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Bring out the counterpoint: exploring the relationship between

implied polyphony and rubato in Bachs solo violin music


STACEY DAV I S
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T E X A S AT S A N A N TO N I O, U S A
Performers use variations in tempo, articulation, dynamics and timbre to create
var iety, listener interest and perceived emotional expression. Scholars term these
deviations
from the mechanically precise interpretive nuances. In the 18th century,
well-known performers and composers described these nuances in historical and
theoretical
treatises, the most famous of which were written by C. P. E. Bach
(1759/1949), Mattheson (1739/1981), L. Mozart (1756/1948), and Quantz
(1752/1985).
The relationship between expressive performance and musical structure forms a
recurring theme in studies of interpretive nuance. One of the most robust
findings of this research is that performers communicate various aspects of
musical
structure through the use of slight variations in tempo and rhythm, a practice that
is typically called tempo rubato. Among other things,
research has also shown that performers use timing variations to delineate metric
structure (Clarke, 1993; Sloboda, 1983), emphasize the melody line in a multivoiced
texture (Palmer, 1996b; Rasch, 1979), bring out moments of relatively high
melodic
or harmonic tension (Palmer, 1996a) and alter rhythmic relationships that are
mathematically
precise in notation (Bengtsson & Gabrielsson, 1983; Repp, 1990).
Classical and Romantic period music then best fit the underlying structural
patterns that have received the most extensive theoretical and structural
analysis. In the
end, this simply suggests that much of what we know about how performers use
tempo
rubato to express musical structure is only directly applicable to music written in a
specific
style for a single instrument. But do the same relationships between musical
structure
and expressive performance exist for music of other styles, structural features,
and
instrumentations? Or do differences in instrument and style also create
differences in
expressive timing choices?
In order to investigate the expressive performance of one of these alternate
styles and instrumentations, this study focuses on the unaccompanied violin
works
of J. S. Bach. they also contain a structural feature that performers are
consistently instructed to
emphasize through the use of tempo rubato. This feature is typically called
implied
polyphony, which is the compositional technique of suggesting multiple
polyphonic
voices within a monophonic line.
As violinist Yehudi Menuhin stated:

But certainly the most important thing is to observe the clear and clean conduct of the
individual voices. This also applies in the many movements which are only one voice, for
that is only a superficial aspect For instance, although many of Bachs movements for
solo violin and particularly for cello are written in one voice, that is without counterpoint
and harmony, the counterpoint and the harmony are in fact implied and every effort must
be made to bring the different voices out clearly This expression could only be achieved
by that infinitesimal variation of length of note which would give proportion and line to
the pattern the minor inflection, the minimal deviations, are absolutely essential to a
sense of the living work (Menuhin & Primrose, 1976, pp. 116, 120).

Baroque violinist Jaap Schroeder then made the following observations during a
master
class that focused on the performance of these works:
Written polyphony in the music of Telemann and Bach is not simply intended to give
the appearance of polyphony. In so far as it is possible, the separate lines have to be
brought out clearly We should also realize that Bach often writes a single melodic line
that has polyphonic implications which should be brought out in performance.
Suggestion is the most significant word or guide to our interpretation of polyphonic
music for the violin Bach and Telemann knew that a single melodic line, as well as
two juxtaposed melodic lines, could suggest polyphony and would be perceived as such
by the listener if the player were skillful. The skill lies in knowing which notes are to be
stressed. For this, it helps if one knows something about harmony and counterpoint
In bringing out what I have called hidden or suggested polyphony, it is often helpful to
use rubato and create a feeling of improvisation (Schroeder, 1977, pp. 1012).

Both of these violinists obviously recognize the same underlying structure in this
music, especially in terms of its implied counterpoint. In particular, both
repeatedly
give instruction to bring out these implied voices by using tempo rubato. But
what
are these implied voices? And exactly how does a violinist go about emphasizing
them? How does the presence of this one structural feature, which already exists
within the complex metric and grouping structure of Baroque instrumental music,
play a role in determining the extent to which a performer uses tempo rubato?

