum chemical theoretical calculations
were performed to illustrate the type of interactions
that are responsible for the preferable adsorption
of the compound to the vermiculite surface.
Keywords
Antibiotics, Adsorption, Sulfamethoxazole
Correspondence
Email: avbd@uevora.pt

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Biological quality assessment of water bodies based


on zooplankton community
F.R. Serpe1 , F. Goncalves2 , J.C.R. de Azevedo3 , J.C. Marques4 , A.M.M. Goncalves2,4
1

PPGERHA, UFPR, Postgraduate Program in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Parana,
Brazil
2
Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Portugal
3
DAQBI, UTFPR, Departament of Chemistry and Biology, Federal Technological University of Parana, Brazil
4
Marine and Environmental Research Centre (IMAR, CMA, MARE), Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal

Declining water quality has become a global issue of concern as human populations grow, industrial and agricultural activities expand, and climate
change threatens to cause major alterations to the
hydrological cycle. These effects have resulted
in degradation of aquatic ecosystems which ultimately alter the structure and function of the system biota. Some studies have been carried out
in order to assess water quality of water bodies,
mainly those with high impact to the surrounding
human community. In literature great information
based in a set of physical and chemical characteristics to evaluate water quality or the degree
of water pollution is available, however, the use
of only classic physicochemical variables to accurately assess the water quality in and around
the systems may be inadequate, requiring also
analyzing of biological characteristics of the system. Indeed, there are some works based on
the response of specific biological species to water quality. Among aquatic biota, microorganisms
are generally highly sensitive and their dynamics
can be seriously affected by environmental perturbation. Plankton (namely zooplankton) has a fast
growth rates and therefore can provide meaningful
and quantifiable indicators of ecological change in
short timescales. Moreover, these organisms can
respond to low levels of pollutants such as pesticides, often a major anthropogenic stress on natural communities. Furthermore, zooplankton plays

a pivotal role in the trophic food web, transferring carbon and energy from primary producers to
higher trophic levels. Thus, the aim of this work
is to review the history and development of biological water quality assessment using zooplankton
community at different types of water bodies worldwide, and critically evaluates each of the principal
approaches used. Some of these water resources
include freshwater systems (e.g. rivers, lakes,
reservoirs), subject to anthropogenic influences or
intentionally used for municipal or industrial supply,
irrigation, recreation, cooling or other purposes.
Other studies concerning water quality in salt water environments, such as seas, oceans and estuaries have also been conducted. Aware of the limitations and caveats of the existing methodologies,
mainly in reservoirs, for evaluating ecological status and bearing the perspective to improve knowledge of water bodies status, and, thus, water quality, complementary tools focused on the functional
assessment of aquatic food webs is required. Ideally more pragmatic solutions at the monitoring water quality assessment may use rapid methodologies with reduce cost, thus producing an almostreal time indication of ecological status.
Keywords
Zooplankton, Aquatic systems, Water quality
Correspondence
Email: fabiano.ramiro.serpe@gmail.com

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Evaluation of the ecological potential of the lowland


water reservoirs in Poland according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive
R. Mazur1 , K. Szoszkiewicz2 , K. Pietruczuk3 , J. Chmist2
1
2
3

Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, Poland
Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Poland
Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Poznan, Poland

Monitoring of water reservoirs according to the


requirements of the Water Framework Directive is
carried out in Poland since 2007. Evaluation of
the ecological potential of reservoirs is based on
biological indicators, which include phytoplankton,
phytobenthos and macrozoobenthos as well as
chlorophyll concentrations. The ecological evaluation is supported by physico-chemical and hydromorphological characteristics. The study based on
field sampling of 10 reservoirs located in the lowland landscape . The data came from the national
monitoring. The undertaken analysis showed that
the classification of reservoirs was determined

both by physico-chemical and biological elements.


It was found that three reservoirs were classified
as good and more than good, three moderate
and four bad. Principal component analysis PCA
showed that the biological elements are strongly
associated with the level of total phosphorus in the
water.
Keywords
Water quality monitoring, Water Framework Directive (WFD), Lowland water reservoir
Correspondence
Email: mazrob@up.poznan.pl

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PS04 1 Operational and dynamical hydrology. Ecohydrology.

September 12th
Room Q203

Author

11:30 - 11:45

Analysis of influence of depositing fine plant debris in river


floodplain shrubs on the hydraulic flow resistance

Joanna Chmist

11:45 - 12:00

Exportation of nutrients and pesticides in vineyards

Nelson Abrantes

12:00 - 12:15

Impacts of climate change on stream flow, sediment transport and chemical status of a small basin under the influence of intensive vineyard culture

Dalila Serpa

12:15 - 12:30

Application of computer code SSIIM to modelling hydraulic parameters of local scour below sills stabilizing the
river bed

Joanna Chmist

12:30 - 12:45

Hydro-climatic variability and forest perturbations in north


western temperate forests of Mexico

Jose Navar

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Analysis of influence of depositing fine plant debris


in river floodplain shrubs on the hydraulic flow resistance
J. Chmist1 , T. Kaluza1 , K. Szoszkiewicz2 , N. Walczak1 , R. Mazur1
1
2

Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, Poland
Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Poland

The article considers a problems, caused by


an organic material, transported by flowing water.
This material is usually referred as plants debris,
or organic debris. Its composition depends on the
watercourse characteristic. For lowland rivers, the
share of so called small organic matter into plant
debris is considerable. This included both the various parts of water plants as well as flood plains
vegetation (leaves, stems, blades of grass, twigs,
etc). During floods, the larger woody debris pose
significant risk to bridges, or other water engineering structures. It can cause river jams, leading to
damming the flowing water. This in turn affects
flood safety and increases flood risk in river valleys, both directly and indirectly. The importance of
fine plant debris, for the phenomenon being studied comes down to the following:

the hydrodynamic aspect (plant elements

carried by water end up on trees and shrubs,


increase the hydraulic flow resistance and
contribute to the nature of flow through vegetated areas being changed from micro- to
macro-structural),

the ecological aspect (by being deposited in

different parts of the channel, the transported


biomass considerably alters habitat conditions).

The key part of the research problem, under


analysis is to determine the qualitative and quantitative debris parameters and to establish the relationship between the type of debris and the type
of land use of river valley (crop fields, meadows
and forested river sections). Another problem is
to identify the parameters of plant debris, for various flow conditions (e.g. for low, medium and
flood flows). During research assessment, it will be
also used materials deposited on the structure of
shrubs during the 2010 flood in Warta River. The
assessment of the debris deposited in shrubs, will
consist in determining: its masses, sizes of plant
elements and its species composition.
Keywords
Lowland river, Organic debris, Flood risk
Correspondence
Email: joanna.chmist@op.pl

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Exportation of nutrients and pesticides in vineyards


N. Abrantes1 , L. Santos1 , V. Silva1 , D. Serpa1 , M.E. Rial-Rivas1, F. Goncalves1 , M. Cerqueira1, J.J. Keizer1
1

CESAM & Departamento de Ambiente, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

Agriculture is a major source of diffuse pollution to aquatic systems. In particular, vineyards


are dependent on the use of a wide variety of plant
protection products and fertilizers, which through
various transport processes can reach the adjacent aquatic systems, affecting their quality. In
this context, the present work aimed to study the
sediments, nutrients and pesticides losses associated with surface runoff, in a vineyard area, and
understand their contribution to the water quality
of nearby water bodies. Another objective was to
understand the contribution of tillage in the transport of sediments and agrochemicals. Thus, the
monitoring, which took place between June 2012
and June 2013, was conducted at the plot level (inbetween tilled and non-tilled vineyards rows) and
at the catchment level (in the main stream of the
Lourenco stream, Anadia). Bestudy area - Sao
sides the measurement of hydrological parameters in the field, samples of surface runoff from the
plots, as well as surface water from the stream,
were both analysed for the quantification of sediments, nutrients (total nitrogen, total phosphorus
and nitrates) and fifteen pesticides. The results

obtained in this study showed that the use of agrochemicals constitute a source of diffuse pollution
to the adjacent water body (Ribeira S. Lourenco),
with particular emphasis on nitrogen and on the
fungicide tebuconazole. It is also highlighted in this
study the significant loss of sediments that occurs
in this type of land use, visibly exposed to erosion.
Regarding the mechanisms of transport, this study
showed that surface runoff is a major route for nutrients, pesticides and sediments losses to aquatic
systems. Moreover, this study also revealed no
significant differences regarding to losses of sediments and nutrients between tilled and non-tilled
plots. Conversely, the highest pesticides loads
were found in tilled plots. The results of this study
highlight the need to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices in order to reduce the impact of
viticulture in nearby aquatic ecosystems.
Keywords
Water quality, Vineyards, Agricultural diffuse pollution
Correspondence
Email: njabrantes@ua.pt

