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SOLAR INVERTER

ABSTRACT
The solar energy is converted to electrical energy by photo-voltaic(PV) cells. This
energy is stored in batteries during the day time in order to be utilized whenever required.
This project is designed to use solar energy for household loads using Inverer. This project
deals with a controlled charging mechanism which protects over charge, deep discharge and
under voltage of the battery.A solar inverter, or PV inverter, converts its direct current (DC)
output of a photovoltaic solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that
can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-line electrical network.
In this project, the solar energy is stored in the battery from Photo Voltaic cells.
This stored energy of battery is converted in of linemode to AC supply of 50 Hz frequency
using PWM inverter IC with MOSFET gate by driver IC to driver a half MOSFET bridge
and a step-up transformer. A set of op-amps are used as comparators to continuously
monitor panel voltage, load current, etc. Indications are also provided by a green LED for
fully charged battery while a set of red LEDs indicate under charged, overloaded and deep
discharge conditions. Charge controller also uses MOSFET as power semiconductor switch
to ensure cutting of the load in low battery or overload condition. A transistor is used to
bypass the solar energy to a dummy load while the battery gets fully charged. This protects
the battery from getting over charged. Furthermore, the project can be enhanced by using
microcontroller and GSM modem to communicate the status of the system to a control room
via SMS.

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:
1. Bridge-MOSFETs drive (IRF Z44)
2. Step up Transformer (1A, 230V secondary, 12V primary)
3. Voltage regulator (IC7812)
4. MOSFET driver (IRF 510)
5. Battery (12V)
6. Solar Panel
7. Transistor (BC 547/ BC 847, 45V, 100mA)
8. Step down transformer (1A, 230V primary, 12V secondary)
9. Capacitor (470F, 16V)
11) Resistors (10k; 4.7k x 2; 100k x 2; 1k, 1W x 3; 100 x 2; 20k; 0.1)
12) IC CD4047

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Technical/ Practical/ Economical Feasibility:


Expose the cell to light, and the energy from each photon (light particle) hitting the silicon,
will liberate an electron and a corresponding hole. If this happens within range of the
electric fields influence, the electrons will be sent to the N side and the holes to the P one,
resulting in yet further disruption of electrical neutrality.This flow of electrons is a current;
the electrical field in the cell causes a voltage and the product of these two is power. The
solar energy is stored in the battery from Photo-Voltaic cells. This stored energy of the
battery is converted to AC supply of 50Hz frequency using PWM inverter IC with
MOSFET gate driver IC to the driver MOSFET bridge and step-up the voltage by a
transformer.
This energy generated by the panel, in the form of direct current (DC), is transmitted to the
inverter. The job of the inverter is to convert the DC power the solar panel has generated to
alternating current (AC) that is transmitted on the grid. The inverter converts DC to AC by
using two switches which convert the positive only DC power to an alternating positive to
negative AC power.
The inverter will then step up the voltage from 12 volts to 120volts, which is the voltage
used throughout the US electrical grid. This conversion of voltage is what allows a 12 volt
DC solar polar to be tied into a 120 volt AC grid.

Economical Feasibility: INR 4708/-Rs.

1) Bridge-MOSFETs drive (IRF 510)


2) Step up Transformer (1A, 230V secondary, 12V
primary)
3) Voltage regulator (IC7812)
4) MOSFET driver (IRF 510)
5) PWM inverter IC (SG3524)
6) Battery (12V)
7) Solar Panel
8) Transistor (BC 547/ BC 847, 45V, 100mA)
9) Step down transformer (1A, 230V primary, 12V
secondary)
10) Diodes x 4 (1N4001 for low power 1N4007 for
moderate power )
11) Capacitor (470F, 16V)

14/79/16/45/64/- 500/2500/28/70/18/27/20/-

12) Resistors (10k; 4.7k x 2; 100k x 2; 1k, 1W x 3;


45/100 x 2; 20k; 0.1; 200k,2W)
13) Electrolytic capacitors (0.1F x 2; 0.001F; 1F;
800/100F)
14) Other cost

Application:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Implementation of solar inverter for home, garden, street light


Can use Solar Inverter for domestic application.
It can be plugs in your house for your TV, computer, and other wired products.
Can use Solar Power Inverters For Industrial Application.

Reference:
www.elctronicshub.com/solar-inverter-applications.html

Group Members
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Hitesh Gupta
Deependra Singh
Hemant Sharma
Devendra Soni
Amandeep

8233243721 hiteshguptapce072@poornima.org
9461918491 deependrapce518@poornima.org
9694708098 hemantpce070@poornima.org
9414485887 devendrapce059@poornima.org
9649111566 amandeeppce534@poornima.org

Name of favourable Guide:


1. Mr. Manish Sharma
2. Mr. Jaldeep Yadav