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No Particle

Meaning / usage

(wa)

Indicantes the topic of a sentence

(ka)

At the end of a sentence indicating a question

(ga)

Indicates the subject of a sentence

(ni)

Indicates a location

(no)

Indicates possession

(wa)

Indicates a contrast between 2 items

(ni)

Indicates time or frequency

(e)

Indicates direction

(wo/o)

Indicates the direct object of a verb

10 (to)

Used to connect and list up multiple items

11 (ya)

Used to connect and partially list up multiple


items

12 (nado)

Used with (ya) to partially list up multiple


items

13 (mo)

means too, either, also

14 (mo)

bothand, neithernor

15 (ni)

Indicates the indirect object of a verb

16 (ni)

Indicates the surface of a object where some


action takes place

17 (de)

Indicates the location of an action

18 (to)

Together with

19 (no)

Indicates an apposition

20 (kara)

Indicates a starting point in time or place

21 (yori)

Indicates a starting point in time or place but


more formal than kara (20)

22 (made)

Indicates a limit on time, space or quantity

23 (kurai)

Indicates an approximate amount

24 (hodo)

Indicates an approximate amount

25 (bakari)

Indicates an approximate amount

26 (de)

Indicates a means or material

27 (ka)

Indicates a choice or alternative

28 (wo/o)

Indicates a point of departure

29 (wo/o)

Indicates a route of a movement/motion

30 (ni)

Indicates a point of arrival

31 (ni)

Indicates an entering motion

32 (ni)

Used together with a verb to express a


purpose

33 (to)

Used when quoting someone

34 (to iu)

Indicates the name of something

35 (toka)

something like

36 (de)

Indicates a limit or scope

37 (to)

Indicates a comparison

38 (yori)

Indicates a comparison

39 (yori)

Indicates superlative

40 (kurai)

Indicates a comparison

41 (hodo)

Indicates a comparison in a negative sentence

42 (ka)

someone, something

43 (mo)

nothing, nobody, nowhere if used with an


interrogative word

44 (ni)

Used with a verb to indicate a change or


choice

45 (wo/o

Expresses an occupation or position

suru)
46 (demo)

Indicates emphasis

47 (demo)

Together with an interrogative word it means


anything, anyone, any time

48 (de)

Indicates a cause or a reason

49 (kara)

Indicates a source such as a giver, a cause or


material

50 (ni)

Indicates a person who gives something or


who provides a service

51 (wa) + (ga)

Indicates the relation between an object /


subjects and a verb or adjective

52 (ga)

Connects two sentences with the meaning


but

53 (wo/o)

Used with an verb expressing emotions, it


indicates the cause of this emotion

54 (de)

Indicates a state / condition of something

55 (de)

Limits numbers

56 (dake)

Indicates a limit on things or amounts

57 (dake)

Indicates a limit on an action or state

58 (de)

Indicates the time of completion or expiration


of something

59 (demo)

Following a noun, means or something like


this

60 (mo)

Emphasizes in a positive or negative way

61 (demo)

Indicates two or more items as an example of


a larger list

62 (bakari)

Indicates that an item, state or action is a


single one

63 (bakari)

Indicates an action was just completed

64 (tokoro)

Indicates that an action takes place, just took


place or is about to take place

65 (ga)

Indicates the subject of subordinate clause


when it is different from the subject of the main
clause

66 (kara)

conjunction meaning after or since

67 (nagara)

Indicates that an action is happening


simultaneously

68 (ga)

Indicates the subject of a relative clause

69 (no)

Indicates the subject of a relative clause

70 (kara)

Used as a conjunction and indicates a cause


or reason

71 (node)

Indicates a strong reason

72 (no)

Indicates a modified pronoun

73 (no)

Used to nominalize verbs & sentences

74 (nara)

Used as a conjunction and indicates a


supposition or condition

75 (nara)

Indicates a topics and is used as an alternative


to wa (No.1)

76 (to)

Indicates a condition that results in an


inevitable outcome

77 (ba)

Used as a conjunction to express a probable


results

78 (ba)

all you have to do

79 (ba)

Used to enumerate two or more actions or


states

80 (tara)

Used as a conjunction, indicates a supposition


or condition

81 (tara)

Used as a conjunction to indicate that one


action takes place before the action described
in the main sentence

82 (tokoro)

Used as a conjunction to indicate a condition


that brings about a discovery

83 (temo)

a conjunction meaning even if

84 (temo)

Used with a set of contrasting verbs and


adjectives

85 (temo)

Together with an interrogative word it means


no matter what/where/who

86 (tewa)

Indicates a condition which will bring a


negative conclusion

87 (nomi)

Indicates a limit (similar to dake)

88 (made)

even, used to emphasize

89 (sae)

even, used to emphasize

90 (sae)

if only or as long as

91 (noni)

although, in spite of the fact that

92 (nagara)

although, though, but

93 (toka)

Indicates that a list of two ore more things or


actions is not exhaustive

94 (tari)

List of two or more actions in no particular


sequence

95 (tari)

Indicates actions or states that alternate

96 (noni)

Indicates a purpose or function

97 (no desu)

Asks for an explanation or reason

98 (kiri)

Indicates a limit to an amount

99 (kiri)

Indicates the last time a certain incident


occured

10 (tomo)