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Impacts of climate change on stream flow, sediment


transport and chemical status of a small basin under
the influence of intensive vineyard culture
D. Serpa1 , J.P. Nunes1 , V. Silva1 , M.E. Rial-Rivas1, J.J. Keizer1 , N. Abrantes1
1

CESAM & Departamento de Ambiente da Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

To ensure the productivity of viticulture, often


large amounts of agrochemicals, namely fertilizers and phytopharmaceuticals, are applied causing the deterioration of neighbouring aquatic systems. For this reason, investigating how additional
threats, like climate changes, will affect viticultureimpacted systems is crucial to avoid future environmental degradation.
In the present study, the impacts of climate
change on stream flow, sediment transport and
chemical status of a small basin located near intensive vineyard areas were evaluated using the
Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model.
To ensure a detailed understanding of the processes occurring in the system, the model was
calibrated and validated with data collected at an
Lourenco - loexperimental basin (6.2 km 2 ) - Sao
cated within an important winegrowing region in
Portugal - the Bairrada.
According to the calibration results, the model
can be considered a powerful tool for predicting the
water flow rates, sediment transport and chemical
Lourenco stream. As regards
quality of the Sao
to the hydrological response, an excellent agreement was found between predicted and measured
stream flow data, whereas for sediment transport,
the model performance was considered satisfactory. In terms of water chemical status, an excellent fit was found between predicted and measured
daily phosphorus (P) loads, whereas for nitrogen,
model predictions were found to slightly overestimate daily loads. For pesticides, namely copper sulphate (CuSO4), a satisfactory model performance was found between predicted and mea-

sured daily CuSO4 loads.


Using the calibrated model, three climate scenarios were simulated. These included, a baseline scenario (1971 2000) and two future climate
change scenarios for the period between 2071 and
2100. The future scenarios were derived from
the outputs of a Global Circulation Model (GCM)
driven by the A1b and B1 emission scenarios defined by the IPCC, which were dynamically downscaled with Regional Circulated Models (RCMs).
The results of climate change scenarios indicated that a decrease (of 11%) in average annual
rainfall, as predicted for the period between 2071
and 2100, is likely to decrease stream flow (10
to 12%) as well as sediment transport (10%) in
Lourenco basin. In what concerns the
the Sao
streams chemical status, a decrease in N (8%)
and P loads (9% to 11%) is forecasted, whereas
CuSO4 loads are likely to be maintained. Despite
this reduction in contaminant loads, lower stream
discharges will possibly lead to negative impacts
on the streams ecological status due to a reduction of the water dilution effect.
If combined with land use scenarios that follow
the same storylines, the climate change scenarios
simulated in the present study, will provide a more
realistic evaluation of the future state of aquatic
systems threaten by intensive agriculture.
Keywords
Ecohydrological modelling, Agricultural pollution,
Climate change
Correspondence
Email: dalila.serpa@ua.pt

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Application of computer code SSIIM to modelling hydraulic parameters of local scour below sills stabilizing the river bed
1, R. Mazur1 , M. Wierzbicki1

J. Chmist1 , M. Hammerling

Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, Poland

2006 2010 calculations of velocity distributions


at the sill have been carried out using the SSIIM
software. The computer simulations have shown
that the calculated water velocity profiles did not
differ significantly from the measured ones. In this
paper present also results of local scour development in time. The local scour geometry obtained
from the calculations was comparable with that obtained from physical models in laboratory.

The aim of this work is to check the usability of the SSIIM computer code (a three dimensional numerical model for simulation of sediments
movements in water intakes with multi-block options) for modelling hydraulic parameters of local
scour in non-cohesive soils below horizontal solid
aprons or similar elements of river bed protection.
The chosen research area embraced two reaches:
in the vicinity of sill No. 3 (km 480 + 902) and
No. 4 (km 479 + 225) built in order to reduce
the river bed local and general erosion resulting
from the construction of the Jeziorsko reservoir.
Based on performed field measurements geometry of the local scour holes, the distribution of
water velocity and the water levels in the period

Keywords
Computer simulation, SSIIM software, Local scour
Correspondence
Email: joanna.chmist@op.pl

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Hydro-climatic variability and forest perturbations in

northwestern temperate forests of Mexico


J. Navar
1

Centro del Agua para America Latina y el Caribe, Mexico

(1945 2007), forest wildfire (1970 2012), and


bark beetle infestation (1999 2012) data. Statis-

Climate variability and/or climate change controls the local hydrological cycle and consequently
forest perturbations such as wildfires and bark
beetle outbreaks. This research addressed the
following questions: a) what are the long-term
trends in precipitation, potential and actual evapotranspiration, runoff, soil moisture content, number of wildfires, burned area, and bark beetle outbreaks? and b) how are fire occurrence, fire size
and beetle outbreaks related to these hydrological
variables and multi-decadal climate indices in Mexico?s northwestern temperate forests? Daily measurements of precipitation and evaporation were
combined with model-based estimates of interception and evapotranspiration to compute soil moisture content and runoff using a mass balance budget model. Mann-Kendall, linear regression, and
auto-regressive and moving averaging, ARIMA,
techniques were used to assess the presence of
significant monotonic trends in the first momentum
of monthly and annual time series of hydro-climate

tical analysis showed the time series are stationary in the first momentum. Such trends appeared
to be absent/lacking. The number of wildfire, the
area burnt and the number of bark beetle outbreaks were all significantly associated to hydroclimatic variability and variations in soil moisture
content. Drought spells and intense frosts were
associated with near zero precipitation and discharge, high evapotranspiration indices, and near
wilting-point soil moisture. These conditions preceded large wildfires, which in turn led to bark beetle outbreaks.
Keywords
Stationary time series, Pulses of climate variability, Wildfires and Bark beetle outbreaks, Southern,
Pacific and Atlantic Oscillations
Correspondence
Email: jnavar@itesm.mx

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PS07 2 Techniques and approaches in geosciences:


biostatistics, remote sensing, GIS and modelling

September 12th
Room Q102

Author

11:30 - 11:45

Modelling Nitrogen Transport in Variably-Saturated Soils

Abdellatif Maslouhi

11:45 - 12:00

Anthropogenic Pressures on Productive Soils in Corlu and


Cerkezkoy

Ezgi tok

12:00 - 12:15

A GIS model for assessment of geological resources - application to a granitic exploitation area

Lus Oliveira Sousa

12:15 - 12:30

Debate

12:30 - 12:45

Debate

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 149

Modelling Nitrogen Transport in Variably-Saturated


Soils
A. Maslouhi1 , O.B. Yacoub1
1

Ibn Tofail University, Morocco

The groundwater pollution by nitrates is one of


the most significant environmental problems in the
agricultural fields of the Mnasra area (Morocco).
To prevent nitrate contamination of the groundwater implies the knowledge of nitrogen dynamics in the vadose zone environment. This study
is focused on the mathematical modelling of the
problem related to water flow and nitrogen transport in the unsaturated and saturated zones of unconfined aquifers. Water and solute transfers in
a porous unsaturated?saturated environment constitute a difficult problem to tackle because of the
nature of the equations governing the transfers
between the saturated zone and the unsaturated
zone. The difficulty of solving the coupling of the
vertical flow in the unsaturated zone and the horizontal flow within the groundwater is linked to the
fact that the interface between these two fields (i.e.
the water table) is not known a priori, and that it
takes variable positions with time.
Study of water and solutes transfer in the
unsaturated and saturated zones has quite often been carried out by using distinct mathematical models, which are applied separately in
each zone. This kind of approach is based on
a technique of artificial coupling connecting the
two zones, which often generate numerical disturbances at the unsaturated?saturated interface.
In our approach, we developed a mathematical
model based on a single flow equation which
can be used for both unsaturated and saturated

zones which are regarded as a single continuum.


