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Chapter 5

Navier-Stokes Equations

Problem 5.1. Stokes second problem


Consider an infinite flat plate y = 0 subject to oscillations with velocity Uw cos !t in the x-direction.
The fluid in the half-space y > 0 is Newtonian, homogeneous, and incompressible. Assume that body
forces are negligible, that the pressure is uniform and constant, and that the flow driven by the plate is
unidirectional along x.
(a) Write down the equation and boundary conditions satisfied by vx (y, t) (x-component of the velocity
field).
(b) Assume that the solution can be written
vx (y, t) = Re[U (y)ei!t ],

(5.1)

where Re denotes the real part. Find an equation and boundary conditions for U (y), and solve that equation. Infer the solution for vx (y, t).
(c) Sketch the velocity profile at t = 0. What is the characteristic thickness
moving next to the wall?

of the layer of fluid that is

Problem 5.2. Startup of shear flow


A Newtonian incompressible fluid with constant density and kinematic viscosity is placed between
two parallel infinite flat plates separated by a distance h. Initially, both plates are at rest. At t = 0, the
bottom plate (at y = 0) starts to translate with a constant velocity U = U ex . Assume that the flow is
unidirectional in the x-direction, that body forces can be neglected, and that the pressure is constant and
uniform everywhere in the fluid.
(a) Determine the velocity field u = u(y, t)ex between the two plates.
(b) Sketch the velocity profile for different values of the parameter 2 t/h2 . What flow do you recover
when 2 t/h2 ! 1?
Problem 5.3. Circular Couette flow
Consider the steady flow of a Newtonian fluid between two infinite concentric cylinders of radii Ri (inner)
and Ro (outer) that are rotating around their common axis at angular velocities !i and !o . The density
and viscosity of the fluid are both constant and uniform. In cylindrical coordinates (r, , z), assume
that the flow is uniform in the z- and -directions, and that its direction is azimuthal in the (r, ) plane:
u = u (r)e .
(a) Write down the Navier-Stokes equations and boundary conditions for this problem using cylindrical
coordinates. Simplify as much as you can using the stated assumptions.
(b) Solve for the velocity profile u (r), and determine all the integration constants. Sketch the velocity
profile.
(c) Determine the pressure p(r) up to an additive integration constant.
Problem 5.4. Flow down an inclined plane
An incompressible liquid (constant density and viscosity ) is flowing under the influence of gravity g
17

(seeplane
figure).
Assume
the
flow
is the
steady,
unidirectional
along
x, and
uniform thickn
inalon
the
down a very long
at that
an angle
to
horizontal,
forming
asteady,
film
of
constant
! inclined
(see
figure).
Assume
that
the
flow
unidirectional
atmosphere
atmosphere
downdown
a very
long
plane
inclined
at an
angle
angle
toishthe
forming
a
a very
long
plane
inclined
at
an
horizontal,
tonthe
fo
y p
n horizontal,
= vthe
,isand
that
the
pressure
only
depends
on
y:
p
=
p(y).
v =!
vv
(y)e
and
the
pressure
only
depends
on
y:
=
p(y).
!
(see figure). Assume
flowxthat
steady,
unidirectional
along
x,
and
uniform
in
the
x
and
z
direc
y
xthat
x ,(y)e
v Assume
= vthat
and
that
theispressure
only
depends
on
y:
p unifo
=x,p(a
!
Assume
the
is
steady,
unidirectional
along
x,
and
! (see figure).
x (y)e
x ,flow
(seeliquid
figure).
that
the
flow
steady,
unidirectional
along
"
!y: p = p(y).
v = vx (y)ex , and that thev pressure
only
depends
onpressure
nonly depends
nthe pressure
= vx=
(y)e
, and
on yny:=p0on
= p(y).
vxx(y)e
and
that
only depends
y: p = p(y).
y the
y x ,that
v(y)
y
v(y)
a
!
n
y
x
n
!
n
atmosphere
y
y !
!
liquid
!
y =yh= h
liquid
!
atmosphere
atmosphere
g liquid
g
atmosp
!
!
!
v(y)v(y)
n
atmosphere
!
!
!
atmosphere
atmosphere
!liquid liquid!
x
!
!
xh h
liquid
!
!
v(y)
!
!
!
liquid
!
!
18
5 liquid
Navier-Stokes
Equations
liquid
v(y) v(y)
g
!
x
v(y)
x
"
!
v(y)
!! "
v(y)x v(y) y =y0= 0
h
y=h
down a very long plane inclined
at an angle to the horizontal,x forming a film of constant
thickness
h g ! !g
x
x !
!
= h isatmosphere
!
y=h
!
(see figure). Assume that they flow
steady,
unidirectional
along
x,
and
uniform
in
the
x
and
z
directions:
g
atmosphere
g
g

