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Frequency-domain

Joong-Moon Kim, Studenl Member, IEEE, Seung-11 Moon, Member, IEEE and Jonghoon Lee,

system generators has generally been done with the off-line

open-circuit model of the synchronous generator. When the

generator

is connected on-line and operating

at rated load

conditions, the AVR operates in an entirely different environment

from the open-circuit conditions. This paper describes a new

method for AVR parameter tuning for on-line conditions using

parameter

optimization

technique

with frequency

response

characteristics of linearized on-line system model.

As the proposed method uses the online system model, the

tuned parameters

show the optimal behavior in the on-line

operating conditions. Furthermore,

as this method considers the

performance

indices that are needed for stable operation as

constraints, the performance of the tuned parameter guarantees

the stable operation.

Abstract--

AVR parameter

Parameter

Tuning,

Index

Terms-- Excitation

System,

Automatic

Voltage

Regulators,

Parameter

Optimization,

Linearized model

I. INTRODUCTION

affect the power system dynamic response and stability.

For the proper tuning of these parameters, analytical method

using frequency response techniques on the open-loop

excitation control system with generator off-line have been

widely utilized [1,2]. Since the AVR operates in an entirely

different control environment when the generator operated in

on-line condition, the parameter set that is tuned by using the

off-line model may not give the optimal performances in online conditions.

A frequency domain technique, using on-line generator

model obtained from the detailed transient stability program,

for the parameter tuning of AVR has been introduced [3].

Although this method intends to improve the terminal voltage

response with on-line operating condition, it can not yield the

parameter set for optimal performance at various operating

conditions. Many researches to improve the performance of

Joong-MoonKimk with

dong, Seoul

Seung-11

dong, Seoul

Jonghoon

dong, Seoul

Seoul National Uni versity, Kwanak-gu, Shinlim151-742, South Korea (e-mail: blues kilm@koreamail. conl).

Moon is with Seoul National University, Kwanak-gu, Shinlim151-742, South Korea (e-mail: simoon@plaza,snu.a c.kr).

Lee is with Seoul National University, Kwanak-gu, Shinlim151-742, South Korea (e-mail: ljoho@powerlab. snu.ac.kr).

compensators such as pole-zero canceling compensator and

G.T.F.Regenerator Transfer Function Regulator) have been

performed [3,4,5]. In spite of the improvements, these

methods do not easily applicable to the already installed

conventional AVRS.

In this paper, a new AVR parameter tuning method using

parameter optimization technique with the frequency response

of linearized on-line power system model is presented.

Parameter optimization technique inherently reduces the

efforts to performing tradeoffs between the performance

improvements and the stability. In addition, since this method

needs no additional compensator, the optimal parameters of

conventional AVRS are readily obtained at the various

operating conditions. Relationships between the performance

indices of the frequency domain and the on-line time domain

performance are described. Object functions to acquire the

parameter set that produce the fast and stable responses at

various operating conditions are also proposed, Case studies

performed with two basic types of exciter models at different

loading conditions, to verify the performance of proposed

tuning method.

II. LINEARIZEDON-LINESYSTEMMODEL

Fig. 1, shows the overall system configuration that is used

for parameter tuning.

oG

1---7;

+

Large ~

system ~

L---------J

Based on Parks equations, generator model which

and two q-axis

one d-axis amortisseur

incorporates

amortisseurs is used in the system model. The system dynamic

equations including swing, generator, transmission line and

1554

0-7803-7031-7/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE

complete system dynamic equation is obtained.

Ah

A(z

r

AS

al2 *13

210000

A ~ fd _ 31 32 a33

@id

a41 42 43

A@,q

5I 52 a53

A @2q _a61 62 a63

14 15 a16

al I

t=

5A6

34

a44

a54

64

35

45

55

a65

bO

11

00

A;

A I#fd

ATM

36

0 32

AY,d

+

00

AEFD

46

[1

00

56 Av,q

a66_@2q

.0

0-

IV. RELATIONSHIPS

BETWEENTHECHARACTERISTICS

OFTHE

FREQUENCY-DOMAIN

ANDTHEON-LINEPERFORMANCES

(1)

excitation control system is measured in terms of the gain

margin and phase margin, and the crossover frequency Uc is

6Avfd +61A ld

torque variation and AEFDrepresents

the

mechanical input torque ATMis neglected. Detailed equations

for the coefficients in the above equation are given in [6].

