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Euler buckling load for different modes

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Vable

Stability of Columns

Structural members that support compressive axial loads are called Columns.

Buckling is the study of stability of a structures equilibrium.

Learning objectives

Develop an appreciation of the phenomena of buckling and the various types of

structure instabilities.

Understand the development and use of buckling formulas in analysis and

design of structures.

August 2014

11-1

M. Vable

Buckling Phenomenon

Energy Approach

Unstable Equilibrium

Stable Equilibrium

Potential Energy is Minimum

Neutral Equilibrium

Bifurcation/Eigenvalue Problem

P

PL K = sin

Lsin

Unstable

Unstable

Stable

Stable

(c)

O

R

August 2014

11-2

M. Vable

= 0

0 < < 45

Lsin(45-)

Fs

L

o

45

(45)

Fs

L cos(45-) P

---------KL L

0 < < 45

P

---------- = ( cos ( 45 ) cos 45 ) tan ( 45 )

KL L

> 45

> 45

Lsin(45)

L cos(45)

Fs

P

(45)

P

Fs

August 2014

11-3

M. Vable

Local Buckling

Axial Loads

Torsional Loads

crinkling

Compressive

August 2014

11-4

M. Vable

C11.1

Linear deflection springs and torsional springs are attached to

rigid bars as shown.The springs can act in tension or compression and

resist rotation in either direction. Determine Pcr, the critical load value.

P

k = 8 lbs/in

30 in

k = 8 lbs/in

30 in

K = 2000 in-lbs/rads

O

Fig. C11.1

August 2014

11-5

M. Vable

Euler Buckling

y

Mz

x

A

N=P

L

v(x)

2

d v + Pv = 0

2

dx

Boundary conditions: v ( 0 ) = 0

v(L) = 0

Differential Equation: EI

Solution

Trivial Solution: v = 0

Non-Trivial Solution: v ( x ) = A cos x + B sin x

where: =

P----EI

2 2

EIPn = n

----------------2

L

n = 1, 2, 3.

2

EI

Euler Buckling Load: P cr = -----------2

L

Buckling occurs about an axis that has a minimum value of I.

August 2014

11-6

M. Vable

x

L

Mode shape 1

Pcr

Pcr

2

EI

P cr = -----------2

L

Pcr

Mode shape 2

Pcr

Pcr

I

L/2

2

4 EI

P cr = ---------------2

L

L/2

Pcr

Mode shape 3

Pcr

L/3

Pcr

I

L/3

L/3

Pcr

August 2014

11-7

2

9 EI

P cr = ---------------2

L

M. Vable

1.

3.

2.

P

B

Differential

Equation

Boundary

Conditions

other end free

EI

dv

2

dx

= 0

other end pinned

+ Pv

v(0) = 0

v( L) = 0

EI

y

A

Pinned at

both Ends

L

x

Case

4.

y

A

dv

EI

+ Pv

2

dx

= Pv ( L )

dv

EI

+ Pv

2

dx

= RB ( L x )

dv

+ Pv

2

dx

= RB ( L x ) + MB

v( 0) = 0

v( 0) = 0

v( 0) = 0

dv

(0) = 0

dx

dv

(0) = 0

dx

v( L) = 0

dv

(0) = 0

dx

v( L) = 0

dv

(L) = 0

dx

Characteristic

Equation

sin L = 0

cos L = 0

tan L = L

2 ( 1 cos L )

L sin L = 0

P

-----EI

Critical

Load

Pcr

EI----------2

L

2

4L

( 2L )

20.13EI

EI ------------------- = ----------------2

2

L

( 0.7L )

4

EI- = ---------------- EI - [

-------------2

2

L

( 0.5L )

Effective

Length

Leff

2L

0.7L

0.5L

EIP cr =

----------2

L eff

August 2014

11-8

M. Vable

P cr

Axial Stress: cr = -------A

Radius of gyration: r =

Failure Envelopes

--IA

2

P cr

E

cr = -------- = ----------------------2

A

( L eff r )

Long columns: Designed to prevent buckling failure.

August 2014

11-9

M. Vable

C11.2

Columns made from an alloy will be used in a construction of

a frame. The cross-section of the columns is a hollow-cylinder of thickness 10 mm and outer diameter of d mm. The modulus of elasticity is

E = 200 GPa and the yield stress is yield = 300 MPa. Table below shows

a list of the lengths L and outer diameters d. Identify the long and the

short columns. Assume the ends of the column are built in.

d

(mm)

60

80

100

150

200

225

250

L

(m)

August 2014

11-10

M. Vable

C11.3

A force F= 600 lb is applied to the two bars structure as

shown. Both bars have a diameter of d = 1/4 inch, modulus of elasticity

E = 30,000 ksi, and yield stress yield = 30 ksi. Bar AP and BP have

lengths of LAP= 8 inches and LBP= 10 inches, respectively. Determine

the factor of safety for the two-bar structures.

B

60o

P

25o

F

Fig. C11.3

August 2014

11-11

M. Vable

Class Problem 1

Identify the members in the structures that you would check for buckling. Circle the

correct answers.

F

P

B

40

A

110o

Structure 1

Structure 2

110o

A

B

B

60o

P

75o

Structure 4

30o

Structure 3

P

Structure 1

Structure 2

Structure 3

Structure 4

August 2014

AP

AP

AP

AP

BP

BP

BP

BP

11-12

Both

Both

Both

Both

None

None

None

None

M. Vable

C11.4

A hoist is constructed using two wooden bars to lift a weight

of 5 kips. The modulus of elasticity for wood is E = 1,800 ksi and the

allowable normal stress 3.0 ksi. Determine the maximum value of L to

the nearest inch that can be used in constructing the hoist.

L ft.

C

4 in

30o

A

A

A

A

Fig. C11.4

August 2014

11-13

2 in

Cross-section AA

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