!
v = vx (y)ex , and that the pressure
only
depends on y: p = p(y). !
h
liquid
!!
h!
!
liquid
!
!
!
x
! ! !
!h
!
nn
!
!
!
!
!
y
! "! "
atmosphere
v(y)
!
atmosphere
"
v(y)
" ! "y!=!0 " y
!
!
liquid
! ! x
y =!0
(a) Justifying
the momentum equation, projected
g every step in the derivation, show that
liquid
!along the
g
atmosphere
atmosphere
n
y directions,
leads
to
the
two
equations
!
h
!
!
n
atmosphere
atmosphere
h
atmosphereatmosphere
liquid liquid
!
!
v(y)
y=h
v(y)
2
!
liquidy = h
!!
n
liquid
!!
n liquidliquid
g d! vx

!
!
n n g sin n + g 2 = 0,
n
v(y)
v(y)
h h dy
x
v(y)
v(y)
v(y) x
g
v(y)
g
y = h dp
y
g g
g y
g gcos y+= h = 0.
h
h h
dy
(a) Justifying yevery
in the
that the momentum equation, projected al
h derivation, show
h
= hystep
=
h
h
x show
(a)
Justifying
every
step
in
the
derivation,
that the momentum equation, projected along
y two
= hy equations
x
directions,
leads
to
the
=
h
y=
h
to the
y directions,
=y hy
(b) Knowing
that the leads
pressure
the
interfacey between
the liquid and the atmosphere is given b
attwo
equations

x
y
=
0
x pxa , solve

constantxatmospheric pressure
for
p(y).
d2 2 vx
x
g
sin

0, in the derivation, show that


y
(a)
Justifying
every
d
vx2 =step
xgviscous
dytensor)
y
(a)
Justifying
step
inisthe
derivation,
show that
the
sin +stress
every
=to0,the
(c) The viscous
traction t =yny (where
is the
zero
at the interface
betwee
y
2
y
directions,
leads
(a) Justifying every step in the derivation, show
that the momentum
equation,
projected
xtwo
andequations
dyalong
(a) Justifying
every
step
in
the
derivation,
show
that
the
momentum
equation,
projec
dp
yyevery
directions,
leads
to
thethe
two
equations
(a)
Justifying
every
step
in
the
derivation,
show
that
the
momentum
equation,
liquid(a)and
the
atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
derive
a
boundary
condition
for
the
velocity
v
(y)
at
y
(a)
Justifying
every
step
in
the
derivation,
show
that
the
momentum
equatio
x
(a)
Justifying
step
in
the
derivation,
show
that
the
momentum
Justifying every
step in the
derivation,
show
that
the momentum
g cos
+dp = 0.equation, projected along the
y directions, leads to theWhat
two equations
y directions,
leads
to
the
twothe
equations
is
the
boundary
condition
at
y
=
0?
y
directions,
leads
to
two
equations
y
directions,
leads
to
the
two
equations
dy
d
y
directions,
leads
to
the
two
equations
(a)
Justifying
every
step
in
the
derivation,
show
that
the
mom
g
cos

+
=
0.
y directions, leads to the two equations
g sin +d2vx
dy
2
2
y
directions,
leads
to
the
two
equations
+ 2d
(d) Solve for the velocity vxd(y).
vx Sketch the velocity profile.
d vx d2 vd2 vx gd2sin
vx
dy
g sin that
+ the 2pressure
= 0, at the interfaced2g
(5.2)
x the atmosphere
(b) Knowing
between
the
liquid
and
+sin
sin
=sin
0,
vxsin g
g

=
0,
2
g

= 0, is

=
0,
dy
2
dy
(e) Calculate
the
volumetric
flow
rate
Q
(per
unit
length
in
the
z
direction),
defined
as
g
sin

