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2016

An-Najah national university

[MASTER REPORT OF ENVIROMENT


ENGINEERING]

Engineering college Civil


engineering department
Enviromental lab
Prepared by:

Mahmoud Hmedat
Fayez Raed Abu Safaqa
Saleh Nassasra
Yazan
Hejawi Submitted
to: Miss Hamis Tubilah

Section: Wednesday
(8-10)

Table of Contents
1.1

Introduction.............................................................................................................. 4

1.2

Sample................................................................................................................... 4

1.3

physical properties................................................................................................ 4

Dissolve oxygen (DO)....................................................................................... 4

Electrical conductivity (EC).............................................................................. 4

Turbidity................................................................................................................... 5
Solids................................................................................................................. 5

1.4

BOD...................................................................................................................... 5

1.5

COD...................................................................................................................... 5

1.6

Alkalinity.............................................................................................................. 5

1.7

Total Hardness....................................................................................................... 5

1.9

Total Fecal Coliform............................................................................................. 6

1.10

Nitrogen determination..................................................................................... 6

Objective...................................................................................................................... 6

Methodology................................................................................................................ 7
3.1

Physical properties................................................................................................ 7

Dissolve oxygen (DO)....................................................................................... 7

Electrical conductivity (EC).............................................................................. 7

Turbidity............................................................................................................ 7

3.1.1

Solids............................................................................................................. 7

3.2

BOD...................................................................................................................... 9

3.3

COD experiment................................................................................................. 10

3.4

Alkalinity and the carbonate system................................................................... 10

3.5

Total Hardness..................................................................................................... 11

3.6

Phosphorus measurement................................................................................... 12

3.7

Fecal caliform..................................................................................................... 13

3.8

Chlorine test........................................................................................................ 13

3.9

nitrogen determination using kjeldhal method................................................... 14

4. Apparatus and Equipment.............................................................................................. 15


3.1

Physical properties.............................................................................................. 15

5. data collection and analysis........................................................................................... 27


5.1

physical properties.............................................................................................. 27

2|Page

5.1.1 dissolve oxygen................................................................................................. 27


5.1.2 electrical conductivity.................................................................................. 27
5.1.3 Turbidity............................................................................................................ 27
5.1.4 total solids.......................................................................................................... 27
4.4. COD experiment..................................................................................................... 29
5.4 Alkalinity............................................................................................................. 30
5.5 Total hardness...................................................................................................... 30
5.6 Phosphorus measurement.................................................................................... 31
5.7 Total fecal caliform............................................................................................. 31
5.8 Chlorine experiment................................................................................................. 31
5.9. Nitrogen Experiment.............................................................................................. 31
6. Specification.............................................................................................................. 33
7. water treatment plant layout.......................................................................................... 36
9.References....................................................................................................................... 37

3|Page

Introduction:

Environmental Engineering is the application of since and engineering principles


to improve the natural environment (air, water, land resources), to provide healthy water,
air, and land for human habitation (house or home) and for other organisms, and to
remediate polluted site. It involves waste water management and air pollution control,
recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental
sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental
engineering law.
Water is the most common liquid on our planet, vital to all life forms. It is the
dispersion medium for all biochemical reactions of the living process and takes part in
many of these reactions. In spite of the chemical simplicity of the water molecule, its
physical properties are quite remarkable one might say weird and have been a major
research topic for many years. Many experiments give great insight into the structure and
dynamics of water, but these often require the resources of a major research laboratory.
In lab we made experiments on water to help to improve the natural to know the
properties of water and its impact on human body based on collected Sample .At the end
of the report we will draw a plant layout based on the experiments compared with
Palestinian specification.

1.1 Sampling
The analytical results of a sample are only as accurate as the quality of the sample
taken .of your technique for collecting samples is poor , then no matter how accurate your lab
procedures are ,the result will be poor. By sampling according to set procedures, you reduce the
chance of error and increase the accuracy of your sample results. Sampling can be define as to
bring a wastewater sample from the field. In this experiment we study how to collect a
wastewater sample from a station. Sampling is the important process before start the tests
.Therefore, Sample should be taken carefully making into consider the condition when bringing
it as weather should not be too summer or rainy, the good time for bringing the sample is at
morning or in the afternoon. Also the sample should be taken from the middle of wastewater
pond, it should not be bring before making the tests for more than one day or less

for some tests.