Background and previous research


Prior to examining the relationship between implied polyphony and rubato, it was
neces sary to devise a method for analyzing the implied polyphony itself. A simple
analytical
system was therefore developed, with focus placed on identifying the specific
structural
features that would most powerfully influence the tendency for a monophonic
sequence
to separate into multiple voices (Davis, 2006). Since the fundamental goal was to
capture
the perceptually relevant aspects of implied polyphony, the three rules that make
up
this analytical system are grounded on basic principles of auditory stream
segregation
(particularly those influenced by the Gestalt laws of proximity and good
continuation).
The first of these three rules focuses on the fact that streams are more likely to
separate at points of large interval separation, with probability of segregation
increasing
as interval size increases. Based on previous research, the perfect fourth was
chosen as the smallest interval that would likely cause a melody to separate into
more

than one perceivable stream (Narmour, 1990; Van Noorden, 1975). The
subsequent
two rules then examine how the contour changes and the degree of conjunct
motion
surrounding any large interval can strengthen the tendency for the stream to
divide
perceptually at that point. The contour rule is supported by research showing that
tone progressions with changes of contour (V shaped) are more likely to split into
multiple streams than those that are linear shaped (Heise & Miller, 1951). The
conjunct
motion rule then accounts for the fact that composers tend to create melodic con
tinuity through the use of small intervals (Ortmann, 1926). Passages of conjunct
motion surrounding a large interval would therefore strengthen the perception
that
the large interval functions as the transition between two implied contrapuntal
voices. Weight is added to each large interval based on the degree to which it
meets these three criteria, with weight increasing as the size of the interval, the
number of contour
changes and the amount of surrounding conjunct motion increases. An interval is
considered to be the transition point between two different implied voices if its
weight
exceeds a threshold of four points. See Figure 1 for an example of how this rule
system
was used to determine potential points of transition between implied voices in a
passage
from the Allemande of Bachs D minor Partita for Unaccompanied Violin. In this
figure, all intervals _ five semitones are bracketed and labeled with their total
weight
as determined by the analytical system described above. All intervals whose
weight is
large enough to suggest a change of implied voice are then indicated by circling
the
second pitch of that interval (which would be the first pitch of the new implied
voice).
Note that three of the bracketed intervals in this excerpt did not cross the
required
threshold of four points, thereby indicating that interval size alone is not enough
to
suggest a change of implied voice.
In general, this analytical system provides a straightforward way to determine
how
three basic structural features combine to signal points of segregation in
monophonic
melodies.3 Following the identification of these points, all of Bachs solo string
works
were analyzed to determine how he incorporated implied polyphony into these
pieces.
This analysis was used to create a taxonomy of implied polyphony types, with cat
egories distinguishing between implied voice changes that occur between
repeated
and/or sequenced motives (with all voices typically overlapping in pitch space)
and
implied voice changes that occur within a single motive (with each voice
occupying
its own distinguishable pitch space) (Davis, 2006). The specific characteristics of
the

five types of implied polyphony that make up this taxonomy linear, motivic,
antiphonal,
pedal point and sequential will be discussed in the sections that follow.
Each excerpt was presented in two versions:
Bachs original version that contained some type of implied polyphony and a
version that had been revised (through the use of octave transfer) to diminish the
sense of
implied polyphony as much as possible. Participants were simply asked to judge
the
engagingness of each excerpt. Overall, results indicated that passages
containing
instances of implied polyphony that occur within a single motive, thus creating
simultaneous
grouping structure, were judged to be significantly more engaging than their
revised versions. But there was no significant perceivable difference between the
ori ginal and revised versions of passages whose implied voice changes created
successive
grouping structure by simply separating the repetitions of a motive. In general,
this
suggests that certain types of implied polyphony create a sense of structural
expression,
which is something that adds a degree of interest to the actual notes of the piece
and is independent of the expressive nuances that a performer might later supply
(e.g., changes in tempo, dynamics, articulation, and timbre).
With these results in hand, we return to the question of how performers might
use rubato to communicate this implied contrapuntal structure. If some types of
implied polyphony indeed make Bachs pieces inherently more engaging or
expressive,
what is the role of the performer? How is the performers use of tempo rubato
influenced
(either increased or curtailed) by the presence of the implied polyphony? As
the previously quoted violinists illustrate, performers are consistently instructed to
bring out the counterpoint through the use of tempo rubato. So performers could
certainly use variations in tempo to emphasize pitches that belong to different
implied
voices or pitches that serve as the transition between implied voices. But the
results
of the perceptual experiments (Davis, 2006) suggest that the opposite approach
could
also be taken. Performers could recognize the inherent structural expression of
certain
passages and actually refrain from using rubato to add any further expression,
thereby allowing the implied voices to emerge on their own. Although violinists
have
not necessarily identified and classified the implied polyphony in the way
presented
here, they might still have an awareness of varying structural features and an
ability
to project those differences in their performance.
The hypothesis was that tempo rubato would be more pervasive
in passages that contain motivic, antiphonal, and sequential implied polyphony.
These types of implied polyphony create successive grouping structure and were
not
shown to have a significant perceptual effect on their own (Davis, 2006). It might
therefore be necessary for performers to use rubato and add the expression