=
0,
2
2
2
dy
(b)
Knowing
that
the
pressure
at
the
interface
between
the
liquid
and
the
atmosphere
is
g
cos
+
dp
dy
dy
constant atmospheric pressure pa , solve for p(y).
d vx+gi
dy 2
g
cos
dp
dp
g
sin

=
0
dp
constant atmospheric
pressure
p
,
solve
for
p(y).
Z
dp
a
2
dy
dp
g costraction
+ t==0.n (where his the viscous
(5.3)
+cos
=
0.
dpg cosstress
(c) The viscous
is=
zero
at the=dy
interfac
gtensor)
cos
g
+cos
=+0.
0.
0.
g

+
dy
dy
g
cos

+
=
0.
dy
Q =fact,
vthe
dy.
dyvelocity
x (y)
dyat
(c) The
traction t =Using
n (where
isderive
viscous
stress
is
zero
the
interface
liquid
andviscous
the atmosphere.
this
a boundary
condition
for
vbx
dy
dpbetw
(b)
Knowing
that
the tensor)
pressure
theatthe
interface
0
g cos
+
=
0
Knowing
that
the pressure
at the
interface
between
liquid
atmosphere.
Using
fact,
derive
a
boundary
condition
for
the
velocity
v
(y)
What
is and
the the
boundary
condition
at this
y =(b)
0?
x
constant
atmospheric
pressure
pa , solve
for
p(y).
dy
(b) Knowing that the pressure at the interface
between
the
liquid
and constant
the
atmosphere
is at
given
by
the
(b) Knowing
that
the
pressure
atpressure
theatmospheric
interface
between
the
liquid
and
the
atmosph
(b)
Knowing
that
the
at
the
interface
between
the
liquid
and
the
(b)
Knowing
that
the
pressure
the
interface
between
the
liquid
pressure
pa , solve
for p(y).
What
is the
condition
y =pressure
0?thebetween
Knowing
that
the
at thethe
interface
between
the liquid
and
the at
Problem
6.5.
Wind-driven
flow
inside
aSketch
lake
Knowing
thatboundary
the(b)
pressure
theat
interface
liquid
and
the
atmosphere
is given
Solve
the
velocity
vxat(y).
velocity
profile.
constant
atmospheric
pressure
pa ,p(y).
solve
p(y).
constant atmospheric pressure(b)
pa(d)
, solve
forfor
p(y).
constant
atmospheric
pressure
p(c)
solve
for
viscous
traction
t for
= n
(where
is
thex-dire
visco
constant
atmospheric
pressure
p
solve
p(y).
a , The
a , for
Consider
a
large
lake,
over
which
wind
is
blowing
and
exerts
a
constant
shear
stress
S
in
the
constant
atmospheric
pressure
p
,
solve
for
p(y).
constant
atmospheric
pressure
p
,
solve
for
p(y).
a
(c)
The
viscous
traction
t = at
n
(where
isbetween
the viscous
(d)Calculate
Solve forthe
thevolumetric
velocity vxa(y).
Sketch
the
velocity
profile.
(b)
Knowing
that
the
pressure
the
interface
the
liquid
and
the
atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
derive
azer
bl
(e)
flow
rate
Q
(per
unit
length
in
the
z
direction),
defined
as
(c)
The
viscous
traction
tand
=
(where
is the
viscous
stress
tensor)
is
viscous
traction
t=
n
(where
=is
the steady
viscous
stress
tensor)
isderive
zero
atain
the
in
(c) The viscous traction t(see
= n
(where
is(c)
theThe
viscous
tensor)
isis
zero
at
then
between
figure
below).
The
goal
ofstress
this
problem
totraction
determine
the
flow
established
the
(c)
The
viscous
tinterface
n
(where
the
is field
the
viscous
stress
tenso
liquid
the
atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
boun
(c)
The
viscous
traction
t
=
n
(where

