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TUTORIAL 4.

1: LEWIS STRUCTURE

Complete the table below:


Group
1
No. of
Valence
electron
Lewis
Na
dot symbol

13

14

15

16

17

18

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ne

(a) How is an ionic bond formed?


(b) By using Lewis dot symbol, show the formation of:
i.

MgBr2

ii. Al2O3
iii. BaO
3

(a)

How is a covalent bond formed?

(b)

Use Lewis symbols to show the sharing of electrons between hydrogen and
fluorine atoms. Label the electron pairs as bonding pair(s) and lone pair(s).

Describe the formation of dative bond by using NH4+ and H3O+ as examples.

Draw the simplest Lewis structure for each of the following molecules. Comment on

any unusual features of the structure.


(a)

ClF3

(b)

BCl3

(c)

SeF4

(d)

NO

(e)

AlBr3

Formaldehyde (CH2O), a liquid with an unpleasant odour, has been traditionally used
to preserve laboratory species. Draw the Lewis structure for formaldehyde.

Determine the formal charge for each atom in POCl 3.

Draw the resonance structures for NO3- and SO3.

Two resonance structures for NCO- are as follows:

TUTORIAL 4.1: LEWIS STRUCTURE

Structure P

Structure Q

(a)

Determine the formal charge of each atom in both structures P and Q.

(b)

Determine the most plausible structure. Explain.

Objective Questions
1

The basic principle in the formation of electrovalent bond is


A

the sharing of electrons which leads to the sharing of atomic orbitals.

TUTORIAL 4.1: LEWIS STRUCTURE

the transfer of electrons which leads to the formation of ions of opposite


charges.

the formation of positive ions which are bonded together in the negative
charge of electron cloud.

the generation of instantaneous dipole moment arising from the differences of


electron affinities of two different atoms.

The electronic configurations of element P and element Q are as follows:


P: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
Q: 1s2 2s2 2p5
When P and Q combine to form a compound, determine the most possible formula of
this compound and the type of bonding between them.
Formula

Types of bonding

PQ2

covalent

P2Q

covalent

PQ2

electrovalent

P2Q3

electrovalent

The Lewis structure of SOCl 2 is given as follows:


O
Cl

Cl

The formal charges on sulphur, chlorine and oxygen are


Sulphur

Chlorine

Oxygen

-1

+2

-1

+2

-1

-1

+2

-2

Which of the following is/are exceptional to octet rule:


I

OF2

II

ClO2+

III

SnCl2

Identify the species that involve(s) dative bond.


I

H3O+

II

NH
4

TUTORIAL 4.1: LEWIS STRUCTURE

III
6

Al2Cl6

For the formation of ionic bonds between two atoms,


I

the difference in their electronegativity must be large.

II

one of the atoms must be a metal while the other must be a non-metal.

III

each atom must achieve octet configuration.

In the phosphate ion, PO43- ion,


I

all the bonds are single bonds.

II

a resonance hybrid best describes its structure.

III

the bonds are intermediate between single and double bonds.

The triple bond in the nitrogen molecule


I

consist of six electron pairs.

II

is stronger and shorter than the N N single bond.

III

consists of 1 bond and two bonds.