1.2 Physical properties:


Physical wastewater has physical characteristics such as temperature, solids, odor and
color. In plumbing work the temperature and type of solids in the wastewater are
important considerations. Wastewater at high temperature will affect some piping
materials and treatment units such as septic tanks. In our experiment a few properties
.will be consider such as dissolve oxygen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and solids

Dissolve oxygen (DO):


Amount of oxygen dissolved (and hence available to sustain marine
life) in a body of water such as a lake, river, or stream. DO is the
most

important indicator of

the health of

water

body

and

its capacity to support a balanced aquatic ecosystem of plants and


animals.

Wastewater

containing

consuming) pollutants depletes

the

organic
dissolved

oxygen

oxygen

and

may lead to the death of marine organisms.

Electrical conductivity (EC):


Its defined as the ability of water to conduct electrical current and measure by EC meter
and depend on dissolve solid and salts .and measured by (Siemen /meter)

Turbidity:
Turbidity, a measure of the light-transmitting properties of water, is
another test used to indicate the quality of waste discharges and
natural waters with respect to colloidal and residual suspended
matter. The measurement of turbidity is based on comparison of
the intensity of light scattered by a sample as compared to the
light

scattered by a

reference suspension

under

the

same

conditions. In its simple meaning Its defined as the amount of


particles that suspended in water to make the water haze and not
clear. The main sources of turbidity in water is clay, silt, planktons
and organic matter. It is measured by ( Turbidity meters) and it has
two units ( NTU and FTU ). Turbidity is directly proportion to Total

suspended solids ( T.S.S.)

pH :
A measure of acidity or alkalinity of water soluble substances (pH
stands for 'potential of Hydrogen'). A pH value is a number from 1 to
14, with 7 as the middle (neutral) point. Values below 7 indicate
acidity which increases as the number decreases, 1 being the most
acidic. Values above 7 indicate alkalinity which increases as the
number increases, 14 being the most alkaline. This scale, however, is
not a linear scale like a centimeter or inch scale (in which two
adjacent values have the same difference). It is a logarithmic scale in
which two adjacent values increase or decrease by a factor of 10.
For drinking water its ranges from (6.5-8.5)

1.3

BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand)


(BOD) is the amount of oxygen required to decompose organic
matter by bacteria. It is usually measured in the fifth day. It is
measured by (mg O2 / L).

1.4

COD (chemical Oxygen Demand)


The amount of oxygen required to decompose the organic
matter chemically. It's indirectly measure the amount of
organic

compound

in

water.

Most

applications

of

COD

determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface


water (lakes and rivers for example) or waste water, making
COD a useful measure of water quality. COD indicates the mass
of oxygen consumed per liter of solution.

1.5

Alkalinity test using titration method


The amount of acid that is required to lower PH to 4.5. It is
measured as a concentration of CaCO3. The solution is
considered to be Alkaline if (PH >7).

Alkalinity = [ HCO3- ] + 2 [ CO3- ] + [ OH- ] + [ H+ ]


1.6

Solids in water using gravimetric method

There are two main types of material existing in water, total


dissolved solids

and total suspended solids. The combination

of them is called Total solids. These solids are measured by


( mg / L ).In this experiment TS is used to calculate by the
directly measurement of TDS &TSS using the weight difference
method.
TS = TDS +TSS

1.7

Phosphor

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol (P) and


atomic number (15). It's very important because it enters in
the composition of all living cells, it have many forms but our
concern is the form( PO4-3) because it is very toxic and
dangerous . the excess of phosphorous in the human body
cause illness as damages in the liver and kidneys.
The Phosphorus measurements done using optical method ,
the device used is optical spectrophotometer , the input of
spectrophotometer is wavelength = 880 nm, and the output
are absorbance and transmissivity, from the output values we
will get the concentration of phosphor. The main combined
phosphorous reagent is ammonium Molybdate.
Phosphorous sources are:

1.8

Agriculture (pollution of soil and water).

Industry.

Weapons and wars.

Sea foods.