is
the
viscous
stress
tensor)
is
zero
a
(c) The
viscous
traction
t
=
n
(where

is
the
viscous
stress
tensor)
is
zero
at
the
interface
betwe
constant
atmospheric
pressure
pdirection),
for
p(y).
What
is
boundary
condition
ydefined
=boundary
0?condition
a , solve
(e) Calculate
theaand
volumetric
flow
rate
Q
(per
unit
the
zyfact,
liquid
and
atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
derive
aatboundary
for
liquid
the
atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
athis
boundary
condition
forasThe
the condi
veloc
liquid
and
the
atmosphere.
Using
derive
a0?
liquid and the atmosphere.
this
fact, derive
boundary
condition
for
the
vxin
(y)
at
=
h.
by Using
the wind.
Assume
that
the
lake
has
athe
constant
depth
hthe
before
the
wind
starts
wind
Zlength
0
What
isavelocity
the
boundary
condition
y =blowing.
hderive
liquid
and
the
atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
derive
a
boundary
condition
for
th
liquid and the atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
derive
boundary
condition
for
the
velocity
v
(y)
at
y
x
is theiscondition
boundary
condition
at vythe=
What
the(c)
boundary
at
y=
0?v(where
boundary
at
ySolve
=
The
viscous
traction
t0?=
n
is thethe
viscous
stress
What is the boundary condition at y = 0? What is theWhat
(d)
velocity
velocity
p
Z0?yfor
Q
=condition
x (y). Sketch
hthe
is the at
boundary
at
= xvelocity
0?(y) dy.vx (y).
What is the boundaryWhat
condition
y = 0? condition
(d) Solve
for
Sketch the velocity profi
0
liquid
and
the
atmosphere.
Using
this
fact,
derive
a
boundary
(d)
Solve
for
the
velocity
v
(y).
Sketch
the
velocity
profile.
x
Q
=
v
(y)
dy.
(d)
Solve
for
the
velocity
v
(y).
Sketch
the
velocity
profile.
(d) Solveprofile.
for the velocity vx (y).(e)Sketch
thexvelocity
profile. flow rate Q (per unit leng
xthe volumetric
(d) Solve for the velocity vx (y). Sketch the velocity
Calculate
(d) Solve for the velocity
vx (y).
the
velocity
profile.
(d) Solve
forSketch
the velocity
vCalculate
(y).boundary
Sketch
the
velocity
profile.
(e)
flow
(per unit length
0 the volumetric
What
isxlake
the
condition
at
ylength
=rate
0? Q
Problem
6.5.
Wind-driven
flow
inside
a
(e)
Calculate
the
volumetric
flow
rate
Q
(per
unit
in
the zin
direction),
(e)
Calculate
the
volumetric
flow
rate
Q
(per
unit
length
the Zz dir
(e)
Calculate
thethe
volumetric
flowdefined
rate Q as
(per unit length
in
the
z direction),
defined
as
(e) Calculate the volumetric flow
rate
Q
(per
unit
length
in
z
direction),
(e) Consider
Calculate
volumetric
flowwhich
rate
Q
(per
unit
length
in
z vdirection),
defined
Z hS inhdet
(e)
Calculate
the volumetric
flow
ratevelocity
Qthe
(per
unit
inthe
the
zasdirection),
large
lake,
over
wind
is
blowing
and
exerts
a length
constant
shear
stress
(d) Solve
for the
Sketch
velocity
profile.
Problemathe
6.5.
Wind-driven
flow
inside
a lake
x (y).
Z
Z
Q
=
v
h
Z
h
Z The goal of this problem
h the steady flow
(see
figure abelow).
determine
field
establish
Q =S
vthe
Z his to and
Consider
largehlake,
over which wind
is blowing
exerts
aQflow
constant
shear
stress
inin
Z=hrate
0x (yx
v
(y)
dy.
x
Q
=
v
(y)
dy.
(e)
Calculate
the
volumetric
Q
(per
unit
length
the
x
0
Q = h0 before
vx (y)
dy.
Q=
vxThe
(y)
dy.
(5.4)
by(see
thefigure
wind.
Assume
thatgoal
theof
lake
constant
depth
the
wind
starts
blowing.
below).
thishas
problem
is vtox (y)
determine
the
steady
flow
Qa =
dy. Q
0 field established
v0flow
dy.
x (y)
0 =
0
Problem
6.5. Wind-driven
inside
a
lake
Z
0
0the
h
by the wind. AssumeProblem
that the 6.5.
lake has Problem
a constant6.5.
depth
h0 before
starts
blowing.
The
Wind-driven
flowwind
inside
a lake
flow
inside
a lake
ProblemWind-driven
6.5.flow
Wind-driven
flow
inside
a lake
Consider
a lake
large
lake,
over
which wind
is blowing
an
Problem
6.5.
Wind-driven
inside
a
Q
=
v
(y)
dy.
Problem 5.5. HydrodynamicProblem
slip
Consider
a
large
lake,
over
which
wind
is
blowing
and
ex
x
6.5. Wind-driven
flow
inside
lake
Consider
aWind-driven
large
lake,
over
which
wind
iswind
blowing
andthis
exerts
constant
she
Problem
6.5.
flow
inside
a lake
Consider
aalarge
lake,
over
which
is blowing
andaexerts
atocons
(see
figure
below).
The
goal
of
problem
isstress
det
0
Consider
a
large
lake,
over
which
wind
is
blowing
and
exerts
a
constant
shear
S
Experiments in microfluidic devices
have
shown
that
the
no-slip
boundary
condition
can
sometimes
be
in(see
figure
below).
The
goal
of
this
problem
is
to
determ
Consider a large lake,
over
which
wind
isbelow).
blowing
and
exerts
athis
constant
shear
stress
Sconstant
insteady
thethe
x-dir
(see
figure
below).
The
goal
ofgoal
thisAssume
is to
determine
the
flow
(see
figure
The
ofproblem
problem
is to
determine
ste
Consider
a large
lake,
over
which
wind
isto
blowing
and
exerts
a aconstant
shear
by
the
wind.
that
the
lake
has
dep
(see
figure
below).
The
goal
of
this
problem
is
determine
the
steady
flow
field
est
accurate, especially when the (see
channel
walls
are made
hydrophobic
surfaces.
more
accurate
boundary
by
the
Assume
the
lake
has
a constant
depth
before
wind
figure
below).
The of
goal
of
this
isthat
toA
determine
the
steady
flow
field
established
in th
th
Problem
6.5.
Wind-driven
inside
ahdepth
lake
0the
bywind.
the problem
wind.
Assume
that
the
lake
has
constant
h0 the
before
figure
below).
goal
of
this
problem
isflow
toahdetermine
steady
flow
fis
by the(see
wind.
Assume
thata The
the lake
has
a constant
depth
the
wind
starts
blow
0 before
condition in this case is the following:
by the wind. Assume
that
the
lake
has
constant
depth
h
before
the
wind
starts
blowing.
The
win
0 a constant
largehas
lake,
over which
wind
blowing
exerts
by the wind. AssumeConsider
that thealake
depth
h0isbefore
theand
wind
sta