themselves.
However, performers might use fewer tempo variations during passages that
contain
linear and pedal point implied polyphony, each of which create some degree of
simultaneous
grouping structure. Since passages containing these types of implied
polyphony were judged to have an inherent sense of engagingness, performers
could
justify playing them more strictly and refrain from adding unnecessary rubato.
This hypothesis could be compared to David Temperleys theory of
communicative
pressure (2004). According to Temperley, communicative pressure deals with the
relationship between the structural characteristics of a piece and the listeners
understanding
of those structures, with successful communication only occurring when a
listener understands the structure that was intended by both the composer and
the performer. In providing examples of this concept, Temperley discusses the
trading
relationship between meter, rubato and syncopation. Pieces characterized by
metric
stability and predictability, for instance, can be performed with a considerable
amount
of rubato without the beat being obscured for the listener. Temperley cites
Chopins
piano music as an example of such a style, with the metric stability often being
created
by repeated accompanimental patterns. Syncopation, on the other hand, is one
way
of lessening the metric regularity in a piece. So pieces with considerable
syncopation
are often performed with a low amount of rubato in order to avoid any metric
confusion
(e.g., Scott Joplin piano rags). As Temperley summarized, Communicative
pressure
suggests that the opportunity for rubato would be greatest in cases where the
meter
is very strongly established and reinforced, so that the probability of the metrical
structure given the notes is high.
In general, this idea of communicative pressure centers on the relationship
between
structural complexity and performance complexity. If the musical structure is
already
complex or unstable, performers might need to avoid adding excessive timing
devi ations in order to communicate well with their audience. In the case of these
Bach
string pieces, this complexity is created by types of implied polyphony that
disrupt re gularity (in both metric and grouping structure) and are therefore considered to
be
structurally expressive. So the theory of communicative pressure would predict
that
passages containing these types of implied polyphony might be performed with a
lesser
amount of rubato. Significant timing deviations might be more appropriate for the
performance
of passages containing types of implied polyphony that are less structurally

expressive, meaning that they do not significantly disrupt the underlying metric,
grouping or contrapuntal structure, and are therefore more predictable or stable.

Study 1

MATERIALS AND PROCEDURE

Two short passages from Bachs solo violin works were carefully chosen in order to
allow for comparisons between the degree of timing variations used for different
types
of implied polyphony. Each of these passages lacks any rhythmic differentiation
(one
consists entirely of repeated eighth notes and the other of repeated sixteenth
notes)
and the score contains no special instructions concerning the performance of
these
repeated rhythms. The first excerpt contains mm. 6569 the Corrente from Partita
No.
1 in B minor (BWV 1001) and is an example of linear implied polyphony. In this
passage,
a two-note descending, stepwise motive is found in each of three distinct pitch
ranges. Large interval leaps between these different ranges thereby create a
texture
that contains three implied voices being simultaneously streamed across a single
brief
passage of music (see Figure 2) 8:25m. By contrast, the second excerpt contains
mm. 1724
of the Presto from Sonata No. 1 in G minor (BWV 1002) and is an example of
sequential
implied polyphony. Since sequential repetition is so pervasive in Baroque
instrumental
music, many passages with implied polyphony also contain sequences. But this
specific category refers only to instances where a large interval separates the end
of
one leg of a sequence from the beginning of the next. Stepwise repetition of this
motive
(either ascending or descending) then creates a sense of linear voice leading
between
the first notes of each sequential leg. In the passage from the Presto, each leg of
the sequence is two measures long and the sequential repetition creates a
stepwise, ascending
implied voice (see circled pitches in Figure 3).
(see Table 1). The basic intent in choosing these
eight performances was to have a collection of well-respected violinists from a
large
span of time and a variety of different performance styles (including the
historically
informed performances by Podger and Schroeder on period instruments).
Digital files (16-bit, 44.1 kHz, stereo) of each performance were extracted using
the Audacity sound editing software (version 1.2.6) on a Macintosh computer.
Wave
forms were analyzed both visually and aurally in order to determine onset timings
for
each individual tone. Aural analysis was used to determine a window of 3040 ms
that contained the transition from one tone to the next. Visual analysis was then
used
to identify the precise onset time within a smaller portion of that window (typically
about 10 ms), with the chosen onset being an amplitude zero-crossing that acted

