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MODULE VII

TOPICS: Food, Health & Safety


FUNCTIONS:
Describe the physical appearance, health,
character, tastes and interests. Ask, compare,
contrast and differences between data and
opinions. Express preferences.

AUTOR: MIGUEL BONETT

Todos Los Derechos Reservados

Centro de Ambientes Virtuales


Universidad Autnoma del Caribe CopyRight

Curso 2011

NDICE

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 3
1.
1.1.
2.

INFINITIVE ............................................................................................................................ 4
DIFFERENCE MEANING BETWEEN THE TO-INFINITIVE AND ING FORM..... 8
GRADABLE ADVERBS .................................................................................................... 11

BIBLIOGRAFA ........................................................................................................................... 13

INTRODUCTION

The objective for this module 7 is for the students to know how to agreeing and
disagreeing and also how to make suggestion and reach a decision. Make
assumptions and deductions. Students have to know how to describe pictures,
asking about or recommending places, also giving reasons or examples.
Furthermore how to express similarities and differences.

Make assumptions/deductions
Make suggestions/agree - disagree
Reach a decision
Asking about/recommending places
Giving reasons/examples
Expressing similarities/differences
Describe pictures
Concern

UNIDAD 1
1. INFINITIVE

The to-infinitive is used:

To express purpose. For example. He took the train to arrive early.


After certain verbs (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise,
refuse, etc). For example. They expect to start printing next week.
After would like, would prefer, would love, etc to express a specific
preference. For example: I would prefer to go to the theatre tonight.
After adjectives which describe feelings/emotions (happy, sad, glad, etc),
express willingness/unwillingness (willing, eager, reluctant, etc, refer to a
persons character (clever, kind, etc) and the adjectives lucky and fortunate. For
example:
I was very happy to hear that Jane and David got married.

Note: with adjectives that refer to character we can also use an impersonal
structure. For example:
It was kind of you to inform me about it.

After too/enough. For example: It is too cold to go out without a jacket.


To talk about an unexpected event, usually with only. For example:
jkdhfjhsdfjs
I finally got to work only to find that no one else was there.
With it + be + adjective/noun. For example: It wasnt easy to get a taxi.
After be + first/second/next/last etc. For example:
He was the first person to get off the plane.

After verbs and expressions such as ask, learn, explain, decide, find out,
want, want to know, etc, when they are followed by a question word. For
example:
She wanted to know how to play chess.
Note: why is followed by subject + verb, NOT an infinitive. For example:
I wonder why she didnt get better marks.
In the expressions to tell the truth, to be honest, to sum up, to begin
with, etc. For example:
To tell you the truth, I couldnt tell anyone that I had failed in my exams
again.

Note: if two to-infinitives are linked by and or or, the to of the second infinitive
can be omitted. For example:
I would like to go and see if the children are asleep.

Test of the infinitive

Present: (to) play

Perfect: (to) have played

Present progressive: (to) be playing


been playing

Perfect

progressive:

(to)

have

The Present Infinitive refers to the present or future. For example.


You are expected to work from 8:00 to 4:00 every weekday.

The Present Progressive Infinitive expresses an action happening now. For


example:

She seems to be working on the project at present.

The Perfect Infinitive is used to show that the action of the infinitive
happened before the action of the verb. For example:
She claims to have been to Australia twice.

The Perfect Progressive Infinitive is used to emphasize the duration of the


action of the infinitive, which happened before the action of the main verb. For
example:
He seems to have been reading all night. His eyes are red.

The Infinitive without to is used:

After modal verbs. For example:


Mary can play the saxophone well.

After the verbs let, make, see, hear and feel. For example:
They made him leave the building. BUT we use the to-infinitive after be made,
be heard, be seen, etc (passive form). For example:

He was made to leave the building.

Note: When see, hear and watch are followed by an ing form, there is no
change in the passive. For example:

He saw me reading the email. I was seen reading the email.

After had better and would rather. For example:


We had better take a taxi.