vt = b n rvt

at the wall,

(see figure below). The goal of this problem is to determine t


(5.5)
by the wind. Assume that the lake has a constant depth h0 bef

where vt is the tangential component of the velocity vector, n is a unit normal vector pointing into the
fluid, and b is a given constant.
(a) What are the dimensions of b?
(b) Consider the pressure-driven flow of an incompressible homogeneous Newtonian fluid in a cylindrical microchannel of radius a (cylindrical Poiseuille flow). Solve for the velocity vx (r) in cylindrical
coordinates, using the boundary condition (5.5).

< 0 a uniform3
and removing it6 through
the other,
cr
when the 1plates
<0
Navier-Stokes
Equations
of the plates, and y-direction
aligned
gH 3 to the 2p
Q = normal

3
(x, y, z) with originwhere
on the
centerplane
of

: the entrance
Q = gH
(6.27)
(1 ) t
8
=
0 /gH. say
component
u
constant,
U3
. Show
that
y is
:
(1 <)02 1 +
when of
< the
1velocity
when

1y-direction
plates,
and
aligned
normal
to
the
plate
3
2

3
gH

Q=
Problem
6.11. Flow in a (6.27)
channe

where
2 the
component
uy0 /gH.
is constant,
say(pU0 . porous
Show
that
:
(1 )2 1 +velocity
when
< 1 =An
pL )H
incompressible Newtonian
fluid of1 de
3
2
ux (y) =
where = 0 /gH.
Problem length
6.11. Flow
in a porous
with
inje
L, separation
2Hchannel
L
L, 2and
infinite
Re
(pthe
pLof)H
1 plate
y
0 fluid
An incompressible
Newtonian
density
over
the
length
of
plates.
The
two
where