as
the beginning of the periodic portion of that note. Although this is an extremely
timeconsuming
process, particularly considering the number of pitches that occur in even
the shortest excerpt from these pieces, previous studies have shown it to be a
reasonably
precise method for determining note onsets when MIDI technology is not
available.
Two separate analyses of each performance (both by the author) resulted in an
average
absolute onset difference of only 3.8 ms. Inter-onset intervals (IOIs) were then
calculated by subtracting consecutive onset times from each other.
In order to determine the extent to which these performers were using tempo
rubato, deviations of the IOIs from strict performance were calculated. Strict
performance
was defined as the playing of notes in conformance with the strict mathemat ical precision found in the score. Nominal IOIs were calculated by dividing the total
duration of the excerpt by the number of notes in it. For instance, the passage
from
the B minor Corrente contained 25 total eighth notes. So a performance of this
passage
that lasted 5000 ms would have a nominal duration of 200 ms. Deviations were
then calculated as the difference between the performed IOI and the nominal IOI
for
each pair of notes. In order to accurately compare performances at different
tempos,
each deviation was normalized to be a percentage of the nominal IOI for that
performance.
Because the linear implied polyphony therefore creates a sense of structural
expression
in this passage, it was predicted that performers would refrain from using any
considerable amount of tempo rubato. In contrast to this, ratings for the
engagingness
of the Presto passage were nearly identical for the original and revised versions.
If sequential implied polyphony only exists between legs of a sequence (rather
than
within the motive itself), reducing the interval separation between those legs does
not
fundamentally change the basic motive of this passage. The clear sense of
sequential
repetition remains in both versions and the presence or absence of the implied
polyphony has no noticeable effect on the perceived aesthetic quality of this
passage.
As a result of this lack of structural expression, it was predicted that performances
of this passage would be characterized by a more significant and consistent use of
tempo rubato. Performers would literally be using timing variations to bring out
or
emphasize an implied contrapuntal structure that is not inherently expressive.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figure 4 shows timing data for eight performances of the excerpt from the B minor
Corrente. Although this excerpt contains three obvious
implied voices, we do not find an extensive or consistent use of rubato by these
particular
violinists. We instead find rather small deviations for the majority of the tones,
with
most played either very close to the nominal duration or shortened slightly. The

only
tones that were lengthened considerably (and not even by all performers) were
the first
and the last, which likely reflects a traditional awareness of phrase and cadential
structure
more than an attempt to emphasize implied contrapuntal voices.
(see Figure 5). In contrast to the Corrente, this graph shows a much more
considerable and consistent use of tempo rubato by all
eight violinists. The large peaks (which are shared to some extent by most
performers)
reflect longer IOIs at the beginning of each leg of the two-measure sequenced
motive and correspond with the notes that belong to the ascending implied voice.
Some performers chose to lengthen the IOI preceding each sequential repetition
as
well. A smaller and less consistent amount of rubato was then used for the pitches
that complete the motive and come between the notes of this implied voice. So
just
as predicted, these performers used more variations in timing on a passage that
was
not considered to be structurally expressive.
Although these two excerpts differ in amount and type of implied polyphony, they
are similar in that they both contain sequential repetition. In the Corrente excerpt,
a
one-measure motive is sequenced four times, with multiple implied voice changes
occurring within each leg of the sequence. The Presto example also contains a
motive
that is sequenced four times, but each leg of the sequence lasts two measures
and
there are no changes of implied voice within each leg. The excerpts also differ in
the
metric placement of these voice changes. Those in the Corrente occur on the
three
weakest eighth notes of each measure, while those in the Presto occur on the
downbeat
of every other measure. So in both rate of occurrence and metric placement, the
voice changes in the Corrente create a greater amount of structural complexity or
irregularity than those in the Presto.
In order to compare in greater detail how these performers treated this sequential
repetition, Figures 6 and 7 show mean timing data for all eight performers on both
excerpts.
In the Corrente (see Figure 6), the first tone of the passage
was lengthened considerably more than any others, which is most likely because
this pitch acts as the cadence of the previous passage and the beginning of a new
motive. There is also some degree of lengthening at the last tone of each measure
relative
to the preceding IOI. While this does correspond with a change of implied voice,
the deviation is very small and could also simply reflect the upcoming sequential
repetition.
The second and fourth notes of each measure, which both act as the first note
of a new implied voice within the main motive, contain little to no rubato
(particularly
in relation to their neighboring notes).
In contrast to this, the deviations in the Presto excerpt are much more substantial
(see Figure 7). The performers again signaled the sequential repetition by