Chlorine measurement using MOHR method (Ttitration method)

Adding chlorine to the water is very important task


before the municipality

distributing the water to the people,

this process Is done to kill all of the fecal coli forms which the
governments specifies that the percentage of existing of these
coli form approximately equal to 0%. The concentration of
chlorine that had been added to the water is equal to 1mg/L.
this value of chlorine will decrease to the range between (0.3-

0.5)mg/L which is suitable for drinking water according to


ministry of health.
The chlorination process have some determinants to
achieve high quality of disinfection , these determinants are

Temperature : the preferred temperature for water to be disinfection is 18 C, at


this temperature , the minimum required time that the chlorine needed to be
distributed equally in the water is about 30 minutes, so, when the temperature is
less than 18 C , the time needed is increased.

power of Hydrogen (pH): the best pH value is in the range between 6.5-7.5.

Turbidity: we must avoid turbidity in the water by removing the suspended solid
using membrane filter with pore size 0.45 micrometer because these suspended
solid adversely affect the process of disinfection.

1.9

Total fecal caliform using membrane filter

There are many types of microorganisms (not dangerous but


pathogenic) causes diseases . The resources of total fecal
coliform are human , animal and birds wastes , agriculture and
storm water .This microorganisms

exists in

the water and

wastewater such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and parasites.


In fact, it is important to study these microorganisms because
they might cause harmful diseases for both human beings and
animals, these diseases called pathogenic organism. For
example , the bacteria exist in rivers water comes from many
sources such as and storm runoff which carrying wastes from
animals and human sewage and agricultures activities that
discharges into rivers water and water table.

1.10

Ions

Ions measurement is done using flame photometer

device, in this experiment we will measure potassium ,calcium


and sodium concentration. These elements are very important
for human health, but if these concentrations are increase
more than the acceptable limit, they will affect the human
health, for example , when the concentration of sodium
increases in the body of human, it will cause the hypertension.
Whereas the increase of potassium concentration will produce
precipitations in Kidneys.

2 Objectives

To measure the wastewater quality parameters.

To compare the results with the specifications.

To find the suitable treatment process for this wastewater.

3 Methodology
3.1

Sampling

From the site where there is a wastewater bring a sample from


the water to be a representative sample. The sample should be
bringing at morning or in the afternoon, and the sample should
not be bringing in rainy or in strong sunshine, also it should be
bring before the test done with a few time.
We have taken our Sample From Wadi Alfare'a, The sample was
taken with limits consideration include the container material
which was glass bottle (cap), also the sample size and the
maximum time was taken in consideration.

SAMPLING PROCEDURES:
1. Remove the stopper or cap just before sampling and

avoid touching the inside of the cap.


2. If sampling by hand, use gloves and hold the bottle near
its base. Plunge it (opening downward) below the water
surface, and then turn the bottle underwater into the
current and away from you.
3. Avoid sampling the water surface because the surface
film often contains greater numbers of fecal coliform
bacteria than is representative of the river.
4. Also, avoid sampling the sediments for the same reason,
unless this is intended. The same general sampling
procedures apply when using the extended rod sampler.
5. When collecting samples, leave some space in the
sample container (an inch or so) to allow mixing of the
sample before-pipetting.

Sampling Instrument:

1-cap or bottle.
2-gloves.
3.2 Physical properties
Theory :

Dissolve oxygen (DO)


Its measure by DO meter.
Unit of measurement:
1.

% Percent

2. Concentration (mg/L) Its


depend on two factor
1. Temperature
2. Salinity

Electrical conductivity (EC)


Measured by EC meter.
Units of
measurement:

a. s/cm
b. ms/cm

(siemen/meter)

It divide to two types


a. total suspended solids
b. total dissolve solids

TDS= 0.64 EC /L

Turbidity
1.
2.
3.
4.

Put the wastewater sample in tube and close it


Put it in the turbidity meter.
Operate the turbidity meter, and record the reading appear on the screen.
TSS= 4.322 NTU

PH:
A measure of acidity or alkalinity of water soluble substances
(pH stands for 'potential of Hydrogen'). A pH value is a number
from 1 to 14, with 7 as the middle (neutral) point. Values below
7 indicate acidity which increases as the number decreases, 1
being the most acidic. Values above 7 indicate alkalinity which
increases as the number increases, 14 being the most alkaline.
This scale, however, is not a linear scale like a centimeter or
inch scale (in which two adjacent values have the same
difference). It is a logarithmic scale in which two adjacent
values increase or decrease by a factor of 10.
For drinking water its ranges from (6.5-8.5)

Instruments:
Electrical conductivity meter.
Graduated cylinder.
DO meter.
PH meter.
Turbidity meter.
Gloves.

