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M.

Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

Stability of Columns

Bending due to a compressive axial load is called Buckling.


Structural members that support compressive axial loads are called Columns.
Buckling is the study of stability of a structures equilibrium.
Learning objectives
Develop an appreciation of the phenomena of buckling and the various types of

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structure instabilities.
Understand the development and use of buckling formulas in analysis and
design of structures.

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

Buckling Phenomenon
Energy Approach
Unstable Equilibrium

Stable Equilibrium
Potential Energy is Minimum

Neutral Equilibrium

Bifurcation/Eigenvalue Problem
P

PL K = sin

Lsin

Unstable

Unstable

Stable

Stable

(c)

O
R

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

Snap Buckling Problem


= 0

0 < < 45

Lsin(45-)

Fs
L
o

45

(45)

Fs

L cos(45-) P

P = ( cos ( 45 ) cos 45 ) tan ( 45 )


---------KL L

0 < < 45

P
---------- = ( cos ( 45 ) cos 45 ) tan ( 45 )
KL L

> 45

> 45

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Lsin(45)

L cos(45)
Fs
P

(45)
P

Fs

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

Local Buckling

Axial Loads

Torsional Loads
crinkling

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Compressive

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

C11.1
Linear deflection springs and torsional springs are attached to
rigid bars as shown.The springs can act in tension or compression and
resist rotation in either direction. Determine Pcr, the critical load value.
P
k = 8 lbs/in

30 in
k = 8 lbs/in

30 in
K = 2000 in-lbs/rads
O

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Fig. C11.1

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

Euler Buckling
y

Mz

x
A

N=P
L
v(x)

Boundary Value Problem


2

d v + Pv = 0
2
dx
Boundary conditions: v ( 0 ) = 0
v(L) = 0
Differential Equation: EI

Solution
Trivial Solution: v = 0
Non-Trivial Solution: v ( x ) = A cos x + B sin x
where: =

P----EI

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Characteristic Equation: sin L = 0


2 2

EIPn = n
----------------2
L

n = 1, 2, 3.
2

EI
Euler Buckling Load: P cr = -----------2
L
Buckling occurs about an axis that has a minimum value of I.

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

x
L

Buckling Mode: v = B sin n ---

Mode shape 1
Pcr

Pcr

2
EI
P cr = -----------2
L

Pcr

Mode shape 2
Pcr

Pcr

I
L/2

2
4 EI
P cr = ---------------2
L

L/2

Pcr

Mode shape 3
Pcr
L/3

Pcr

I
L/3

L/3

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Pcr

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11-7

2
9 EI
P cr = ---------------2
L

M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

Effects of End Conditions


1.

3.

2.

P
B

Differential
Equation

Boundary
Conditions

One end fixed,


other end free

EI

dv
2

dx
= 0

One end fixed,


other end pinned

+ Pv

v(0) = 0
v( L) = 0

EI

y
A

Pinned at
both Ends

L
x

Case

4.

y
A

Fixed at both ends.

dv

EI

+ Pv
2
dx
= Pv ( L )

dv

EI

+ Pv
2
dx
= RB ( L x )

dv

+ Pv
2
dx
= RB ( L x ) + MB

v( 0) = 0

v( 0) = 0

v( 0) = 0

dv
(0) = 0
dx

dv
(0) = 0
dx
v( L) = 0

dv
(0) = 0
dx
v( L) = 0
dv
(L) = 0
dx

Characteristic
Equation

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sin L = 0

cos L = 0

tan L = L

2 ( 1 cos L )
L sin L = 0

P
-----EI

Critical
Load
Pcr

EI----------2
L

EI- = ------------ EI----------2


2
4L
( 2L )

20.13EI
EI ------------------- = ----------------2
2
L
( 0.7L )

4
EI- = ---------------- EI - [
-------------2
2
L
( 0.5L )

Effective
Length
Leff

2L

0.7L

0.5L

EIP cr =
----------2
L eff
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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

P cr
Axial Stress: cr = -------A
Radius of gyration: r =

Slenderness ratio: (Leff/r).


Failure Envelopes

--IA
2
P cr
E
cr = -------- = ----------------------2
A
( L eff r )

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Short columns: Designed to prevent material elastic failure.


Long columns: Designed to prevent buckling failure.

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

C11.2
Columns made from an alloy will be used in a construction of
a frame. The cross-section of the columns is a hollow-cylinder of thickness 10 mm and outer diameter of d mm. The modulus of elasticity is
E = 200 GPa and the yield stress is yield = 300 MPa. Table below shows
a list of the lengths L and outer diameters d. Identify the long and the
short columns. Assume the ends of the column are built in.
d
(mm)

60

80

100

150

200

225

250

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L
(m)

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

C11.3
A force F= 600 lb is applied to the two bars structure as
shown. Both bars have a diameter of d = 1/4 inch, modulus of elasticity
E = 30,000 ksi, and yield stress yield = 30 ksi. Bar AP and BP have
lengths of LAP= 8 inches and LBP= 10 inches, respectively. Determine
the factor of safety for the two-bar structures.
B

60o
P
25o
F

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Fig. C11.3

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M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

Class Problem 1
Identify the members in the structures that you would check for buckling. Circle the
correct answers.
F
P
B

40

A
110o

Structure 1

Structure 2

110o
A

B
B

60o

P
75o

Structure 4
30o

Structure 3
P

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Structure 1
Structure 2
Structure 3
Structure 4

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AP
AP
AP
AP

BP
BP
BP
BP

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Both
Both
Both
Both

None
None
None
None

M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 11

C11.4
A hoist is constructed using two wooden bars to lift a weight
of 5 kips. The modulus of elasticity for wood is E = 1,800 ksi and the
allowable normal stress 3.0 ksi. Determine the maximum value of L to
the nearest inch that can be used in constructing the hoist.

L ft.

C
4 in

30o

A
A

A
A

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Fig. C11.4

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2 in

Cross-section AA