lengthening
the first and last IOIs of each leg of the sequence. But these deviations are much
larger
than those in the Corrente and also now correspond with the pitches that make up
the
implied linear voice. In addition, there is more overall tempo variation within each
leg
of the sequence, particularly at the halfway point of each leg (which coincides
with the
downbeat of the second measure of each sequential leg). This again reflects a
difference
in amount of rubato between these two passages, with the more extensive
amount used
in the passage that was not considered to be inherently complex or expressive.
Although these graphs of mean timing deviations certainly depict the shared
timing
characteristics between these performances, there are also many individual
differences
between the eight violinists. These differences essentially center on the overall
amount of timing variations, the specific notes that were lengthened, and the
degree
to which these timing variations are consistent within the sequential repetition
that
is found in each passage. Milstein and Perlman, for instance, demonstrated the
most
consistent application of a similar pattern of deviations to each leg of the
sequence
in the Corrente excerpt (see Figure 8). In both of these performances, the third
and
sixth notes of each measure are lengthened the most (relative to the other notes),
with Milstein placing greatest emphasis on the third note and Perlman instead
choosing
the sixth. Although each measure contains different exact deviations, all
measures
share the same overall shape. Given the overall lack of extensive rubato in these
performances (with all deviations being within 30 ms of the nominal duration for
each note), these graphs still show that Milstein and Perlman played this passage
with
a great amount of rhythmic precision and expressive consistency. But this consist
ency, particularly the emphasis on the third note of each measure, does not
necessarily
reflect an attempt to bring out changes between implied voices. The other five
performances of this passage then exhibited similarly small deviations, but with a
much less consistent application of rubato to the sequential repetition and the
implied
voice changes. The general tendency for these performances was just to
communicate
phrase structure by lengthening the first and/or last notes of the excerpt.
The individual performances of the Presto excerpt fell easily into two categories:
those that extensively lengthened the first note of each sequential leg to bring
out
the implied voice (Heifetz, Milstein, Podger, Schroeder and Szeryng) and those
that
did not (Grumiaux, Mintz and Perlman). For those in the first group, Milstein and
Schroeder provided two different approaches to the amount of rubato applied to
the