Flask

Procedure:
Prepare the sample in the flask then measure any parameter
by put there instrument in sample.
1-

a) Put the EC meter in the sample. Record the value appear in


the screen.
b)TDS = 0.64 * EC
2Put the DO meter in the sample.
Record the value appear in the screen.
3Put the PH meter in the sample.
Record the value appear in the screen.
4a) Put the turbidity meter in the sample. Record the value appear in the screen.
b) TSS = 3.422 * NTU.
5TS =TDS + TSS

3.3 BOD
Theory:
Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD) is the amount of oxygen that
is required by the bacteria to decompose the organic matter ,
and is have unit mg O2/L
So

Bacteria + Organic matter + O2 CO2 + Sludge

BOD have relation with time and this relation is exponential,


BOD is increase with time then its seem to be constant when
organic matter is decrease, this happen may be in 15 to 25
day.
BODt=BODu(1--kt)
BODt=BOD at day t.
BODu =BOD ultimate, when BOD be constant.

K : constant relation rate, have unit is time -1 (day-1), K has


proportional

relationship with

temperature, at T=20 o the

decomposition is normal and original.


t : is time in day.

Instruments:
1. BOD Darkness bottles.
2. BOD sensors with KOH trap.
3. Air Incubator (20C)
4. Stirring bars.
5. Graduated Cylinder.
6. Potassium hydroxide KOH. (to get rid of CO2)

Procedure:
1. Take a 100 ml of wastewater sample and put it in the BOD dark bottle.
the sample volume depends on the BOD predicted values as shown:
BOD expected (mg O2/L)
1000
600
250
90

Sample Volume (ml)


100
150
250
400

2. Add stirring bar to the bottle.


3. Add to the trap (rubber cover with holes) KOH to absorb the CO2 produced
by bacteria.
4. Cover the bottle with the sensor and zero it by pressing on both A & B at
the same time.
5. Then put the bottle in the incubator.
6. Record the reading each day at the same time by pressing on B
(sensor reading in ppm) for one week.

3.4 COD experiment


Theory:
Chemical oxygen demand COD which is the amount of oxygen
that required to decompose the organic matter chemically,
using chemical oxidation reagent. This experiment done by
spectrophotometer device which is depend on absorbance,
transmissibility, color intensity, and wave length for the
wastewater sample and the COD ampules, the concentration of
solutions in the COD ampules that will be used depend on the
expected COD value. The important solution in the ampules is
K2Cr2O7 since it is react with organic and produce Cr+3 that
give an indication of green color which its intensity depends on
the organic amount presented. COD test is less accuracy than
BOD

test

but

it

gives

result

more

rapidly.

The

spectrophotometer device gives a result of COD in terms of


absorbance and transmissibility, by using the calibration curve
that

includes

absorbance

or

relationship

between

transmissibility

we

COD
can

in

mg/l

and

converted

the

spectrophotometer readings to COD concentration.

Instruments and materials used:


1-COD vials
2-spectrophotometer.
3-heater or reactor (150 C for two hour )
4-2 ml sample using pipet.
5-Blanck (distilled water).
6-Heat resisting gloves.

Procedure:
1. Prepare COD ampoule, this ampoule contain (Mercury
sulfate, Sulfuric acid and Potassium dichromate ).
2. By using a graduated cylinder take ( 2 mL ) of the sample
and put it in the COD ampoule, then shake the ampoule

for 10 minutes.
3. In order to accelerate the chemical reaction, place the
ampoule in the reactor for ( 2 hours ) at ( 150 C ).
4. Take the COD ampoule from the reactor and wait until it
cools to room temperature.
5. Prepare three samples ( Block, Waste water sample and
Black ) and pour them into the transparent container that
used in the Spectrophotometer device.
6. A calibration need to made to the spectrophotometer by
assign ( 100% transmmisivity) for the Blank sample and
( 0.0 % transmissivity ) for the Black block.
7. Put the wastewater sample in the direction of the light
and then read values for Transmissivity and Absorption.
Read absorption and COD value From Spectrometer.