The diffusivity equation will be used in a nonlinear form and in a linearized form. The model
is based on the finite elements method using the
Freefem++ code. This code was adapted to the
equations used in this study, namely: Richards
equation to study the water flow in the unsaturated zone, the diffusivity equation for the groundwater flow and the transport equation of advection?dispersion type to study the nitrogen transfer. In this study, we will show the interest of
modelling various chemical, physical and biological processes that influence the fate of nitrogen in
the agricultural soils for evaluating the groundwater contamination by nitrates. The mathematical
model presented in this paper is a deterministicmechanistic simulation model which uses conceptual representations with a limited number of parameters. Soil vadose zone characterization is
made worldwide since it is based on a physical
approach. The simulation model allows simplified
calculations of water and nitrogen uptake by plant
roots in water flow and nitrogen transport equations. The nitrogen transformations in the soil were
simplified using parameters that can be calculated
from easily measured chemical soil properties or
obtained from the literature.
Keywords
Modelling, Nitrogen, Soils
Correspondence
Email: maslouhi a@yahoo.com

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 150

Anthropogenic Pressures on Productive Soils in Corlu


and Cerkezkoy
E. Tok1
1

Mimar Sinan University, Turkey

Unplanned land use is mainly arising from previous regional (local) planning policies based on
economic growth, which resulted in the misuse of
the land. The fertile lands are converted to industrial / urban areas along with forest areas converted to agricultural zones which directly effect
the flora and fauna in a negative way. This study
aims to identify the land use transformations by using Remote Sensing and GIS due to prior socioeconomic focused politics resulting in environmental degradations. Additionally, this paper presents
an analysis of the transformation of fertile lands
into industrial / urban zones with respect to Land
Capability Classes. The study area is one of the
most urbanized and industrialized zones in Turkey.
The reason behind this transformation lies solely in
the fact that the aforementioned area is quite appealing to industrialization due to its easy access

to infrastructure and its compliance with the spatial


requirements. Up until now the development plans
of the region have been prepared with a socioeconomic agenda promoting the economic growth
while disregarding the ecological and environmental balance, which unfortunately boosted the largescale degradation of the environment. Although
the focus area is within a zone suitable for industrialization, this region is also within a wide river
basin (Ergene River Basin) making it an ideal location for highly productive crop cultivation (LUC
Classes 1 to 4), which is a rarer commodity in long
term.
Keywords
Land Use Capability Classes, GIS, Environmental
degradation
Correspondence
Email: ezgi.tok@msgsu.edu.tr

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A GIS model for assessment of geological resources


- application to a granitic exploitation area
L.O. Sousa1 , J.M. Lourenco1
1

Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal

The choice of natural stone is controlled by several factors related to the properties of the material
itself, such as texture, color, physical-mechanical
properties and fracturing. For a single rock the resources assessment is usually conducted considering a mean deposit yield, rising frequently to a
rough value that is very distant from the reality.
In this study we present the evaluation of the
granitic resources for an area in the north of Portugal where a weathered granite, known as Amarelo
Real, is exploited. The Amarelo Real granite is a
two-mica, medium grained, hypidiomorphic granular granite with a slight porphyritic tendency. Its
high weathering degree leads to its characteristic, and particularly appreciated, yellow-brownish
color. The studied area belongs to a legally established reserve zone for granite exploitation with
1776 hectares. In this reserve zone, commercial
blocks are extracted for further processing in plant
and are also split into smaller pieces or sawed.
The resources of granite as building material were evaluated considering the different constraints that affect the opening up of new quarries.
These constraints include the natural ones, such
as the joint spacing or rivers, and the man-made
ones, such as the territory occupation or protection
areas. To perform such task a GIS model/script
was developed to geoprocess the constraints and

calculate and classify the areas of the final map


according to them.
In a first approach we considered all the areas where legal rules prevent granite exploitation:
working quarries, rivers and inlets, building areas,
roads and trails, water springs, archeological areas, building heritage, agricultural land, forest areas and wind mills stations. Areas without a recognized granite quality, like the alluvial plains and
weathered zones, were also discarded. Sectors
with high slopes (higher than 40%) were also discarded because actual operating equipment are
not particularly adapted for those slopes.
Taking into account the several limitations resulting from the existence of zones already in exploitation and further occupations of the territory,
among others factors, only 42% of the reserve
zone may be used for opening up new quarries.
These results highlight the importance in making
a correct land planning to maximize this geological resource, adequate the equipment, evaluate
the investment and anticipate the return.
Keywords
Granite resources, Geoprocessing, Land planning
Correspondence
Email: lsousa@utad.pt

151

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Posters Session Program

September 10th
Q Building

Author

PS01

Groundwater Monitoring for resources management in an


arid region using geophysical methods

Ahmed Murad

PS02

Impacts on reservoir water storage and hydroelectric energy production under climate change scenarios

Diana Sousa

PS03

Seasonal variations in sap flow in olive under tree irrigation regimes in very hot and dry conditions of Vilarica Valley, a region in the Northeast of Portugal

Antonio
Esteves

PS04

Evaluation of the performance of models to estimate leaf


conductance in olive (Cv. Cobrancosa) in field grown conditions of Terra Quente Transmontana

Anabela
Afonso
Fernandes-Silva

PS05

Effects of drought on water quality

Anna Hrabankova

PS06

Metagenomic overview of bacterioplankton diversity from


Estremenho karst massif aquifer (Portugal)

Daniela Figueiredo

PS07

Water Quality Assessment of Agricultural Runoff in the


Upper Mara River Basin, Kenya

Kelly Fouchy

PS08

Export of Copper in a Basin Under Intensive Viticulture

Patrcia Ana Costa

PS09

Quality of water in a small-sized dam in the mountainous


region of NE Portugal

Anabela Reis

PS10

An ecotoxicological approach to the assessment of environmental quality in karst aquifer

Ana Sofia Reboleira

PS11

Simulations of the influence of lake area on local temperature with the COSMO NWP model

Lukas Pop

PS12

Precipitation thresholds for drought recognition based on


SPI: an application to Eastern Slovakia

Maria Manuela Portela

PS13

Characterizing drought events in Iberia during the 19012011 period using a gridded dataset

Irene Montero Brazo

PS14

Climate change of precipitation extremes in the Iberian


Peninsula: an overview of the CLIPE project

Paulo Melo-Goncalves

PS15

Lessons learned regarding homogenisation methods for


climate data: a chronological review

Sara Ribeiro

PS16

Riparian Forests in a Context of Flow Disturbance: New


Tools and Approaches to Support Ecological Research

FernanMaria do Rosario
des

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 157

Groundwater Monitoring for resources management


in an arid region using geophysical methods
A. Murad1 , A. Gabr1
1

United Arab Emirates University (UAE), United Arab Emirates

Groundwater management is an essential tool


to cope with limited conventional water resources
in an arid region. The phenomenon of groundwater level rising is noticed in Al-Ain area in the
east of the Arabian Peninsula. Groundwater in
the study area was monitored through acquiring
two periodical seismic refraction surveys which integrated with the field observed water level, obtained from the available boreholes for two successive years (2012 and 2013). The monitoring of groundwater aims to detect the groundwater level changes and groundwater distribution in
the study area, located, to the northwest of Jabal
Hafit in Al-Ain area, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
As well as, two ERT profiles have been acquired
to prove the measurements and to investigate the
water level fluctuations. The results indicate seismic velocities ranges between 1430-1600 m.s 1
for the saturated zone, while at the top of the capillary fringe zone give rise to another response indicated by seismic velocity range between 251-1080
m.s1 . The resulted water level showed general
agreement and similarity between the observed
and the estimated seismic refraction water levels.