/gH.
0
Problem 6.11. Flow in a porous channel with injection/suction
ux (y)
= L, and infinite width.and
length
L,
separation
2H
Th
the
plates
and
removing
it
through
the
oth
L
Re
H
wheretwo
Reparallel
= U H/
is the19
crossflow Reynolds nu
5 An
Navier-Stokes
Equations
incompressible
Newtonian
fluid
density channel
and viscosity
flows beween
plates
of
over the length
the
plates.
The
plates
(x,flat
y,of
z)
with
origin
ontwo
thefor
centerplane
Problem
6.11. Flow
in of
a porous
with injection/suction
plates.
Sketch
the
axial
velocity
profile
Reareporou
1,ofR
length L, separation
2H

L,
and
infinite
width.
The
flow
is
induced
by
a
pressure
difference
(p
p
)
the
plates
and
removing
it
through
the
other,
unifor
0
L
of
the
plates,
and
y-direction
aligned
nor
An incompressible Newtonian fluid of density and viscosity
Re
flows
beween
two
parallel
flat plates
of anumb
where
=
U
H/
is
the
crossflow
Reynolds
(c)over
What
the value
v (a) ofThe
the velocity
at theporous:
wall? Sketch
the velocity
profile,
andy,
give
an origin
interpreta(x,
z)
with
on of
the centerplane
of)the say
entran
theislength
of the
injecting
of
the
same
fluid
through
one
velocity
component
u
is
constant,
U
y
length
L,xplates.
separationtwo
2H plates
L,are
and infiniteby
width.
Themore
flow
is
induced
by
a
pressure
difference
(p
p
Problem
6.12.
Pipevelocity
flow of two
immiscible
0 ReLliquids
plates.
Sketch
theplates,
axial
profile
for
ofCartesian
the
and y-direction
aligned
normal1,toRe
the
tion
the and
constant
b. it through the other, a uniform crossflow is generated.
thefor
plates
removing
Use
coordinates
over
the length
of the plates. The two plates are porous: by injecting
more
of
the
same
fluid
through
one
of
Consider
the incompressible
of two
velocity
component uy isflow
constant,
sayimmiscible
U . Show
(p0 thatp
(x, y, z) with origin
on theremoving
centerplane
of the entrance
to athe
plates, crossflow
x-direction
aligned
with
the
length
ux (y)
= pressu
plates
it through
the other,
uniform
generated.
Use
Cartesian
coordinates
Problem
Pipe
flow
of
two immiscible
liquids
dricalis6.12.
pipe
of
radius
R,
driven
by
a constant
Problem 5.6. the
Flow
in aand
porous channel
with injection/suction
L
2
of the plates,(x,
and
aligned
normal
to the plates.
crossflow
means
that the transverse
y, y-direction
z) with origin
centerplane
of the Uniform
entrance
the(see
plates,
aligned
the
length
(p
pL )H
1
thex-direction
incompressible
flow
of two
immiscible
0
figure
below).
1ofuwith
(with
viscosity
1 ) hom
occ
An incompressible
Newtonian
fluidonofthe
density
and viscosity
flowstoConsider
beween
two
parallel
flatLiquid
plates
x (y) =
of the plates,
and y-direction
aligned
normal
the
plates.
crossflow
means
that
the
transverse
velocity
component
uy is
say U .width.
Show
that
the
velocity
component
udifference
is
bydriven
=
U
H/
is theL
crossflow
ReR
drical
pipe0of
a constant
pressure
g
where
<xradius
given
<where
1R,
is(p
aRe
while
liqui
length
L, separation
2H
constant,
L, and infinite
The
flowaxial
istoinduced
by
aUniform
pressure
pLby
)parameter),
0 given
plates.
Sketch
the
axial
velocity
profile
fo
velocity component uy is constant, say U . Show that the (see
axial
velocity
component
u
is
given
by
x
figure
below).
Liquid
1 between
(with
that
the
interface
the twoReynolds
liquids
isnu
1 ) occupi
over the length of the plates. The two plates are porous:
by injectingRemoreRey/H
ofassume
the
same
fluid
one
oftheviscosity
where
Rethrough
= U H/
is
crossflow
(p0 pL )H 2 1 y
e where
e axisymmetric
0
<