3.5 Alkalinity using titration method.


Theory:
It is defined as the amount of acid per liter that is required to
lower pH to 4.3, it is done by titration method using H2SO4 as
an acid titration solution, two indicators used: phenolphthalein
indicator that change the color of wastewater sample to pink if
the PH value between 8.3-14, while methyl red indicator
change the color to green blue if PH between 4.3-8.3, then
phenolphthalein alkalinity and total alkalinity can be found in
mg/l as CaCO3. The alkalinity is a function of carbonate,
bicarbonate, hydroxide and hydrogen ions concentration and
thus dependent on the concentration of these constituents. If
PH more than 7 then the solution consider alkaline where if it is
less that 7 the solution is acid.

Instrument:
1-Indicaters.

2-Graduated cylinder.
3-Pipit.
4-Flask.

Procedure:
1. Take a volume of wastewater sample equal (50 mL) using
graduated cylinder and put it in the flask.
2. If the PH >8.3 , the color of the sample become pink.
3. Titration for the sample, record the volume of acid added
until the solution become colorless (PH=8.3) (A).
4. Add 5 drops from methyl red indicator until the color
become blue.
5. Titrate the sample, when the color of the sample become
red (PH=4.5).
6. Record the volume of acid to reach to this point (B).

3.6 Solids in water gravimetric method .


Theory,
There are two main types of material existing in water, total
dissolved solids

and total suspended solids. The

combination of them is called Total solids. These solids are


measured by ( mg / L ).In this experiment TS is used to
calculate by the directly measurement of TDS &TSS using the
weight difference method.
TS = TDS +TSS

1. Total

solids

total

dissolve

solids

suspended solids(T.S.S)
2. Total suspended solids= (M2-M1)/V1.
3. Total dissolved solids = (M4-M3)/V2.

(T.D.S)

+total

4. Concentration of total solids=mass of solids/volume of


sample

Instruments:
Oven.
Balance.
Filter paper.
Crucible.
Vacuum flask.
Pipette.
Buchner funnels.
Electrical conductivity meter.
Graduated cylinder.
50 ml of the sample

Procedure:
Total suspended solids
1. put the sample of wastewater (50 mL ) in the graduated cylinder
2. Weigh the filter paper to the nearest .1mg. (m1)
3. Place filter, wrinkled side up, in the Buchner funnel. Apply vacuum
and set filter.
4. Mix the sample and add it to the filter paper
5. Take the filter to the oven and dry it on 150c.
6. Record the new weigh. (m2).

Total dissolved solids


1. Weigh the dry and empty crucible (M3).
2. Take a (10-15) ml (V2) from the sample that pass through
a filter paper.

3. Put the sample (V2) in a crucible and put the crucible in


the oven at 150c.
4. The new evaporated crucible weigh (M4) is recorded.

3.7 Phosphorus measurement


Theory:
It is important to measure the phosphorous concentration that
founded

in

wastewater

sample

since

it

is

dangerous

component that effect on the all living objects. The main


source of phosphorous is see food, fertilizers, and weapons.
Phosphorous reagent is added to wastewater sample which
consists of 100 ml of 5N H2SOR, 10ml from .1N ascorbic acid,
3ml from ammonium molybdate, and 60 ml from potassium
antimony titrate. Ammonium molybdate is the important part
of the reagent since it is used as an indicator when it reacts
with phosphorous in the sample it changes the sample color to
blue. It is measure by spectrophotometer device which depend
on light intensity and wave length of the phosphorous. Since
there is no specification for phosphorous concentration, it is
converted to phosphate concentration then compares it with
the specification.

Instrument :

spectrophotometer

Blank (distilled water).

-Calibration Curve.

-bottle to catch a sample.

Procedure:

1-First of all, we need to make a calibration curve.