The complete state equations could be obtained by

compounding above state equation and state equation of

excitation system, which is discussed in the next section, and

could be converted into the transfer-function form @E,/ AVref)

[1]. When the synchronous machine is connected to the power

system, the system performances are greatly influenced by its

operating level and the parameters of the external system [8].

So in order to verify the relationships between the

characteristics of frequency-domain and on-line performance

with generator on-line condition, various case studies have

been performed with different type of excitation systems at

wide operating range. As an example, the relationships of both

characteristics with IEEE ST2A type exciter at three different

operating conditions are shown in Fig. 3. Generator and

exciter parameters and operating conditions used in this

example are given in Table. I.

TABLE. L SYSTEM PARAMETERS

III.

LINEARIZED EXCITATION

Generator parameters

MODEL

,

na

verify the proposed tuning method. The block diagram of the

ST2A exc;at~on system is-shown in Fig. 2 [7].

In

v.

K,

v,

sK,

, .*

.

v,

ST,

v.

V.,.

I,.

11

1+ sT,

IN

&

o-

F,x .

5:;

0.05

1;;

0.;5

,,3.5

L,

L:,

L;

i,

L:

0.198

1.728

0.45

0.09

T.

T,

K,,

120.0

0.15

1.0

0.5

0.0

1.19

K,

K,

T,.

R.

x,

c!

0.158

0.158

0.158

0.673

0.673

0.673

7.2

23.1

41.6

0.15

0.3

0.5

A V,.

=

I

[ ~ETr

~J,

T, j

system is given in (3). For the purpose of linear analysis, the

product point on the main control path is changed by the gain

VB, which is calculated by operating condition.

1.0

El =1.0

Q,

0.06

0.12

0.2

transmission system

provide excitation control loop damping. Detailed description

of this excitation system model is described in [7].

A V,

L,

KE

where,

A&,.

0.0

TA

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

K,,

K,

f[I.]

2.5

0.5

Operating Conditions

1 + sT,

T

do

1.8

0.27

Exciter parameters

..

As

shown

the generator is connected to the power system. It is clear that

the large crossover frequency is indicative of the fast rise time

at all operating conditions. In addition, as shown in the Fig. 3b, and Fig. 3-c, phase margin and gain margin are also the

measures of relative stability at the generator on-line

conditions. It should be noted that simultaneous optimization

of all performance indices is not possible. As shown in the Fig

3-c, high phase margin and high gain margin for the stable

operation are not compatible with large crossover frequency

for fast response.

1555

0-7803-7031-7/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE

45

50

OIc

[rad/see]

55

60

65

70

Phase Margin[degree]

(b)

(a)

1,5

20

25

Q,

30

35

[rad/see]

(c)

Fig. 3. Relationships between the characteristics of frequency domain and time domain

required for improvement of transient stability [6]. For the fast

excitation response, the crossover frequency should be high.

Although the high crossover frequency makes the system

response fast, it leads to reduce the phase margin and gain

margin of the frequency response. Consequently, it recluces

the damping of system oscillations.

Therefore,

the

compromise between the fast excitation response and the welldamped response is needed for stable operations.

V. OBJECTFUNCTIONANDOPTIMIZATION

TECHNIQUE

In this paper, constrained optimizatic,n technique is used to

solve the compromise problem and Sequential Quachatic

Programming(SQP) method is used to solve the constrained

optimization problem [9, 10]. In this method, an approximation

is made of the Hessian of the Lagrangian function using a

quasi-Newton updating method and ~~QP sub-problem is

solved at each iteration. This is then used to generate a QP

sub-problem whose solution is used to form a search direction

for a line search procedure. Detailed description of the routine

is given in [9,10,1 1].

Object function and constraints that are used in the

proposed method is shown below (4).