Some shallow depths are indicated which may reflect the surface of perched water zone. The processed seismic data in integration with the water
level measurements suggest that the deepest and
shallowest groundwater levels are 19 m and 2.5
meters, respectively. The average value is about
10 m, suggests the accurate groundwater level
within the study area. The periodic monitoring reveals some water level increases at certain locations during the two successive years, and this
may be for several reasons. Also, data of water
levels indicate some deepening in the water level
through 2012 to 2013 at other sites within the study
area. This study recommends that the water level
in the study area should be assessed periodically
to protect the residential areas from any sudden
rise in water level and to study any other artificial
rechargeable wells to enhance the aquifer productivity.
Keywords
Groundwater, Seismic Refraction, United Arab
Emirates
Correspondence
Email: ahmed.murad@uaeu.ac.ae

c International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, 2014


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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 158

Impacts on reservoir water storage and hydroelectric energy production under climate change scenarios
D. Sousa1 , F. Vitorino1 , H. Pedrosa1 , S. Mourato1,2 , M. Moreira2
1

School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal


Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (ICAAM), Group Water, Soil and Climate, University of

Evora,
Portugal

The purpose of this study are to assess the impact on the hydro electrical energy production at
a small hydro-power plant to be installed in the
Alvito dam due to changes in daily total precipitation and daily average temperature projected by
climate models for the period 2071 2100. This
hydroelectric system is part of the Multi-purpose
Alqueva Project.
The climate input data consist in 5 RCM, and
the precipitation and temperature series where
bias corrected with the delta change method. The
A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario was considered.
The Alvito reservoir has a flooded area of 1480
km2 . The maximum water level is 197.5 m, with
gross capacity of 132.5 Mm3 . Alvito reservoir supplies water for public and domestic water 26594 inhabitants. The hydro-power plant will be equipped
with two turbine generator groups. From Alvito
intake channel at
dam, a 36 km long Alvito-Pis ao
188 m. The Odivelas-Vale de Gaio channel, origi channel, will transfer wanating from Alvito-Pisao
ter to Odivelas and Vale de Gaio reservoirs for irrigation.
The reservoir storage evolution is modelled
by the continuity equation.
This study does
not address other potential modifications such as
changes on demand for electricity induced by climate change or population growth. The water mass balance included the river inflow obtained by hydrological simulation with the physically based spatially distributed hydrological model

SHETRAN, the precipitation over the reservoir,


the evaporation form the reservoir and 5% of the
monthly inflow to downstream ecological flow. For
each of the five runoff series, 100 series of monthly
runoff with 30 years were generated using an AutoRegressive moving average model (PARMA) that
preserves seasonal and annual features.
The impacts on the management system are
evaluated with qualitative indicators: Reliability,
Resilience, and efficiency. These criteria measure
the number of failure periods, the speed of recovery from the failure status to satisfactory states and
the importance of the occurring failure states.
The reservoir water storage results vary widely
along the climate scenarios, the trend is for decreasing water storage volumes, the urban water
supply needs are not endangering since the number of inhabitants is low. The monthly reliability
(frequency of failure states) of the system ranged
between 47% and 63%. The speed of recovery
(resilience) of the system ranged between 20.2%
and 29.9%. The efficiency of the hydroelectric
plant ranged between 69% and 72.4%.
These results project a large decreasing in the
energy production. All models are consistent in
those results.
Keywords
Hydroelectric energy, Climate change, Series generation
Correspondence
Email: sandra.mourato@ipleiria.pt

158

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 159

Seasonal variations in sap flow in olive under tree


irrigation regimes in very hot and dry conditions of
Vilarica Valley, a region in the Northeast of Portugal
A. Esteves1 , M. Correia2 , F.L. Santos2 , M. Teixeira1 , A.A. Fernandes-Silva3
1

University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal

ICAMM, University of Evora,


Portugal
3
Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes
and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2

The study is still being developed in the


Vilarica Valley. Climatically this valley belongs
to the region f of Terra Quente Transmontana,
with values of annual rainfall between 400 600
mm, and average annual temperature between
14 15 C , with a typical Mediterranean climate.
According to Koppens classification is a type of cli
mate Csa. Tras-os-Montes
is the second national
region (22% of the area of olive groves), of olive
crop cultivation with a 75 266 ha. The irrigation
olive is mostly located at Vilarica Valley, due to the
availability of water in this region, as the Hydrological Plan of Vilarica Valley is completed, with several dams intended to irrigate agriculture. For efficient management of irrigation water is essential to
know the use of water by the olive, including transpiration, in order to replace this loss with irrigation. We developed a study in this region with tree
different irrigation regimes in a commercial olive
orchard (cv. Cobrancosa): control treatment A, irrigated to supply the crop water needs (100% ETc),
SDI - sustained deficit irrigation with 40% of the
control treatment and a Partial Root Drying Sys-

tem (PRD). We evaluated whole tree daily transpiration by sap flow measurements (heat pulse
techniques) and to assess the seasonal dynamics of plant transpiration (Ep) between the different
irrigation regimes. The preliminarily results indicated that there was a strong similarity between
diurnal patterns of sap flow and vapour pressure
deficit. Diurnal sap flow patterns showed a step
morning increase, which to some extent could be
related to woody tissues water capacitance. Sap
flow diurnal patterns showed a pronounced reduction throughout summer. There is important difference between treatments.
Funding by the Proder project (Medida 4.1):

Rega deficitaria
na oliveira (Olea europaea L.) na
da Terra Quente Transmontana, com vista
regiao
dos recursos hdricos, produtividade
a` otimizacao
e qualidade do azeite.
Keywords
Sap flow, Deficit irrigation, Cobrancosa
Correspondence
Email: anaaf@utad.pt

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Evaluation of the performance of models to estimate


leaf conductance in olive (Cv. Cobrancosa) in field
grown conditions of Terra Quente Transmontana
A.A. Fernandes-Silva1, T.C. Ferreira2 , F.J. Villalobos3
1

Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes
and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2
167, Crockhamwell Road, Woodley, Reading RG5 3JP, UK
3
Departamento de Agronoma, Universidad de Cordoba, Apartado 3048, Cordoba 14080, Spain

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) has been traditionally cultivated under rainfed conditions. However irrigation has a large impact on the productivity of olive orchards even with small amounts
of water. As a result of the improvements in production brought about by irrigation there is a need
to better understand the physiology of olive responses to irrigation. The need to develop mechanistic models representing physiological and physical processes in olive trees is an important tool,
as it such models can help in understanding and
improving irrigation practices. Approaches to determine water use efficiency by tree canopies need
information of canopy conductance, which in turn
should be based on leaf conductance models.
Given the degree of coupling between trees and
atmosphere, one would assume that the modulation of leaf conductance (gl) is essential to determine tree transpiration. Thus, models designed
to estimate tree transpiration require gl models inputs. The objective of this work was to evaluate the
performance of two models to estimate leaf con-

ductance in olive (Cv. Cobrancosa) in field grown


conditions of Terra Quente Transmontana. Trees
were subjected to three irrigation treatments, T0,
T1 and T2 that received 0, 30 and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration, as applied water,
by a drip irrigation system. The performance of two
models of leaf conductance yet calibrated and validated for olive in South of Spain, was assessed
with experimental data for cv. Cobrancosa. This
cultivar is widely grown in Portugal, being one of

the prevailing olive cultivars in the region of Tr asos-Montes. We observed that the models underestimate leaf conductance. The Leuning model,
was the better for the two validation tests, except
for rainfed conditions (overestimate gl), but its performance was improved with the introduction of
soil water deficit component, only in this treatment.
Keywords
Olea europaea L., Leaf conductance models,
Drought
Correspondence
Email: anaaf@utad.pt

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Effects of drought on water quality


A. Hrabankova1 , J.V. Datel1 , R. Vlnas1
1

T.G.Masaryk Water Research Institute, p.r.i., Czech Republic

Drought and water scarcity represent a threat


of one of the most critical emergency situations
that can affect basic functions of a state. TGM
Water Research Institute develops a system of indicators for drought evaluation and prediction in
the Czech Republic, prepares structure of drought
management plans, proposes legislative and institutional frameworks for managing these emergency situations, and studies impacts of drought
on drinking water quality especially in smaller
groundwater resources.
The main attention is paid to hydrological
drought as a result of prolonged meteorological
drought manifested by decreasing of water levels
in reservoirs, lakes, rivers and groundwater levels.
Simultaneously with the issue of water quantity is
necessary to study the influence of drought on
its quality, especially in drinking water resources.
Several river basins in the Czech Republic representing average hydrological conditions were selected for a basic view on water quality changes
depending on meteorological parameters. Data
collection and interpretation concerns both quantity and quality of water bodies.