2-By bringing a solution we know the concentration of the
phosphorus on it,
Like: (219.5 mg of KH2PO4 in one liter of distilled waterm this
solution contains 50 mg/l of phosphor. We put the solutions in
spectrophotometer and we will end up by a curve or an
equation
3-Prepare phosphorus reagent which consists of :
a)5N H2SO4 Potassium antimony titrate ( 1.37 mg + 500 mL
D.W. ).
b)Ammonium molybdate ( 20 gm + 500 mL D.W. ).
c)0.1N Ascorbic acid ( 8.8 gm + 500 mL D.W. ).
d)normality ascorbic acid(8.8 gm + 500 ml D.W).
Reagent = 100ml from (a) +10ml from (b)+ 3ml from (c)+
60ml from (d)

4-By using graduated cylinder take a volume of waste water


equal ( 25 mL ) and put in the beaker.
5-Add ( 4.0 mL ) from phosphorus reagent to the beaker and
wait until the solution color become blue.
6-Put the sample in spectrophotometer and record the
concentration of phosphate

Result
0.58 micro Siemens /cm
0.06 ppm
6.77
621 NTU

Test
Electrical conductivity (EC)
Dissolved oxygen
PH
Turbidity

3.8 Chlorine
4 Theory :
concentration of chlorine CL-1= Normality* Volume of AgNO3
required for titration *35.45*1000/volume of sample

in Chlorine measurement we use the following:


1-Graduated cylindrical.
2-Stand pipes.
3-K2Cr2O7 and AgNO3.

Procedure :
For experiment No.8(amount of chlorine) we do the following :
1-100 ml of sample was put in the flask.
2-The potassium dichromate was added to the sample and the
color was changed to the yellow green.
3-After the color was changed the titration process was made
by added the volume of silver nitrate.
4-The silver nitrate was added until the color of sample was
changed to the red and the volume of the AgNO3 was recorded

4.7

Fecal Coliform:

Theory :

cc * 100
Vs

T.F.C =
Where :

T.F.C : the total fecal coliform.


CC : counted coliform.
Vs : volume of sample.

Instrument :

8.

1.

Flask.

2.

Filter paper.

3.

Sample of waste water.

4.

Stand for filter paper.

5.

Vacuum air pump.

6.

Petri dish and nutrients.

7.

Auto clav.

Incubator.

Procedure:
The volume of sample according to the table below
Source of water
Volume of sample(mL)
Drinking water
100-1000
Storm water
10-100
Treated waste water
1-10
Raw waste water
1 mL or less and dilution is needed
by using distilled water
1. Sterilize all equipment using Auto Clav at 121C for 20min.
2. Filtration: put the sample over the filtration system to filter
it.
3. Incubation: this step is important for bacteria; because it
make the good situation for bacteria growth, we use Petri dish
and nutrients, the component of nutrients powder are: Tryptose. - Lactose. - Sodium chloride. - Dipotassium mono
phosphate. - Sodium sulfate.

To make this mix, we need 35.60gm of powder plus one letter


of distilled water, and it give PH=7. Thin put the mix in Auto
Clave for 20min. after that, put a suitable volume of nutrients
about 2ml and put it inside the incubator at 370.5 C for 24
hour.
Accounting: this step come after next day as explained in last
step. The account will be to particles have these colors: - Red
or darken red. - Blue. - Pink. - Pale yellow.

3.10 Ions
theory:
We

need

three

samples

for

this

test:

blank(distilled

water),standards solution, and waste water sample to make


calibration for the device. We must know the concentration of
ions (Na ,k ,). K and Na are the same procedure.

Ions measurments:
1.flame photometer.
2.regulated gas supply.
3.power supply.
4.glass beakers.
5.distilled water.
6.stock standard solution.
7.volumetric flasks for sample dilution.
8.vaccum pump.
9.very thin tube.

Procedure :
1. Ensure that the drain trap is pushed fully down on its clip.
2. Close the fuel valve by turning fully clockwise.
3. Turn

the fuel valve by the required number of turns anti-

clockwise depending on the fuel being used.

4. Turn on the fuel supply at source.


5. Switch on electrical power by depressing the power switch. If
the air compressor is powered separately , switch on the air
compressor.
6. Depress the ignition switch and hold down. Watch the FLM
indicator

in the display window.

When this indicator is

illuminated the flame is alight and the ignition switch can be


released.

If

the

FLM

indicator

does

not

light

within

approximately 20 sec , release the switch and open the fuel


valve one turn. This process may be repeated until successful
ignition occurs.
7. Set the filter select control to the desired position.
8. Aspirate deionizer water and set the readout to zero by
adjusting the blank control.
9. Aspirate a standard solution of slightly higher concentration
than expected in the samples to be tested. A dust the fine and
course control until a positive reading is obtained.
10. A dust the fuel valve in a clockwise direction until a peak
reading is obtained.
11. For optimum performance the instrument should be
allowed 15 min to warm-up.