Maximize (coC+ WXPM) of on-line system model (4-1)

Subject to

where,

G.M of off-line system model >6 dB (4-3)

P.M of on-line system model > 65 (4-4)

- the weighting value of the phase margin

inherently obtained from this object ftmction because of the

nature of optimization technique. To solve the comprc)mise

problem between fast response and stable response, phase

margin with proper weighting value is also included in the

object function. To guarantee the stable operation of obtained

parameter set, at the generator off-line commissioning phase,

minimum phase margin and gain margin of the off-line model

to guarantee the stable operation at the generator on-line

condition, the minimum phase margin of the on-line model is

also considered as constraints. From the various case studies,

65 of phase margin of on-line system model guarantees the

well-damped stable operation. When the load-angle is so large,

the constraint (4-4) for the well-damped stable operation is not

satisfied any longer. Therefore, at these large load-angle

conditions, system response shows so oscillatory response

because of the lack of damping torque [6,8]. An effective way

to solve this problem is to provide a power system stabilizer.

Both phase margin and gain margin can be used in the

object function to solve the compromise problem. However,

gain margin has an adverse characteristic that is not applicable

to the optimization technique. Gain margin has the

characteristic of monotonously increase as increase of some

parameters, for example the excitation control system

stabilizer gain KF. So very large values of parameter sets, that

are not applicable in the real exciter, may be obtained when

the gain margin is considered in the object function, Therefore,

it is more reasonable to use the phase margin in the object

function.

The numerical value of phase margin is much higher than

the numerical value of the crossover frequency as shown in

Fig. 3. So the normalizing factor to reduce the numerical value

of phase margin to the reasonable range must be considered in

the object function. In addition, excitation control system

response shows more oscillatory response caused by lack of

damping torque as the load-angle is increased. Therefore, to

satisfy the stable operation (4-4), more value of phase margin

is needed as the load-angle is increased.

Unfortunately, the system response and performance

indices used in the object function are affected by many

factors, such as system configuration, load-angle and exciter

type, etc. Consequently, it is hard to determine the proper

weighting value analytically. Therefore, to determine the

suitable weighting value of phase margin for the different

operating conditions, various case studies have been

performed with different types of excitation system at wide

1556

0-7803-7031-7/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE

of excitation systems are summarized in the table. II.

(Rate feedback)

0-200

0.1-0.2

II

0-500

0.1-0.2

20-50

0,2- 0.3

II 50-60

0.2- 0.3

50-60

0.3- 0.5

parameter

reposed

Method

K, = 0.056

malytical

Method

K, = 0.067

Over

shoot

Rise

Time

8.7

0.71

0/0

LOa-@7ssF

Weighting value

Load-angle

Tuning

Method

Settling

Time (Syo)

2.9

see]

8.9

0.79

%0

[see]

[see]

3.1

(see]

1.035

II 600-65~J

1.030

1.025

VI.

CASE STUDY

1.020

operating conditions has been performed to verify the

performance of proposed tuning method. Block diagram of

2

Q

Ur

assumed unadjustable to provide the good steady state

performance and the excitation system stabilizer time con stant

T,

1.015

1,010

1.005

parameters and Exciter parameters usedl in this case study are

given in Table, L Table, HI and Table [V show the operating

conditions that are used in this case study.

is

1.000

In

time (see)

Operating Conditions

E,

<

Q,

0,2

1.0

0.06

R,

XE

0.210

0.603

13.7

lY. OPER,ATINGCONDITION

Operating Conditions

x,

~

Q,

8

L

0.210

h

TABLE.

0.5

0.1

1.0

0.158

0.673

0.205-

.,

6

45.3

~

each case are 13.70 and 45.30 respectively. Therefore, the

weighting values of the phase margin are chosen to 0.15 and

0.3 to prevent the excessive crossover frequency. The

parameter that is tuned by analytical method using off-line

KF = 0.067

[2]. To verify the performance

model is

improvement of parameter set that is tuned by proposed

method, time-domain simulation is performed on both

parameters using the reaI-time simulator [12]. Test signal,

which is used in the simulation, is the 3/0 step change of the

AVR reference value at 0.5 sec. Simulation results are given

in Table. V, Table. VI, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5.

0.200 ~

~~

o.195-

0.190 I

o

1 ;

--------- Analytical

.:

:

I

2

r

I

1

4

,.I

6

method

I

i3

time (see)

Fig.4. Simulationresults(3%stepchangein

1557

V,e, , d = 13.7 )

1

10

time and settling time than the response of the parameter that

is tuned by analytical method. They also show some more

oscillatory but well-damped response of electrical torque.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

This paper presents an AVR parameter tuning method using

optimization technique with frequency responses of on-line

system model. The proposed tuning method find the optimal

parameters that maximize the object function in order to

improve the voltage response at on-line conditions and satisfy

the constraints in order to guarantee the stable operation of

both the generator on-line conditions and the generator offline conditions. So the efforts for performing tradeoffs

between fast response and stable operation are greatly reduced.