<
1
is
a
given
parameter),
while
liquid
and
unidirectional
in
the
z
direction:
Problem
6.12.
Pipe
flow
of
two
immisci
plates.
Sketch
the
axial
velocity
profile
for
Re

1,2
the plates and removing it uthrough
the
other,
a
uniform
crossflow
is
generated.
Use
Cartesian
coordinates
2
Re
Rey/H
(6.28)
(y)
=
1
+
x
(p
pL )H 1 sinh
y Re e
e
0
Lthe=entrance
Re
H
Consider
the incompressible
flow of
assume
the interface
between
the two(6.28)
liquids
istwo
alsoi
1 + that
(x, y, z) with origin on the centerplaneuof
to the plates, x-direction
aligned
with
the
length
x (y)
Problem
6.12. Pipe
of twoR,
L
Re H
sinh
Re drical
pipeflow
of radius
driven
byzliquids
a cons
v1the
(x)zimmiscible
=direction:
v1 (r)e
and
axisymmetric
and
in
of the plates, and y-direction aligned normal to the plates. Uniform crossflow
means
thatunidirectional
theincompressible
transverse
Consider
the
flow
of
two
immiscible
where Re = U H/ is the crossflow Reynolds number, assuming that there is no slip(see
at the
porous
figure
below). Liquid 1 (with viscos
velocity component
u
is
constant,
say
U
.
Show
that
the
axial
velocity
component
u
is
given
by
drical
pipe
of
radius
R,
driven
by
a
constant
pressu
y
x
where
Re velocity
= U H/
is the
Reynolds
porous
whereis0no
< slip
< 1atisthe
a given
parameter),
plates. Sketch
the axial
profile
for crossflow
Re 1, Re
1, andnumber,
Re 1.assuming that there
vthe
= v1 (r)e
below).that
Liquid
1 (with
viscosity
1 ) two
oc
1 (x)
z and
plates. Sketch the axial velocity profilefor Re 1, Re 1, and Re(see figure
1. assume
interface
between
the
2
Re
Rey/H
where 0 <
< 1 is a given
parameter), while
liqu
(p
p
)H
1
y
e
e
0
L
axisymmetric
and
unidirectional
in
the
Problem 6.12. Pipe flow
two
liquids
uxof
(y)
= immiscible
1+
(5.6)between the two liquids zisd
assume that the interface
Problem 6.12.
Pipe
flow L
of two immiscible
liquids
Re
H
sinh
Re
Consider the incompressible flow of two immiscible homogeneous Newtonian viscous
liquids and
in aunidirectional
cylinaxisymmetric
z vdirection:
Consider the incompressible flow of two immiscible homogeneous Newtonian
viscous
liquids ininathe
cylin1 (x) = v1
drical pipe of
radius
R,
driven
by
a
constant
pressure
gradient
dp/dz
=
G
along
the
axis
of
the
pipe
pipe
R, driven
by a number,
constantassuming
pressure gradient
= Gatalong
the
axis v
of (x)
the=pipe
where Re = drical
U H/
is of
theradius
crossflow
Reynolds
that theredp/dz
is no slip
the porous
v1 (r)ez an
1
(see figure below).
Liquid
1 (with
viscosity
1 )viscosity
occupies the) occupies
center of the
the pipe
r <
R(1
figure
below).
Liquid
(with
center(0of<the
pipe
(0 <),r < R(1 ),
1
plates. Sketch(see
the axial
velocity
profile
for1 Re
1, Re 1,and
Re
1.
where 0 < where
< 1 is
liquid 2while
(withliquid
viscosity
2 ) viscosity
occupies the
We periphery. We
0 a<given
< parameter),
1 is a givenwhile
parameter),
2 (with
2 )periphery.
occupies the
assume
that
the
interface
between
the
two
liquids
is
also
cylindrical,
and
that
the
flow
in
both
liquids
thatofthe
between
the two liquids is also cylindrical, and that the flow inis both liquids is
Problem 5.7. assume
Pipe flow
twointerface
immiscible
liquids
axisymmetric
and
unidirectional
in
the
z
direction:
axisymmetric and
in the homogeneous
z direction: Newtonian viscous liquids in a cylinConsider the incompressible
flowunidirectional
of two immiscible
drical pipe of radius R, driven by a constant pressure gradient dp/dz = G along the axis of the pipe
v1 (x)
= v1 (r)e
v2the
(x)
=
v2 (r)e
. pipe
v1(x)
= v1 (r)e
and
v2zthe
(x)
= v2(0
(r)e
(6.29)
z and
z center
(see figure below). Liquid 1 (with
viscosity
of
<z .r < R(1 (6.29)
"),
1 ) occupies
where 0 < " < 1 is a given parameter), while liquid 2 (with viscosity 2 ) occupies the periphery. We
assume that the interface between the two liquids is also cylindrical, and thatliquid
the flow
in both liquid
liquids2 is
1
axisymmetric and unidirectional in the z direction:
view of a cross-section
24