Used with numbers and counters to mean

both or all

10 (nagara)

Used with numbers and counters to mean

both or all

10 (shika)

Used with a negative verb to indicate limits on

conditions or quantities meaning only

10 (shika

used with a verb meaning to have no choice

but to

nai)

10 (shi)

Used as a conjunction, indicating two or more

actions or states

10 (shi)

Used as a conjunction indicating a reason

5
10 (tomo)

Indicates inclusion

6
10 (ni)

Indicates the one acting or the one acted upon

7
10 (ka)

Indicates uncertainty about something

8
10 (ka)

Indicates uncertainty about a state or reason

9
110 (dano)

Indicates two or more items or actions of a


longer list (similar to toka )

111 (dano)

Indicates a pair of opposite actions or states

112 (nado)

something to the effect

113 (yara)

Indicates two or more items of a longer list

114 (yara)

Indicates uncertainty

115 (temo)

Indicates an approximate limit with the


meaning of at the most

116 (tomo)

Indicates an approximate maximum or


minimum

117 (wa)

Indicates that a number is the higher or lowest


limit

118 (to)

Emphasizes a number in a negative sentence

119 (nado)

Indicates examples

12 (kurai)

Expresses an extent of an action or condition

similar to gurai

12 (hodo)

Indicates the extend of an action or condition

1
12

(hodo)

the more the more

2
12 (dake)

as as

3
12 (dake)

the more the more

4
12 (to)

about to do something, trying to do

something

12 (to)

even if, whether or not

6
12 (nari)

either, whetheror

7
12 (nari)

anything, anyone, any time

8
12 (koso)

Emphasizes the word preceding it

9
13 (koso)

Emphasizes a reason or a cause

0
13 (tewa)

Expresses repetition of an action

1
13 (ni)

Joins two or more nouns to indicate a list of

items

13 (ni)

Connects two or more items to indicate a

matching or a contrast

13 (ni shite Indicates a generally agreed upon standard


4

wa)

13 (ni totte) Indicates an effect or value of a person or


5

thing

13 (ni

about, concerning something or someone

tsuite)

13
7

cant say whether or

(tomo tomo)

13 (ga)

even if, whether or not

8
13 (wa)

Emphasizes contrasting elements

9
14 (toshite)

Indicates status, capacity or function

0
14 (toshite)

Provides emphasis in a negative sentence

1
14
2 (bakari de naku)

not only but also

14 (dake)

used to express not onlybut also

3
14 (nomi)

used to express not onlybut also

4
14 (nari)

as soon as

5
14 (ga
6

hayai ka)

14 (ya ina
7

as soon as

as soon as

ya)

14 (ka no sooner had, hardly had


8

nai uchi ni)

14 (bakari)

Indicates the only action left to do

9
15 (bakari
0

Emphasizes a reason or cause

ni)

15 (sura)

Emphasizes in the meaning of even

1
15 (nado)

Expresses a humble attitude towards an item

2
15 (tomo)

no matter what, even if

3
15
4 (tomo aroo hito)

To express that someone did something not to


be expected

15 (dokoro far from, not to mention


5

ka)

15 (dake ni)

Indicates a cause or reason

6
15
7 (made mo nai)

there is no need to

15 (mono no) but or although


8
15 (tokoro
9

even if

de)

16
0 (keredomo)

Connects 2 sentences meaning but or

16
1 (keredomo)

Indicates a preliminary remark

16 (ga)

Used to soften a statement or refusal

although

2
16
3 (keredomo)

Indicates a desire

16 (ne)

At the end of a sentence to confirm a

statement

16 (ne)

At the end of a sentence to soften a request or

suggestion

16 (ne)

At the end of a sentence to indicate a reason

or cause

16 (nee)

At the end of a sentence to indicate emotion

7
16 (yo)

At the end of a sentence to state a strong

conviction

16 (yo)

At the end of a sentence to articulate a request

or suggestion

17 (kashira)

At the end of a sentence to express

uncertainty, a request or a question and mainly


used by women

17 (kana)

At the end of a sentence to express

uncertainty, a request or a question and mainly


used by men

17 (na)

At the end of a sentence and used by men to

confirm a statement

17 (na)

At the end of a sentence to express a

prohibition, used by men

17 (naa)

At the end of a sentence to express emotion,

used by men

17 (naa)

At the end of a sentence to express a desire

17 (no)

At the end of a sentence to express a question

or soften a command, used by women

17 (wa)

At the end of a sentence to soften a statement,

used by women

17 (sa)

At the end of a sentence to indicate slight

emphasis, used by men

17 (koto)

At the end of a sentence to indicate emotion,

used by women

18 (koto)

At the end of a sentence to express a

suggestion or invitation, used by women

18 (mono)

At the end of a sentence to express a reason

or excuse

18 (tomo)

At the end of a sentence to express an

assertion

18 (monoka)

At the end of a sentence to express a negative

determination, used by men

18 (ya)

At the end of a sentence to soften a statement,

request or suggestion, used by men

18 (tara)

At the end of a sentence to indicate a

suggestion or proposal

18 (yara)

At the end of a sentence to indicate a

rhetorical question with a negative implication

18 (ze)

At the end of a sentence to add for to

sentence, used by men

18 (zo)

At the end of a sentence to add force to a

sentence or to express a question to oneself