5. Data collection and calculations


5.1

physical properties

TDS =0.64 *EC = 0.64*0.58 =0.3712 mg /L


TSS =3.422 * NTU =3.422 *621 =2125.062 mg /L
TS = TSS+TDS = 2125.4332 mg /L

5.2 BOD test


Day

BOD (mg O2 /l )

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

BOD

0
72
138
197
251
300
344
383
419
452
481
508
532
554
574
592
608
623
638
648
659
663

=762 mg O2 /l

BOD5 = 300 mg O2 /l
To find K
BODt = BODu ( 1-e-Kt )
300 = 762 ( 1-e-K5 )
K = 0.1 day-1

5.3 COD experiment


COD =79 mg/l
Abs =

At (t=5)

5.4 Alkalinity Test Using Titration Method


Results :
V0 =0

V1=0

V2 = 65 ml .

A=0 , B= 65 ml
Pmg/l as( caco3 ) ={( A*N )H2so4 *EWcaco3}*1000 / Vs
P=0
T mg/l as( caco3 ) = {( A+B)*N H2so4 *EWcaco3}*1000 / Vs
EW( caco3 ) = 100 /2 =50
N H2so4 =0.02 gm /l.mol
T mg/l as( caco3 ) = 1300.

Conclusion :
Since A =0 the PH is less than 8.3 T = [HCO3-]
Number of grams H2SO4

needed to repair the solution is 0.98

gm.
= N *EW = 0.02* 49 =0.98 gm.

5.5 Solids in water using gravimetric method


Results:
M1 :mass of the filter paper =0.849 gm
M2 : mass of the filter paper after evaporation =0.845 gm
M3 :mass of the crucible = 22.428 gm
M4 :mass of the crucible after evaporation =22.448 gm
T.S.S =(M2-M1)/vs = [(0.854-0.849)/50]*106 =100 mg/l.
T.D.S =(M4-M3)/v2 = [(22.448-22.428)/10]*106 =2000 mg/l
T.S =T.S.S +T.D.S =2100 mg/l.

5.6 Phosphorus Measurement Using Optical Method

Results:
[P]=0.23 mg/l.
Absorbance=0.306.
We have to compare phosphorus concentration with Palestinian
standards which contain [PO4-] value. So, we must convert [P]
to

[PO4-]

as

follows:

[PO4-] = ([P]*MWPO4)/MWP
= 0.23*4.43 = 1.02 mg/l. < 20 mg/l. OK.
This water will be OK to use in agricultural uses.

5.7 Chlorine test using mohr method


We add 2ml of k2cr2o7
V1:0.014N Ag NO3 (START) =50 ml
V2:0.014N Ag NO3 (END) =24.7 ml
EW for cl =35.5
Vs :volume of sample =100 ml
V :50-24.7 =25.3 ml
[cl] ={ (V*N)AgNo3 *EWCL*1000} /Vs
[cl] ={ (25.3*0.014)AgNo3 *35.5*1000} /100 =125.4 mg
caco3/L
Residual = DPD tablet = 0.3 mg/L
Combined = total [cl] DPD =125.1mg/l

5.8: Total fecal coliform


Vs = 1 ml W.W +9 ml D.W
Adding 4 ml of nutrients to the sample and incubating the
sample
At 37 C for 24 hours
CCC =97 after 24 hours
(T,F.C\100 ml ) =

(CCC*100)/Vs =(97*100)/10 = 970 fecal

coliform

(6+7+8) Results ,specification and treatment process


required :
parameter

Value

unit

specificati
on
Physical Properties

Need /No
Need

T.P.R

Turbidity

621

NTU

Need

PH

6.77

6-9

No Need

DO

0.06

mg/L

>=1

Need

Aeration

Electrical
conductivit
TDS

0.58

ms/cm

--

--

0.3712

mg/L

1500

No Need

TSS

2152.062

mg/L

60

Need

Coagulation
&flocculation

TS

2152.4332

mg/L

60

Need

Biodegradati
on

200

Need

Biodegradati
on

400

Need

Lime soda
softening

Coagulation
&flocculation
-

BOD test
BOD

300

mg O2 / L

BOD u

762

mg O2 / L

0.1

Day-1

COD test
COD

844

Abs

0.779

mg O2 / L

Alkalinity test
0
mgCaCO3/ L
Phenolphtha
lein
1300
mgCaCO3/ L
Total
Alkalinity
Solids using gravimetric method
TSS