view of a cross-section

v1 (x) = v1 (r)ez

liquid 1

liquid 1

liquid 2

and

1
v2 (x) = v2 (r)ezliquid
. liquid
1

liquid 2

liquid
liquid 12 (5.7)

liquid 2

liquid 2
liquidliquid
2 1
z
view
of
a
cross-section
R
z
liquid
R 1
liquid
1
z
liquid
2
liquid 2 liquid 1 view of aR(1-e)
cross-section
R
liquid
2
R(1-e)
view of a cross-section
R(1 view
") of a zcross-section
z
R
z
R(1 ")
R
R
R(1 ") R(1 ")

liquid 1

liquid 2
liquid 1
view of a cross-section
liquid 2
z
view of a cross-section
z
(a) Starting fromRthe incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, write down the differential equations satR(1
")Integrate these equations to show that the velocity in each liquid can be written
isfiedRby v1 (r) and
v2 (r).
as R(1 ")
G 2
G 2
v1 (r) =
r + A1 ln r + B1 , v2 (r) =
r + A2 ln r + B2 .
(5.8)
41
42

(b) What is the boundary condition on v2 (r) on the pipe wall at r = R?


(c) At the interface between the two liquids r = R(1 "), both the fluid velocity and shear stress must
be continuous:
1
2
v1 (r) = v2 (r), and rz
(r) = rz
(r) at r = R(1 ").
(5.9)

20

5 Navier-Stokes Equations

Using these two conditions and the boundary condition of (b), solve for the four integration constants A1 ,
B1 , A2 , and B2 .
(d) Assuming that the liquid layer on the periphery of the pipe is very thin (" 1), show by neglecting
terms of order "2 that the velocity fields v1 (r) and v2 (r) can be expressed as

G
1
G 2
2
2
2
v1 (r) =
r
R
2R "
1 , v2 (r) =
(r
R2 ).
(5.10)
41
2
42
(e) Sketch the velocity profile qualitatively in the cases where 1 > 2 and 2 > 1 . In which case does
the presence of the thin liquid layer on the pipe wall help to enhance the flow rate of liquid 1 in the center
of the pipe?
Problem 5.8. Flow of paint down a vertical wall
The surface of a large, flat, vertical wall is to be protected from the atmosphere by being covered with a
thin film of paint of uniform thickness H. When it is wet, the paint is a non-Newtonian fluid that can be
regarded as a Bingham fluid, for which the shear stress = xy in a parallel flow u = ux (y)ex (where
the x-axis points in the negative vertical direction and the y-axis points in the direction normal to the
wall) is related to the shear rate = dux /dy by
= + 0
=0

if > 0

(5.11)

if 0

(5.12)

where denotes the viscosity and 0 the yield stress. Because of gravity, there is a volumetric flow rate
Q of paint down the wall per unit width of the wall. Let g denote the magnitude of the gravitational
acceleration and the density of the paint. The boundary condition for the flow is no slip at the wall
(ux (0) = 0), and zero shear stress at the free surface ( (H) = 0). Assume that the pressure is constant
and uniform.
(a) Assuming steady flow, show using the momentum conservation equation that the shear stress (y)
satisfies
d
+ g = 0.
(5.13)
dy
Solve for (y) and sketch it.
(b) Treating the cases 0 gH and 0 < gH separately, solve for the velocity profile ux (y) across the
paint film. Sketch the velocity profile in each case.
(c) Show that the volumetric flow rate is given by
8
when 1
<0

Q = gH 3
2
:
(1 ) 1 +
when < 1
3
2
where = 0 /gH.

(5.14)