In addition, as the proposed method uses the on-line system

model, the parameters tuned by this method show more

optimal responses than tuned by traditional method using offline model at the operating condition.

Since this method needs no additional compensators, the

optimal parameter sets of conventional AVRS are readily

obtained at the various operating conditions.

m=]

VIII. REFERENCES

10

time (see)

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

10

[10]

time (see)

[11]

Fig.5. Simulation results (3% step change in V,C~, ~ = 45.3 )

[12]

parameters that are tuned by proposed method show more

optimal responses than the parameter that is tuned by

conventional analytical method. The system responses c)f the

tuned parameters increase the performance of the terminal

voltage response and maintain the well-damped performance

of the electrical torque. They show smaller overshoot, rise

Performance ojExcitation Control Systems, IEEE Std. 421.2-1990.

Rodolfo J. Koessler, Techniques

for tuning excitation system

parameters, IEEE Trarw Energy Conversion, vol. 3, No. 4, pp.785-791,

December 1988.

K. Bollinger, R, Lalonde, Tuning Synchronous Generator Voltage

Regulators Using On-line Generator Models, IEEE Trans. Power

Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-96, No. 1, pp. 32-37, Jan/Feb 1977.

Raczkowski, C., Complex Root Compensator A New Concept For

Dynamic Stability hmprovernent, IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and

Systems, Vol. PAS-93, No. 6, pp. 1842-1848, Nov/Dec 1974.

M. S. Ghazizadeh, F. M. Hughes, A Generator Transfer Function

Regulator For Improved Excitation Control, IEEE Trans. Power

$irrenrs, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 435-441, May 1998.

P, Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, New York: McGrawHill, 1994.

IEEE Recommended Practice fbr Excitation System Models for Power

System Stability Studies, IEEE Std. 421.5-1992.

deMello, F, P,, C, Concordia, Concepts of synchronous machine

stability as affected by excitation control, IEEE Trans. Power

Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-88, No. 4, pp. 316-329, Apr. 1969.

M.J.D. Powell, A Fast Algorithm for Nonlinear

Constrained

optimization

Calculations, Numerical Analysis, ed. GA. Watson,

Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer Verlag, Vol. 630, 1978.

P, E. Gill, W. Murray, and M. H. Wright, Numerical Linear Algebra and

optimization, Vol. 1, Addison Wesley, 1991.

Matlab optimization toolbox users guide, Massachusetts: MathWorks,

1997.

Seung-111 Moon, Kook-Hun Kim, Jong-Bo Ahn, Seog-Joo Kim, JongMoo Lee, So-Hyung Kim, 11-Do Yoo, Jung-mun Kim, Development of

a new on-line Synchronous Generator Simulator using Personal

Computer for Excitation System Studies, IEEE Trans. Power Systems,

VO]. 13, No. 3, pp. 762-767, Aug. 1998.

1558

0-7803-7031-7/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE

IX.

BIOGFL4PHIES,

Korea in 1971. He received his B.S. and M.S. degree

in electrical engineerinj~ from Chonbuk National

University, Korea in 1996 and 1998. Currently, he is

a Ph.D. candidate of Electrical Engineering with

Seoul National University in Korea. His research

interests are control and modeling of the power

system dynamics

in 1962. He received the B. S.E.E. degree from Seoul

National University, Korea in 1985 and the M. S.E.E.

and Ph.D. degrees from The Ohio State University in

1989 and 1993, respectively. Currently, he is an

Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering with

Seoul National University in Korea. His research

interests include analysis, control and modeling of

the power systems and the flexible AC transmission

systems,

Jonghoon Lee (S2001) was born in Kunsan, Korea

in 1976. He received the B.S. degree in Electrical

Engineering from Seoul National University, Korea

in 2000. He is the MS, candidate and his present

research interests are the voltage stability and the

control of the HVDC transmission systems.

1559

0-7803-7031-7/01/$10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE

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