Help can be followed by either the to-infinitive or the infinitive without to.
For example: She helped me (to) solve the problem.
-ing form

The ing form is used:

As a noun. For example: Smoking is not good for your health.


After certain verbs: admit, appreciate, avoid, continue, deny, fancy, go
(for activities), image, mind, miss, quit, save, suggest, practice, consider,
prevent. For example: He suggested solving the problem on our own.
After love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate to express general preference.
For example: Jim loves eating chocolate ice-cream.
BUT for a specific preference (would like/would prefer/would love) we use a toinfinitive. For example:
Hed love to have some vanilla ice-cream today.
After expression such as be busy, its no use, its (no) good, its (not)
worth, whats the use of, cant help, theres no point in, cant stand, have
difficulty (in), have trouble, etc. For example:
There is no point in talking to her, she is so headstrong!

After spend, waste or lose (time, money, etc). For example:


He spent a lot of money buying a home cinema system.

After the preposition to with verbs and expressions such as look forward
to, be used to, in addition to, object to, prefer (doing sth to sth else). For
example:
He prefers eating at home to eating out.

After other prepositions. For example.


He was thinking of changing his look.

After the verbs hear, listen to, notice, see, watch and feel to describe an
incomplete action. For example:
I heard Joe talking to Marie. (I only heard part of the conversation.)

BUT we use the infinitive without to with hear, listen to, notice, see, watch and
feel to describe the complete action. For example:

I heard Larry tell the story. (I heard the whole story)

1.1. DIFFERENCE MEANING BETWEEN THE TO-INFINITIVE AND ING


FORM

Some verbs can take either the to-infinitive or the ing- form with a change in
meaning.
Forget + to-infinitive = (not) remember. For example:
He forgot to lock the door.

Forget + -ing form = not recall. For example:


Ill never forget living in New York.
Remember + to-infinitive = not forget. For example:
Did you remember to past the letter?

Remember + -ing form = recall. For example:

I remember hearing him say that.

Mean + to-infinitive = intend to. For example:


Im sorry, I never meant to make you feel so bad.

Mean + -ing form = involve. For example:

If I lose my job, Im afraid it will mean selling my car.

Regret + to-infinitive = be sorry to (normally used in the present simple


with verbs such as say, tell, inform). For example:

We regret to inform you that you have not been accepted into the university.

Regret + -ing form = feel sorry about. For example:

I regret losing touch with my friends in America.

Try + to-infinitive = do ones best, attempt. For example:


She tried to tell him but he just didnt want to listen.

Try + -ing form = do something as an experiment. For example:

Why dont you try adding more sugar?

Stop + to-infinitive = stop briefly to do something else. For example:


He stopped to buy a burger on his way home.

Stop + -ing form = finish, give up. For example:

He stopped drinking coffee because it upset his stomach.

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2. GRADABLE ADVERBS
Quite Rather Fairly Pretty Very

Quite (=fairly, to some degree) is usually used in favorable comments. For


example:
Hes quite good at Math.
Quite is used before a/an. For example: Hes quite a good football player.
Quite (= completely) is used with adverbs, some verbs and adjectives such as:
amazing, brilliant, certain, dreadful, different, exhausted, horrible, impossible,
perfect, right, sure, true, useless, etc. For example:
Im quite sure she will come with us.

Rather is used in unfavorable comments. For example:


Hes rather bad at tennis.

It can also be used in favorable comments meaning to an unusual degree. For


example:

The lecture was rather interesting. (more interesting than we expected)

Rather is also used with comparative degree. For example:

My MP3 player was rather more expensive than yours.

Rather is also used before or after a/an. For example:

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Its a rather warm summer / it wasnt a warm but rather a cold summer.

Fairly/Pretty are synonymous with quite and rather. They are used after a.
for example:
Shes a fairly/pretty good actress.
Very + adjective/adverb of positive degree. For example:
He is very careless with his things.

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BIBLIOGRAFA

Evans, Virginia Dooley Jenny (2009). Forum 2. Express Publishing.

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