Luznice
Loucna
Ticha Orlice
Divoka Orlice

River
Length
(km)
208.00
80.30
107.50
99.30

Watershed
area
(km2 )
4226.20
724.20
757.10
806.50

of precipitation. Also nitrate in shallow groundwater resources were monitored. Impacts of droughts
on small groundwater resources were further studied at several sites selected in those regions that
are threatened by drought (West Bohemia and
South Moravia regions).
The drawback of this initial comparison were
different frequency of chemical analysis, a relatively short period of assessment (max. 10 year),
and sometimes even some missing data, although
monitoring of drinking water resources is mandatory. Nevertheless, we can clearly state that the
negative impact of drought on water quality is evident. The values of most indicators were deteriorating especially if drought occurred during warm
seasons. During drought periods waterworks face
not only with a lack of fresh water but also with
worse water quality.
Acknowledgements: This paper has been prepared and presented with the financial support of
Ministry of Interior and Technology Agency of the
CR (the research projects VG20102014038 Proposal of a system for managing emergency situations associated with drought and water scarcity in
the CR, and TA02020184 Ensuring the quality of
drinking water supply for local water resources for
the population in small communities.)

Average
flow
(m3 .s1 )
24.30
4.43
7.40
11.50

Keywords
Drought, Drinking water, Quality of water

Time series of quality indicators of surface water (color, biological oxygen demand, chemical
oxygen demand, nitrate, phosphate) were studied
depending on temperature, flow rate and amount

Correspondence
Email: hrabankova@vuv.cz

161

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 162

Metagenomic overview of bacterioplankton diversity


from Estremenho karst massif aquifer (Portugal)
D. Figueiredo1, D. Cleary1 , P. Saraiva1 , N. Gomes1 , A.M. Goncalves2 , A.S. Reboleira1, F. Goncalves1 , J.
Oliveira3 , M.T.C. de Melo3 , N. Abrantes4
1
2
3
4

Dep. Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Portugal


Institute of Marine Research (IMAR), Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal
CVRM, Geosystems Centre, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa, Portugal
CESAM & Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, Portugal

Results showed that there was an undoubted dominance of the phylum Proteobacteria (from 44 to
92% of total sequence reads), which was mainly
represented by the classes Alphaproteobacteria
(orders Sphingomonadales, BD7-3, Rhizobiales
and Rhodospirillales), Betaproteobacteria (orders Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Nitrosomonadales), Deltaproteobacteria (orders Myxococcales, Sprirobacillales) and Gammaproteobacteria
(orders Pseudomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Alteromonadales, Legionalles).
Considering that Estremenho karst massif is
severely exposed to anthropogenic pressures (e.g.
agriculture, tanning industries, olive oil mills and
urban areas), it is important to highlight potential
pollution pressures throughout the karst system.
The present work gives exploratory insights on the
use of the bacteria as a key-community to track
environmental variations on groundwater quality.

The vulnerability of aquifers to contamination


is being increased under the present climate
change scenario (with long and severe drought periods). Nevertheless, the anthropogenic pressure
on these ecosystems is also rising from population
growth, water exploitation and pollution. Therefore, it is important to define markers that are
able to track drastic changes in aquifer biodiversity,
which may be related to groundwater quality.
Within the scope of KARSTRISK project, a
groundwater survey was performed in two distinct
seasons on a set of 11 geographically sparsely
distributed samples at the Estremenho karst massif (central-western Portugal). This aquifer is used
for drinking water supply and it is an important
contributor to regional river basin flow, having a
large variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems. The bacterial diversity was studied in the
22 samples through pyrosequencing.

Keywords
Estremenho karst massif, Groundwater, Bacterial
community

Preliminary data reveal the existence of shared


bacterial community composition (BCC) patterns
among some samples, suggesting a hydrogeological connection between them. Moreover, there
was also some influence from seasonality on BCC.

Correspondence
Email: dfigueiredo@ua.pt

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 163

Water Quality Assessment of Agricultural Runoff in


the Upper Mara River Basin, Kenya
K. Fouchy1 , C. Wright1 , P. Paron1 , T. Bogaard2 , J. Wenninger2 , J. Conallin1, M. McClain1
1
2

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Netherlands


Delft University of Technology, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Netherlands

Topography, soil properties and vegetation


cover influence the quality of water drained from
the land. In the agricultural dominated region of
the upper Mara River Basin (MRB) in Kenya, rural communities are vulnerable to changes in surface and sub-surface water quality, as they depend
on the direct use of water for domestic purposes.
The aim of this study, conducted in May and June
of 2014, was to quantify the variability in surface
and sub-surface runoff quality in a two hectare
mixed-crop farm in the upper MRB. Six minute
long micro-scale rainfall simulations were undertaken for 780 cm2 plots on eight different land covers on the farm: bare ground ploughed (BGP),
grass mulched, bare ground compact (footpath),
maize, sorghum, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), pasture and non-grazed mixed grasses.
Sediment concentration (g/L) and sediment loss
(t/ha/yr) were quantified from the plots. Runoff pH,

electrical conductivity (EC), and major cation and


anion concentrations were also measured. Preliminary results indicate that soil loss on footpaths
is 2 to 3 times higher than on maize or sorghum
and nearly 5 times higher than on Napier grass.
In addition, zero runoff was measured on BGP
and grass mulched; hence no sediment loss was
recorded. Ion chemistry seems to reveal variations
between surface and subsurface runoff, but not as
a function of land cover. The results of this study
are being used to document the current ecohydrological situation on farms in the MRB and support
improved practices to be implemented as part of
MaMaSe, a new 4-year development initiative in
the basin.
Keywords
Water quality, Rainfall simulation, Ecohydrology
Correspondence
Email: kelly.fouchy@hotmail.fr

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 164

Export of Copper in a Basin Under Intensive Viticulture


P.A. Costa1 , V. Silva1 , D. Serpa1 , M.M. Real-Rivas1, F. Goncalves1 , J.J. Keizer1 , N. Abrantes1
1

Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

Agriculture represents one of the main diffuse


source of pollution for the aquatic systems. Considering that vineyards are dependent on the use
of a wide variety of plant protection products and
fertilizers, through several transport processes, it
is most likely that this kind of products can reach
adjoining aquatic systems and affect their quality.
In viticulture, one of the most European rentable
agricultural sectors, copper fungicides are highly
applied for the control of grape diseases, namely
for downy and powdery mildew control. The high
popularity of pesticides containing copper is explained by the broad-spectrum usage and costeffectiveness. However, due to its environmental
persistence, toxicity and potential for bioconcentration, copper could constitute a hazardous substance for the aquatic biota. In this context, we
intended to study the exportation of copper by surface runoff in a vineyard area, and comprehend
their implications for water quality of contiguous
water bodies. We also tried to understand the
contribution of tillage in the transport of sediments
and associated cooper. The monitoring lasted
for two hydrological years and was developed at

plot level (in-between tilled and non-tilled vineyard


rows) and at catchment level (in the main stream
Lourenco stream, Anadia).
of the study area - Sao
Beyond the measurement of hydrological parameters in the field, runoff samples and surface water from the stream were analysed for the quantification of sediments and total copper. Our results
emphasize that the use of agrochemicals in vineyards is a source of diffuse pollution to the referred
nearby water body. Concerning to transport mechanisms, this study evidenced that surface runoff
is an important transport route for sediment and
copper losses into the stream, which showed concentrations exceeding the threshold value defined
for surface waters. The outcomes of this work
draw the attention to the need of the adoption of
more sustainable agricultural practices in viticulture, in order to reduce their impact in neighbouring aquatic ecosystems.
Keywords
Copper, Viticulture, Water quality
Correspondence
Email: patricia.ana@ua.pt