four pitches that make up the implied linear voice (see Figure 9). Milstein
dramatically
set forth the first note and then gradually diminished his use of rubato with each
succeeding repetition. Perhaps this is because the sequence becomes more and
more
predictable as the passage proceeds, thus requiring less input from the performer
in
order for the listener to adequately perceive the pattern. Schroeder, on the other
hand,
took the opposite approach. Not only does his use of rubato increase with each
sequential repetition (after the first), but he signals the approach of a new leg by
lengthening the last note of the preceding leg as well. Perhaps this serves to
create some degree of musical tension that builds to a climax at the arrival of the
motive
that begins in the following measure. Alternatively, this approach could also
reflect
the effects of technical difficulty, as Schroeder took more time to prepare for the
large
interval leap between each repetition of the two-measure motive.
As mentioned previously, it is possible that issues other than implied polyphony
influenced these performers use of rubato. For instance, there could be a
connection
between time taken at implied voice changes and the physical parameters of
playing
the violin. In general, large intervals are the most important structural
determinant of implied polyphony. Because of the basic physical layout of the
violin, the notes that
make up these large intervals most often occur on different strings (and perhaps
even
two strings apart). So it might simply take performers more time to negotiate the
string crossings that naturally occur at many implied voice changes. If this was
the
case, we should see a consistent use of tempo rubato at a majority of string
crossings,
and therefore all types of implied polyphony. But in comparing the size of the
interval between each pair of consecutive notes (measured in semitones) with the
mean IOI of each note across all eight performances, we find that these expert
performers
were able to manage these string crossings very well (even at very rapid tempos).
So the intervals in the Corrente are actually larger (and potentially
cross more strings, depending on fingering choices) than those in the Presto, yet it
was the Presto that contained the more extensive deviations from nominal
duration.
This suggests that physical parameters were not significantly determining or
limiting
these performers decisions about tempo rubato.
The overall tempo of a performance might also affect the degree of timing devi ations, with previous research indicating that timing variations are both more
common
and more preferred at slower tempos than at faster tempos (Repp, 1995). As
expected, based on the style characteristics of these two movements, the
eight performances of the Corrente were slower (mean IOI _ 197.39 ms) than the
eight performances of the Presto (mean IOI _ 126.90 ms), thus suggesting that
more
rubato would be expected in the Corrente. However, Figure 10 indicates that the
greater degree of timing variability was actually found in the Presto performances.

The strength of this correlation was strongly affected by three performances of


each
excerpt that behaved differently from the rest. In the Presto excerpt, Grumiaux,
Mintz
and Perlman did not lengthen the first note of each leg of the sequence as
dramatically
as the other perfomers, thereby causing the standard deviation of their IOIs to be
much
smaller overall. The Corrente performances of Heifetz, Podger and Schroeder
differed
from the others in their treatment of the first and last pitches. Because these
three performers
significantly lengthened those notes, which probably reflects an awareness of
cadential structure more than implied polyphony, their mean standard deviation
was
larger than the others. For the other five violinists, however, the standard
deviation of
the IOIs remained almost exactly the same no matter what the underlying tempo
was.
So the significant correlation is almost entirely caused by the performances of
Milstein
and Szeryng. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA confirmed that no significant
difference
between mean IOI and mean standard deviation of IOIs occurred between the
two passages for all eight performers (F(1,7) _ 3.254, p _ .114).
fig. 10

Study 2
If a performers expressive timing decisions are indeed
influenced by type of implied polyphony. Four passages from the
G minor Presto used in Study 1 were therefore chosen, with each
passage containing a different type of implied polyphony.
The passage in Figure 11a (mm. 1216) contains motivic implied
polyphony and is characterized by an alternation between two basic
motives that belong in two different implied voices. The first motive
contains four sixteenth notes that move in a conjunct, V-shaped
pattern. Each statement of this motive is then separated by the
content of the second implied voice, which contains a simple twonote interval of a descending fourth. Large intervals, contour
changes and conjunct motion combine to create a clear distinction
between these two motives, which are then sequenced 2.5 times
(with each leg of the sequence lasting two full measures). This
means that changes of implied voice occur both within each
sequential leg (with the return to the first motive signaled by the
smaller interval of a fourth) and between each sequential leg (this
time signaled by the more dramatic leap of an ascending eleventh).
Figure 11b (mm. 1724) contains the example of sequential implied

polyphony that was discussed previously. Changes of implied voice


are signaled by large interval leaps between each leg of a sixmeasure sequence. Because this sequence moves in an ascending
stepwise fashion, the first note of each leg of the sequence creates
an implied linear voice. In contrast to this, the passage in Figure 11c
(mm. 2528) contains pedal point implied polyphony, with large
intervals separating a three-note ascending pattern from a
threenote, neighbor tone-shaped pedal tone pattern. Finally, Figure
11d (mm. 3235) contains an example of antiphonal implied
polyphony, which is characterized by implied voices that are sharing
the same motive. In most cases, this type of implied polyphony
occurs when a scalar motive is separated by large intervals and
rotated through the different implied voices. Beginning in m. 33, this
motive contains four descending sixteenth notes, which thus creates
a sense of syncopation against the underlying triple meter of the
piece. If the large intervals that separate each of these implied
voices were removed, the sense of implied polyphony would
disappear and a single extended descending scale would be all that
remains.
As before, it was predicted that Podger would use a greater amount
of rubato in the passages that contain sequential and antiphonal
implied polyphony. Podger might have chosen to bring out this
contrapuntal structure through the use of tempo rubato.
But regardless of the fact that every voice change is not
emphasized, it is clear that Podger has made a conscious decision to
bring out the beginnings of some implied voices in this passage
through the use of tempo rubato.
Finally, Figure 14 shows the mean standard deviation of IOIs for
each passage and each individual performer. This allows for specific
comparisons between the way each individual violinist chose to
perform the different passages and different types of implied
polyphony.
This suggests that these performers were not following a general
rule to bring out the counterpoint in all instances of implied
polyphony. Perhaps they were instead allowing the inherent
expressivity of certain instances of that feature to govern the
degree to which they added tempo rubato to their performance of
various passages over the course of a single piece.
Conclusions
More excerpts and performances must be examined before any
significant understanding of the relationship between implied
polyphony and expressive performance can be obtained.

