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Usenet

Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system. It was developed from


the general-purpose UUCP dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim
Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, and it was established in 1980.[1] Users read
and post messages (called articles or posts, and collectively termed news) to
one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin
board system (BBS) in many respects and is the precursor to Internet
forums that are widely used today. Usenet can be superficially regarded as a
hybrid between email and web forums. Discussions are threaded, as with web
forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially.
Usenet is a collection of user-submitted notes or messages on various
subjects that are posted to servers on a worldwide network. Each subject
collection of posted notes is known as a newsgroup. There are thousands of
newsgroups and it is possible for you to form a new one. Most newsgroups
are hosted on Internet-connected servers, but they can also be hosted from
servers that are not part of the Internet.

Gopher
A system that pre-dates the World Wide Web for organizing and displaying
files on Internet servers. A Gopher server presents its contents as a
hierarchically structured list of files. With the ascendance of the Web, many
gopher databases were converted to Web sites which can be more easily
accessed via Web search engines.
The Gopher protocol is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for
distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet. The
Gopher protocol was strongly oriented towards a menu-document design and
presented an alternative to the World Wide Web in its early stages, but
ultimately HTTP became the dominant protocol. The Gopher ecosystem is
often regarded as the effective predecessor of the World Wide Web.
The protocol was invented by a team led by Mark P. McCahill at the University
of Minnesota. It offers some features not natively supported by the Web and
imposes a much stronger hierarchy on information stored on it.
WAIS

Wide Area Information Server, WAIS developed by Thinking Machines Inc.


in 1988 as an indexing, searching, and retrieval tool that catalogs the entire
file (instead of only the document title) and allows users to search thousands
of documents.
Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) is a clientserver text searching system
that uses the ANSI Standard Z39.50 Information Retrieval Service Definition
and Protocol Specifications for Library Applications" (Z39.50:1988) to search
index databases on remote computers. It was developed in the late 1980s as
a project of Thinking Machines, Apple Computer, Dow Jones, and KPMG Peat
Marwick.
Archie
Archie is a tool for indexing FTP archives, allowing people to find specific files.
It is considered to be the first Internet search engine.[1] The original
implementation was written in 1990 by Alan Emtage, then a postgraduate
student at McGill University in Montreal, and Bill Heelan, who studied
at Concordia University in Montreal and worked at McGill University at the
same time
Archie is a program that allows you to search the files of all the Internet
FTP servers

that

indexing spider that

offer anonymous
visits

each

FTP.

anonymous

Archie
FTP

is
site,

actually

an

reads

all

the directory and file names, and then indexes them in one large index. A user
can then query Archie, which checks the query against its index. To use
Archie, you can Telnet to a server that you know has Archie on it and then
enter Archie search commands. However, it's easier to use a forms interface
on the Web called ArchiePlex.
Search engines Types
Crawlers
These types of search engines use a "spider" or a "crawler" to search the Internet. The
crawler digs through individual web pages, pulls out keywords and then adds the pages
to the search engine's database. Google and Yahoo are examples of crawler search
engines.
Directories
Directories are human powered search engines. A website is submitted to the directory
and must be approved for inclusion by editorial staff. Open Directory Project and the
Internet Public Library are examples of directories.

Hybrids
Hybrids are a mix of crawlers and directories. Sometimes, you have a choice when you
search whether to search the Web or a directory. Other times, you may receive both
human powered results and crawler results for the same search. In this case, the
human results are usually listed first.
Meta
Meta search engines are ones that search several other search engines at once and
combines the results into one list. While you get more results with meta search
engines, the relevancy and quality of the results may sometimes
suffer. Dogpile and Clusty are examples of meta search engines.