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 165

Quality of water in a small-sized dam in the mountainous region of NE Portugal


1 , J. Pinto2 , A.I. Oliveira2 , A. Parker3
A. Reis1 , A. Alencoao
1
2
3

Department of Geology, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal


Department of Biology and Environment, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
Soil Research Group, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK

The urban area of Vila Real, in the province of

Tras-os-Montes
e Alto Douro, NE of Portugal, locates nearby the confluence the River Cabril and
River Corgo, which drain deep incised valleys in
a mountainous region. Downstream the confluence there is a small-sized dam. The bedrock of
the area drained upstream the dam reservoir is
composed of crystalline rocks, essentially granitic;
the land use is mainly forest and agriculture with
scattered urban settlements. The urban treatment
plant of Vila Real was constructed in the margins
of the River Cabril, in 2004, and the effluents are
discarded to the main river downstream the dam.
Previous studies of river water quality performed
in the upstream drained area indicate, locally and
seasonally, anomalous contents of ions related to
contamination sources.
This study intends to evaluate the quality of the
water body in the reservoir, taking into account
that the anthropogenic activities have a considerable influence in the drained area. Therefore, there
were collected 16 samples of water at the end of
the Dry Season. In the reservoir 7 sampling sites
were selected to collect water samples at the surface and near the bottom. In the tributaries, near
the confluence with the reservoir, there were collected 2 water samples. At the sampling site, temperature, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were
measured. In the laboratory the major elements,

Al, Fe, Mn, NO


3 , NH4 and PO32 were determined.
A comparative analysis of the physical-

chemical parameters, chemical elements and


compounds did not allowed to infer spatial variability, both through the water column and along
the water reservoir. The waters show low mineralization, with a medium value of 63S/cm, slightly
acid. The hidrochemical facies indicate waters predominately sodic (N a > 70%) and sulphated or
mixed, with predominance of sulphate and chloride. The projection of ion contents on Pipers diagram does not allow to separate chemically the
surface and deep waters. The water samples collected in the reservoir are, as well, chemically similar to the river water.
The results show that, in general, the water
body in the reservoir do not reveal significant indicators of contamination. Nevertheless, the predominance of sulphate and chloride in the anions group, show that there is influence of anthropogenic activities (urban and/or agriculture) in the
water chemistry. The chemical signature identified
reflects the composition of the drained lithologies
and the fluvial dynamics in mountainous catchments. The frequent river water renewal contributes to the effective dispersion of contaminant
elements.
Keywords
Water chemistry, Reservoir, Anthropogenic activities
Correspondence
Email: anarreis@utad.pt

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 166

An ecotoxicological approach to the assessment of


environmental quality in karst aquifer
A.S. Reboleira1, A.M. Goncalves1 , I. Rosa2 , D. de Figueiredo2, M. Bessa2 , F. Goncalves2 , N.C. Abrantes2
1

Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Department of Environment and Planning and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193
Aveiro, Portugal

The protection of groundwater is an imperative need for nature conservation and for economic
reasons, due to the strategic importance of water
as a resource for future generations. Moreover,
the Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the
European Union countries to achieve good status
of all their waters bodies until 2015.
Karst aquifers are particularly exposed and impacted by contaminants from point and diffuse
sources of pollution. Nevertheless, the assessment of groundwater has been mostly based in
abiotic parameters (e.g. chemical and microbiological screening). Due to the importance of
karst aquifers as vital source for a wide variety
of groundwater dependent ecosystems, it is also
important to assess the contamination effects on
aquatic species to infer about the risks for the
groundwater-living species. Therefore, in this work
we have used an ecotoxicological approach comprising a battery of standard freshwater species
from different trophic levels to assess potential effects of contamination of groundwater and subterranean sediments from different areas within the
same karst massif, with different anthropogenic
pressures.
Our results showed the presence of inorganic
contaminants at concerning concentrations (e.g.
Cr), as well as signs of animal waste contamination. Regarding the ecotoxicological assessment,

different toxicity responses were observed for in


the distinct freshwater standard species. In general, while low toxicity effects were recorded in
the bioluminescence of the bacteria Vibrio fischeri,
significantly effects were found for the growth rate
of the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata. Regarding the first-consumer Daphnia magna, no
acute effects were recorded for the several tested
sites. Even statistically negative effects were found
only in the case of the microalgae, our results highlight the concerning risk of anthropogenic contamination to the freshwater stygobiont species and,
in general, to the groundwater dependent ecosystems. As an integrated approach, the use of an
ecotxicological assessment together with a chemical screening allows us to have a broad vision of
the contamination along the subterranean aquatic
compartment and the risks for the groundwaterliving species. Although this is a preliminary study,
the results emphasize the need to increase knowledge about the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater ecosystems, as a starting
point to generate useful information for their protection.
Keywords
Groundwater, Contamination, Karst
Correspondence
Email: sreboleira@ua.pt

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 167

Simulations of the influence of lake area on local


temperature with the COSMO NWP model
L. Pop1 , Z. Sokol1 , K. Bartunkova1
1

Institute of Atmospheric Physics Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic

Large artificial water reservoirs affect the landscape and may appear as a result of the hydric
restoration of former coal mines. This type of
reclamation is being conducted in northwestern
Bohemia. The new surface has different thermal
properties, roughness and albedo compared with
the original surface, which influences the atmosphere and affects the local temperature as well
as other meteorological quantities around the lake.
The assessment of the influence of new water areas on their environment should be performed before the water area is developed. Therefore, measured data cannot be directly utilized. Hence we
developed ALAKE, a simple physical model suitable for estimating the influence of a new lake
on temperature characteristics in its vicinity, which
uses relatively easily accessible data: the temperature and relative humidity at 2 m above the
surface, the temperature of the mixing layer of
the lake, the wind speed and direction at 10 m
above the surface and, optionally, the surface skin
temperature. The model consists of straightforward physical equations containing free parameters whose values were determined so that ALAKE
outputs approached the true values. To de-

termine the true values, we used the COSMO


model, which we applied with a horizontal resolution of 333 m. For simplicity and generality, ALAKE
was developed for flat terrain. Nevertheless in
Podkrusnohorske Valley, where the application of
ALAKE is planned, the terrain is approximately
flat. The comparison of the COSMO and ALAKE
outputs showed that the outputs of the COSMO
and ALAKE models have similar basic features,
but they may differ for single terms. ALAKE is
not able to simulate the details that COSMO provides. However, good agreement was obtained for
the mean values, indicating that the differences between ALAKE and COSMO have significant random variations for single terms, which is appreciably reduced when the mean characteristics are calculated. This led to the conclusion that the ALAKE
model is feasible for estimating the long-term effect
of new lakes on the temperature in their vicinity.
Keywords
Microclimate modelling, COSMO NWP model,
Lake
Correspondence
Email: pop@ufa.cas.cz

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Precipitation thresholds for drought recognition based


on SPI: an application to Eastern Slovakia
M. M. Portela1 , A. T. Silva1 , M. Zelenakova2
1
2

Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal


Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia

Kosice and Pres ov regions, in Eastern Slovakia.


Furthermore, a spatial interpolation method was
applied to produce regional maps of precipitation
thresholds for drought recognition on a monthly
basis and across different time scales and drought
severity levels.
Acknowledgments: the research was financed
para a Ciencia

by the Fundacao
e Tecnologia,

FCT, through the project Proc. 441.00 Eslov aquia


(Transnational Cooperation. Scientific Cooperation Agreement between Portugal and Slovakia).