In the case of these Bach violin pieces, the way that the implied
polyphony relates to the underlying grouping, metric, harmonic and
motivic structure ultimately determines the degree to which this
structural expression exists. performers often avoid any extensive
use of rubato in the inherently expressive (and therefore more
complex or unpredictable) passages while making a more concerted
effort to accentuate the contrapuntal structure in those passages
that are more regular or straightforward.
Jaap Schroeder then suggested that it helps if one knows something
about harmony and counterpoint in order to determine where this
flexibility is appropriate (Schroeder, 1977, p. 12). With its
combination of theoretical analysis and empirical exploration, this
study has the potential to provide practical information to
performers as they seek to communicate various structural features
to their audience. A better understanding of the structural and
expressive characteristics of implied polyphony, in particular, can
therefore highlight the different options that performers have for
creating meaningful expression in these remarkable pieces.
5. it was predicted that performers would use rubato to bring out
its counterpoint. But Podger only applied that rubato to voice
changes that occur in metrically strong positions, thereby relying on
the syncopated placement of the other voice changes to provide the
requisite expression.
Gloss:
Attempt-tentativa
Average-mdia
Axis-eixo
Curtailed-cerceado (Diminuir o valor ou a qualidade de; depreciar, menoscabar
impr limite a, tornar menor; diminuir, limitar, restringir)
Cursory-apressado
Deviations desvio
Devise-inventar
Disrupt-perturba, rompe
engaging -atraente, cativante
Engagingnessfairly -bastante
finest -melhor
gathered -coletado
Indeed-de fato
Instances-casos
Intended-pretendido

IOIs-Inter-onset intervals
Likely-provvel
make up-compem
Measurements-medies
Onset-comeo
Overlapping-sobreposico
Pervasive-difundido
Pinnacles- pinaclos (cumes)
Placement-colocao
Prevailing-predominante

Prior-antes
Quoted-citaes

Refrain

abster

Reinforced-reforado
set forth-expe, estabelece
Sizeable-considervel
skewed -enviesada

Slight- leve
Span-intervalo, palmo
Split-dividido
Stepwise-gradual
Straightforward-direto
stripped -despojado

Taxonomia- a parte de classificao.


Threshold-limite

Within-dentro

emphasize the melody line in a multi-voiced


texture (Palmer, 1996b; Rasch, 1979)
Davis, S. (2006). Implied polyphony in the solo string works of J. S. Bach: A case
study for the perceptual relevance of structural expression. Music Perception, 23,
423446.
Bregman, A. S. (1990). Auditory scene analysis: The perceptual organization of
sound. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bregman, A. S., & Campbell, J. (1971). Primary auditory stream segregation and
perception of order in rapid sequences of tones. Journal of Experimental
Psychology, 89, 244249.
Narmour, E. (1990). The analysis and cognition of basic melodic structures.
Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ortmann, O. (1926). On the melodic relativity of tones [whole issue]. Psychological
Monographs, 35(62).
Schroeder, J. (1977). Jaap Schroeder discusses Bachs works for unaccompanied
violin. Journal of the Violin Society of America, 3, 732.
Van Noorden, L. P. A. S. (1975). Temporal coherence in the perception of tone
sequences. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Eindhoven University of
Technology, The Netherlands.
Unidade meldica, estabilidade meldica, alturas, duraes, intervalos, contornos
meldicos, mtrica. Tipos de polifonia.