100

mg/L

1500

NO Need

TDS

2000

mg/L

60

Need

TS

2100

mg/L

20

No Need

Phosphorus test
[ PO4-3 ]

1.02

mg / L

Coagulation
&flocculation

[P]

0.23

Abs

0.306

mg / L

Chlorine test
[ Cl- ]

125.1

mg/L

600

No Need

FC/100

<1

Need

Total fecal coliform test


Total fecal
coliform

57

Disinfection
& filtration

Ions measurement
[ ca+2 ]

11

mg/L

100-200

Lime-Soda
Softening

[ K+ ]

48

mg/L

16

[Na+]

273

mg/L

200

Ion exchange,
RO,
membranes
Ion exchange,
RO,
membranes

*Specifications for sampling


Determination
Alkalinity
BOD
COD

Container
G: Glass
P: Polyethylene
P, G
P, G
P, G

Minimum sample
size (mL)
200
1000
100

Chloride
Chlorine, residual

P, G
P, G

50
500

Color
Conductivity
Hardness
Nitrogen: NO3-

P, G
P, G
P, G
P, G

500
500
100
100

Odor

500

Oxygen dissolved

G or BOD bottle

300

Solids
Sulfate
Taste

P, G
P, G
G

200
100
500

Temperature

P, G

Preservation way
Refrigerate
Refrigerate
Analyze as soon as
possible, or add H2SO4
to pH<2, refrigerate
None required
Analyze immediately
Refrigerate
Refrigerate
Add HNO3 to pH<2
Analyze as soon as
possible, or refrigerate
Analyze as soon as
possible, or refrigerate
Analyze immediately
Refrigerate
Refrigerate
Analyze as soon as
possible, or refrigerate
Analyze immediately

Maximum
storage time
24hr
6h
7d
28d
0.5hr,
storage
allowed
48h
48h
6 months
48h

no

6h
0.5hr,
storage
allowed
7d
28d
24h
No

no

storage

Turbidity

P, G

Total coliform

500

9- Plant Layout :

Store in dark up to
24hr, refrigerate
Refrigerate

allowed
24h
6h

9.References
1. Manual of environmental engineering laboratory.
2. Palestinian standards for water and wastewater treated produces by Palestinian
Wastewater Authority. https://scholar.najah.edu/sites/default/files/Ahmed
%20Lebdi.pdf
3. Lecture notes.
4. https://www.google.ps/search?
q=plant+treatment+layout&espv=2&biw=1517&bih=692&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa
=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGx5TclqPMAhWEB8AKHaXKA5kQ_AUIBigB&dpr=0.9#imgrc
=BWoxF8fRHJbuOM%3A.
5. Makkenzie l.Davis and Susan J. Masten principles of environmental
engineering and science, McGraw-hill, 2004.
6. Internet websites.
7. Gilbert, M. Masters. Introduction to Environmental Engineering and
Science. Second Edition. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998.
8. Makkenzie L. Davis and David A. Cornwell. Introduction to
Environmental Engineering. Fourth Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Appendix:
3.1 Physical properties
1. D.O. meter :

2. Turbidity meter :

3. Electrical conductivity meter :

4 .Total solids test :


Filter paper

Flask , funnel and vacuum pump

Crucible

Oven

4.2. BOD test


1. BOD bottles and sensors

4.3. COD test:


1. COD ampoules.

2. COD reactor:

3. Spectrophotometer

4.4 Alkalinity and Carbonate system :


1. Flask :

2. Graduated cylinder :

3. Titration stand and pipit :

4.5 Total Hardness test :


1. Flask :

2. Graduated cylinder :

3. Titration stand and pipit :

4.6 Phosphate measurement


1. Graduated cylinder

2. Beaker

3.Spectrophotometer

4.7. Chlorine test


1. Pipette:

2. Flask:

3. Titration stand and pipit :

4.8 Fecal caliform


1. Auto clave device:

2. Filter paper

3. Flask, glass wave and vacuum pump :

4. Petri dish with median :

4.9 Nitrogen determination:


1. Kjeldahl device:

2. Flask :

3. Reactor :