The standardized precipitation index, SPI, is


one of the most widely used statistical tools for
characterizing and monitoring droughts, given its
relative simplicity and applicability across regions
with different climate and on different time scales.
It consists of finding the standard normal variate
corresponding to the non-exceedance probability
of accumulated precipitation over one month or
groups of consecutive months. Given that SPI values are standardized, they cannot be directly related to the rainfall records from which they were
derived. In this study, the mathematical formalism
of SPI was reversed in order to obtain precipitation
thresholds linked to established SPI drought limits, thus making the meaning of the SPI more clear
and interpretable. The method was applied using
monthly rainfall data from 22 rain gauges in the

Keywords
Drought, standardized precipitation index (SPI),
Eastern Slovakia
Correspondence
Email: maria.manuela.portela@ist.utl.pt

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www.ecohcc.ipt.pt, EcoHCC14- 169

Characterizing drought events in Iberia during the


1901-2011 period using a gridded dataset
I. M. Brazo1 , M. Liberato1,2 , C. Gouveia2 , A. Russo2
1
2

Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Portugal


Instituto Dom Luiz (IDL), Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

Droughts are frequent extreme events on the


Iberian Peninsula and they have widespread ecological and environmental negative impacts resulting in major socio-economic damages such as
large decreases in hydroelectricity and agricultural
productions or increasing forest fire risk.
In this work the SPEIbase, Global Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)
gridded database has been used which offers
long-time, robust information about drought conditions at the global scale, with a 0.5 degrees spatial resolution and a monthly time resolution. SPEI
has a multi-scale character, providing time-scales
between 1 and 24 months. Here the SPEIbase
was used for the Iberian Peninsula region, covering the period between January 1901 and December 2011, available on IPE/CSIC website, with
the aim of characterizing drought events on this region.
A Principal Component Analysis is applied to
SPEIbase in order to obtain drought spatial patterns at different time scales; the S-mode was
used to identify regions where the temporal vari-

ation of SPEI has the same pattern. The components were rotated to redistribute the explained
variance, using the varimax rotation. For each
SPEI time series corresponding to the time scales
from 1 to 24 months over Iberian Peninsula, the 4
PCs that explained approximately 80% of variance
were selected. A cluster analyses was further performed on the factorial loadings using 6 clusters
that could be associated with the 6 main homogeneous regions over Iberia.
In this work we will present, for each region, the
characterization of drought events for the different
time-scales, considering the magnitude, temporal
and spatial extension.
Acknowledgments:This work was partially sup
ported by national funds through FCT (Fundac ao

para a Ciencia
e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under
project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012).
Keywords
Droughts, Gridded dataset, Iberia
Correspondence
Email: imonbra@utad.pt

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Climate change of precipitation extremes in the Iberian


Peninsula: an overview of the CLIPE project
P. Melo-Goncalves1 , J.A. Santos2 , A. Rocha1
1

University of Aveiro, Portugal


Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Tras-osMontes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Portugal

The main aims of the project Climate change


of precipitation extreme episodes in the Iberian
Peninsula and its forcing mechanisms - CLIPE are
(i) to diagnose the climate change signal in the precipitation extremes over the Iberian Peninsula (IP),
and (ii) to identify the underlying physical mechanisms. For the first purpose, a multi-model ensemble of 25 Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations, from the ENSEMBLES project, is used.
These experiments were generated by 15 RCMs,
driven by five General Circulation Models (GCMs)
under both historic conditions (1961 2000) and
SRES A1B scenario (2001 2100). In this project,
daily precipitation and 500mb geopotential height,
for the periods 1961 1990 (recent past), 2021
2050 (recent future) and 2021 2100 (distant future), are used. Using extreme statistics of precipitation (ETCCDI indices), climate change is assessed by climatology differences and trends using a non-parametric approach. Climate change

is also assessed by changes in Probability Density Functions (PDFs) estimated at sectors representative of different precipitation regimes determined by a k-means Cluster Analysis of daily precipitation. Lastly, for the second objective of this
project, links between precipitation and Circulation
Weather Regimes, determined by a k-means Cluster Analysis of daily 500 mb geopotential height,
are explored for both past and future climates.
Acknowledgements: This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project CLIPE
(PTDC/AAC-CLI/111733/2009).
Keywords
Precipitation extremes, Weather types, Iberia
Correspondence
Email: jsantos@utad.pt

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Lessons learned regarding homogenisation methods for climate data: a chronological review
S. Ribeiro1, J. Caineta1 , R. Henriques1 , A. Soares2 , A. C. Costa1
1
2

ISEGI, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal


Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

The quality of climate data is of extreme relevance, since these data are used in so many
different contexts. However, few climate time series are free from irregularities. Those irregularities comprise two categories: natural and nonnatural. Natural irregularities derive from natural
phenomena, and they can be exemplified through
the presence of ashes in the atmosphere during the eruption of a volcano, causing changes in
weather conditions. Non-natural irregularities are
related to the process of collecting, digitising, processing, transferring, storing and transmitting climate data series, for instance, they can be caused
by changes of measuring instrumentation, observing practices or relocation of weather stations. In
order to avoid errors and bias in the results of
analysis that use those data, it is particularly important to detect and remove those non-natural irregularities prior to their use as input. Moreover,
due to the increase of storage capacity, the recent
gathering of massive amounts of weather data implies also a toilsome effort to guarantee its quality. The process of detection and correction of
irregularities is named homogenisation. Several
techniques have been used for the homogenisation of climate time series, and their success de-

pends on the variability, spatial and temporal continuity of the climatic variable. Climatologists and
other experts are eager to identify all the available homogenisation methods, while looking for a
homogenisation method wholly considered as the
best. For this purpose, several comparison tests
were reported in the literature. However, due to
the use of climate series where irregularities are
unknown, this assessment is very difficult to undertake. To overcome this problem, a benchmark data
set was prepared by the HOME project (COST Action ES0601), which contributed to the clarification
of this matter, and provided practical conclusions
regarding the homogenisation of climate variables.
This work presents a chronological review of the
most used homogenisation techniques cited in literature. It also describes some comparison studies, which evaluated the efficiency of homogenisation methods, and provides a summary of conclusions and lessons learned regarding good practices for the use of homogenisation methods.
Keywords
Methods comparison, Data quality, Irregularities
Correspondence
Email: sribeiro@isegi.unl.pt

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Riparian Forests in a Context of Flow Disturbance:


New Tools and Approaches to Support Ecological
Research
1 , M.D. Bejarano1 , C. Nilsson2 , D.M. Merritt3 , P. Segurado1 , P.
F.C. Aguiar1 , M.R. Fernandes1 , A. Fabiao
Silva1 , M.M. Portela4 , M.J. Martins1
1
2
3
4

Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Portugal


Umea University, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea, Sweden
United States Forest Service, Natural Resource Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Estudos de Hidrossistemas, Portugal

Over the past decades, we have assisted


to an increasing understanding of the effects of
regulated-flow conditions on aquatic ecosystems.
However, the responses to altered flows of the
ecotonal ecosystems remain a long-standing challenge in the Mediterranean regions.
This is
probably due to the multiple pressures that influence directly and indirectly those exposed riparian zones. Besides the alteration of timing,
quantity and quality of flows due to regulation by
dams, the riparian forests have also to counter
with frequently severe land-use pressures. Common ecological responses due to damming include failure of seedling establishment, increased
success of aliens, lower species richness, and
vegetation encroachment into channels, amongst
others. Responses to land-use are also multifaceted, but frequently near agricultural areas,
riparian vegetation are fragmented and invaded
by alien plants. Under the aegis of the OASIS
Project (http://www.isa.ulisboa.pt/proj/oasis/), new
tools and evolving approaches have emerged. We
delved into the responses of riparian vegetation
with this stressor axes: land-use and flow alterations, using remote sensing data (historical and
recent imagery) and field data. In addition, instead
of relying in species composition approaches, OASIS was focused in flow response guilds using
functional trait-approaches to assess and predict
riparian changes. This communication summarizes main achievements of the on-going work and
tools produced by OASIS, namely:

