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Leccture--7

1.6 Au
uxiliary Potential
P
Function
ns and Determinaation of A
Antenna
Radiattion Field
ds:
w
discussed
d earlier thaat when eleectric chargees undergo accelerationn
As it was
electromaagnetic radiatiion is producced. Hence it is the motionn of charges ((i.e., currents)
of radiatiion. Some prroblems invo
olving electriic currents ccan be cast in equivalennt
magnetic currents (thee use of mag
gnetic currentts is simply a mathematiccal tool, theyy
proven to exist). So,

or decelerration,
that is the ssource
forms invoolving
have neverr been

For matheematical simp


plicity, instead
d of calculatin
ng the radiateed fields (E, H
H) directly frrom the sourcces (J,
M) in an one-step pro
ocedure, a tw
wo-step proceedure is com
mmonly used, as shown inn Fig. 32 in block
diagramm
matically form
m.

Fig. 32: Evaluation


E
of radiated
r
field
ds from electriic and magneetic sources.
In order to
t account fo
or both electrric current an
nd/or magnettic current soources, the ssymmetric forrm of
Maxwells equations must
m be utilizzed to determ
mine the resultting radiationn fields. The ssymmetric foorm of
Maxwells equations in
nclude additional radiation
n sources (eleectric charge density annd magnetic ccharge
density m)

The use of potentials in


n the solution
n of radiation fields employys the conceppt of superpossition of fieldss.

The total radiation fiellds (E, H) aree the sum of the fields duee to electric ccurrents (EA, HA) and the fields
due to thee magnetic currents (EF, HF).

In the prresence of electric sources only, the Max


xwells equattions become:

Similarly in the presen


nce of magnetic sources only,

g to the vecto
or identity,
According

any vector with zero diivergence (ro


otational or so
olenoidal fieldd) can be expressed as the curl of some other
vector.
e
(1d
d) and (2c), we
w can write
So, from equations

where A and
a F are thee magnetic and electric vector potentiials, respectiively.
The flux density
d
definiitions in equattions (3a) and
d (3b) lead to the followingg field definittions:

Using (3aa) in (1a) and (3b) in (2b), leads


l
to

The abovee two equatio


ons can be rew
written as:

Based on the vector ideentity

the brackeeted terms in equations (6aa) and (6b) represents non--solenoidal (irrrotational fieelds) and mayy each
be written
n as the gradieent of some sccalar.

where e is
i the electric scalar potenttial and m is the magneticc scalar potenttial.
From the above two eq
quations, we can
c have:

So, now the


t fields (EA, HA) due to
o electric sourrces and (EF, HF) due to magnetic souurces were deerived
through equations (4a, 8a) and (4b, 8b).