BASE links information on functional traits,


species, sites of occurrence and sources of
information. At the moment, data compilation
addresses 225 riparian woody species and
55 functional plant traits with expected linkages with hydrological changes, water availability and flood resistance.
2. Historical alterations - land-cover and riparian cover change in three hydropower rivers
with different dam operations (run-off river
Touvedo dam and two reservoirs with storage capacity - Vilarinho das Furnas and
Fronhas) was studied. A new approach was
devised to correct the spatial offset between
historical and current imagery.
3. Functional trade-offs pre- vs. post-dam obligate riparian competitors with hygromorphic leaves and high waterlogging tolerance
(riparian guild a) were more abundant in
natural hydrographs than in dam-regulated
rivers, but facultative riparian, with physical defences, tap roots and high tolerance
to drought (guild b), and non-riparian shortlived perennials (guild c) had similar covers,
reflecting the widespread terrestrialization of
Mediterranean rivers, and a probable combined effect of land-use and hydrology.
Acknowledgements: To FCT for funds through
OASIS PTDC/AAC-AMB/1201972010,
PEstOE/AGR/UI0239/2014, APA and EDP.
Keywords Hydrologic alteration indicators, Riparian zones, Trait database

1. FLOWBASE - a riparian on-line trait base


was developed and made available at:
www.isa.ulisboa.pt/proj/flowbase/.
FLOW-

Correspondence Email: fraguiar@isa.ulisboa.pt


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Remissive Index

Index
Abu Dhabi Emirate, 60
Adsorption, 136
Aeronautical meteorology, 48
Agricultural diffuse pollution, 142
Agricultural pollution, 143
Altered flows, 156
Anthropedogenesis, 31
Anthropogenic activities, 163
Anthropogenic stressors, 90
Antibiotics, 136
Aquatic systems, 137
Aquifer vulnerability, 106
Atmospheric Chemistry, 98
Atmospheric Rivers, 130
Azores, 77

Data quality, 169


Deficit irrigation, 157
Desalinated water, 60
Design rainfall, 131
Domain geometry, 99
Domains resolution, 99
DRASTIC, 106
Drinking water, 159
Drought, 69, 158, 159, 166
Drought assessment, 42
Drought indices, 44
Droughts, 45, 167
Dust, 98
Eastern Slovakia, 166
Eco-design, 79
Eco-efficient, 58
Ecohydrological modelling, 143
Ecohydrology, 161
Environmental degradation, 149
Estremenho karst massif, 160
Europe, 32, 72
European Windstorms, 33
Extra-tropical cyclone, 68
Extratropical Cyclones, 130
Extreme analysis, 45
Extreme events, 32
Extreme precipitation, 67
Extreme Precipitation Events, 117
Extreme rainfall, 101
Extreme rainfall events, 131
Extreme spatial precipitation, 46
Extreme temperature indices, 132
Extremes, 97

Bacterial community, 160


Biodiversity, 62
Bioindicators, 91
Bryophytes, 71
Canopy temperature, 63
Caves, 93
Central Portugal, 127
Change, 71
Climat Change Perception, 78
Climate change, 50, 52, 69, 72, 107, 115, 143, 155
Climate Change Communication, 78
Climate change scenarios, 129
Climate reconstructions, 113
CLIPE, 117
Cluster Analysis, 114
Cobrancosa, 157
Computer simulation, 144
Confidence intervals, 121
Contamination, 164
Continentality Indices, 73
Contingency tables, 121
Copper, 162
Copula functions, 101
COSMO NWP model, 165
Cretaceous, 34
Cumulus parameterization scheme, 68

Fen, 61
Flood risk, 141
Flood vulnerability index, 122
Flowering plants, 34
Forecasts, 48
Fragmentation, 62
Geoprocessing, 151
GIS, 84, 149
Granite resources, 151
Graphic design, 79

Daphnia magna, 90
Data Assimilation, 100

175

Gridded dataset, 167


Groundwater, 60, 61, 154, 160, 164
Groundwater contamination, 106
Groundwater recharge, 86
Groundwater-surface water interaction, 89

NWP, 99
Observations, 48
Oceanity Indices, 73
Olea europaea L., 158
Olive transpiration model, 105
Organic debris, 141
Orographic Waves, 123

Hedgerow olive irrigation, 105


High temperature stress, 63
Historic imagery, 150
Human Action, 30
Hydroelectric energy, 155
Hydrologic alteration indicators, 108
Hydrological Ecosystem Service, 109
Hydrological models, 156

Palaeobotany, 34
Palynology, 127
Permeable reactive barriers, 58
Pine processionary, 52
Portugal, 50, 100, 113
Precipitation, 44, 100, 114
Precipitation events, 116
Precipitation extremes, 168
Precipitation variability, 42
Principal components analysis, 122
Probabilistic decadal prediction, 32
Protected areas, 77
Pulses of climate variability, 145

Iberia, 167, 168


Iberian Peninsula, 67, 73, 97, 116, 117, 132
Index aggregation, 122
Intensity-duration-frequency curves, 131
Irregularities, 169
Isotopes, 89
Jet stream, 33

Quality of water, 159


k-means, 72
Karst, 164

R Software, 46
Rainfall, 69
Rainfall simulation, 161
Ranking events, 67
Recent climate change, 116, 132
Regionalization of the Iberian Peninsula, 114
Regulated rivers, 150
Reservoir, 163
Reservoirs, 92
Rewetting, 61
Riparian vegetation changes, 150
Riparian zones, 108
Risk Management and Public Policies, 78
Riverscapes, 62
Rossby wave-breaking, 33

Lake, 165
Land planning, 151
Land Use, 86
Land use, 109
Land Use Capability Classes, 149
Land Use Change, 31
Landuse, 84
Leaf conductance models, 158
Little Ice Age, 127
Local scour, 144
Long-term variability, 113
Lowland river, 141
Lowland water reservoir, 138

Sap flow, 157


Sea-level rise, 107
Seasonal forecasts, 44
Sediment, 92
Seismic Refraction, 154
Series generation, 155
Shallow Water Equations Model, 123
Simulation, 123
Small hydropower schemes, 156
Soil losses, 85
Soil performance, 83
Soil Qualities and functions, 31
Soil resilience, 83
Soil variability in space, 86
Soils, 148

Mapping drought severity thresholds, 129


Max-stable processes, 46
Mesoscale model, 68
Metals, 92
Methods comparison, 169
Microclimate modelling, 165
Modelling, 98, 130, 148
Models, 51
Nature reserve, 84
Nitrate, 58, 89
Nitrogen, 148
Northeastern Portugal, 52
Numerical modelling, 107
Nutrients, 85
176

Southern, Pacific and Atlantic Oscillations, 145


Species distribution, 71
SPI, 45
SPI drought index, 129
SPI precipitation thresholds, 42
SSIIM software, 144
standardized precipitation index (SPI), 166
Stationary time series, 145
Statistics of extremes, 101
Storm surge, 115
Stygobiont, 93
Sulfamethoxazole, 136
Sustainable agriculture, 83
Sustainable design, 79
Sustainable Development, 30
Toxicity bioassays, 90
Trait database, 108
Transition probabilities , 121
Transpiration of cv. Arbequina, 105
Troglobiont, 93
Tropical cyclone, 115
United Arab Emirates, 154
Vineyards, 142
Viticulture, 50, 162
Water chemistry, 163
Water depth, 63
Water framework directive, 51
Water Framework Directive (WFD), 138
Water quality, 77, 91, 137, 142, 161, 162
Water quality monitoring, 138
Water resource, 109
Water Resources, 30
Waterbodies, 51
Weather types, 168
Wetlands, 91
Wildfires, 85
Wildfires and Bark beetle outbreaks, 145
WRF, 97
Zooplankton, 137

177

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