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BIOLOGY FORM 4

CHAPTER 6: NUTRITION
WHAT IS NUTRITION?
The process that organisms obtain energy from food, for growth, maintenance and repair of
damage tissue
TYPES OF NUTRITION
1) Autotrophs (self, feed)
Photosynthesis (Green plants)
Chemosynthesis (Bacteria synthesis organic compounds by oxidising inorganic
compounds - ammonia)
2) Heterotrophs (cannot synthesise their own food)
Holozoic (Herbivours, Carnivours & Omnivours)
Saprophytic (Organisms fed on dead / decaying matter
Parasitic (Organisms obtains nutrient by living on/ in the body of other living organisms
BALANCE DIET
1. Balance diet: a diet which contains the right amounts of carbohydrate, proteins, fat,
vitamins, mineral, water and fibers.
2. Healthy diet: should provide the body with all the substances necessary to maintain
growth, to keep good health and repair damage tissue.
WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT EFFECTING THE DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT?
1. Climate-Colder place need more energy to maintain body temp. because of the loss of
energy to the surrounding.
2. Body size - The smaller person have a larger surface per unit volume compare to a
larger person, the rate of heat loss is higher, they need more energy.
3. Gender - Male need more energy because they are more active & the metabolic rate is
higher than female.
4. Growing children have higher metabolic rate than older people. They need more energy.
5. Occupation - Person does heavy work needs more energy than a person who is only
moderately active.
NUTRIENTS IN FOOD
1.

Carbohydrates: (rice, noodles, potatoes)


Source of energy for motion and growth
Used to form supporting structures in plants (cell wall)
Effective methods for food storage (starch/glycogen)
Part of nucleus (DNA)
Lack of it : become very weak

2. Proteins : (meat, fish, cheese, eggs)


Make new cells for growing

Repair & Replace damaged cells/tissues


Make enzymes, antibodies & hormones
Lack of it: kwashiorkor, very weak, muscle are poorly developed

3.

Fat : ( oils, butter, milk, nuts)


Supply energy
Part of cell membrane
Help absorb certain vitamins (ADEK)
Too much: excess fat stored under the skin (obese)
Too little: vitamins wont be absorbed, cell membrane wont be formed normally

4.

Vitamins:
To protect health.
Biological catalyst for chemical reaction in the body.
2 categories:
i) Fat soluble vitamins
A,D,E,K
Stored in the body fat
No need to consume everyday (stored in the body)
ii) Water soluble vitamins
C and B (8 types)
Dissolved easily in water, easily lost
Cannot be stored in the body, need to be consumed everyday.
Vitamin A
Source: Milk, green leaf, butter, tomatoes, cod liver, egg.
Function: Normal growth, healthy eyes & skin.
Deficiency disease: Night blindness.
Vitamin B1
Source: Milk, peas, cereals, green leaf.
Function: Growth & development.
Deficiency disease: Beriberi (disease affects the nervous system).
Vitamin B2
Source: Peas, yeast, egg, meat.
Function: Healthy skin growth.
Deficiency disease: Skin disease, retarded growth.
Vitamin B4
Source: Whole cereals, potatoes, tomatoes, meat, fish.
Function: Healthy skin, digestive & nervous system.
Deficiency disease: Pellagra (disease affect the skin, alimentary canal & nervous
system).
Vitamin C
Source: Tomatoes, green leaf, vegetables, fruits.

Function: Healthy growth, strong blood vessels.


Deficiency disease: Scurvy (gums easily bleed).
Vitamin D
Source: Sunlight, milk, butter.
Function: Strong bones & teeth.
Deficiency disease: Rickets ( Soft bones & deformed on children).
Vitamin E
Source: Vegetables, oils, milk, butter.
Function: Protect the cell membrane.
Deficiency disease: Affect fertility.
Vitamin K
Source: Green vegetables, Soya bean oils.
Function: Help in clotting the blood.
Deficiency disease: Excessive bleeding from wound.
5. Mineral salts:
Major trace mineral- required in large amount
Minor trace mineral- required in small amount
6. Iron - Formation of heamoglobin
7. Calcium - Strong bones & teeth, muscle contractions, clotting blood
8. Phosphorus - Strong bones
9. Potassium - Growth & osmotic balance
10. Sodium - Osmotic balance, proper functioning of nervous system
11. Iodine - Body metabolism, development of brain
12. Roughage/ fiber
Higher water holding capacity
Help peristalsis / bowel movement
Prevent from constipation
Lower the cholesterol
Reduce the risk of heart disease
13. Water:
Medium for biochemical reactions
Medium for transportation of respiratory gases
Regulates body temp.
Removes excretory waste
Maintain osmotic pressure
Aids peristaltic movement

Hydrolyse some food substances


Dissolve most chemical substances

SPECIAL DIET
1. Pregnant lady
Need more nutrient to provide more energy to meet the need of my growing fetus
Folate brain development
Iron prevent from anemic
Calcium - growth of babys bone & teeth
2. Baby
Need mothers milk to provide me with energy & nutrient.
3. Children
They are active & love to play. They need carbohydrates to give us energy and protein to
develop new tissue.
4. Vegetarian
They need supplement in order to complete their need.
5. Diabetic
Low sugar.
6. Teenagers
Carbohydrates provides energy (theyre active)
Protein still growing
Iron menstruation (girl)
7. Athletes
Carbohydrates they need more energy.
MALNUTRITION
1. Starvation insufficient amount of food
2. Eating disorder:
Anorexia Nervosa Girls believe themselves to be fat (theyre extremlely
thin), dont want to eat.
Bulimia Overconcern with body weight, eat a lot and then force themselves
to vomit.
3. Overweight/ Obesity - high risk of diabetes,hypertension, heart attack
4. Over consumption of cholesterol & saturated fat:
Can cause arthrosclerosis (build up fatty deposits in the coronary arteries/
blood vessels.

5. Constipation: lack of dietary fiber.

CLASS OF CHEMICALS
Cells need various types of organic and inorganic compounds to enable them to carry out their
functions, as well as build their cellular components. While organic compounds contain the
element carbon, inorganic compounds do not. Below is the classified descriptions of chemical
compound.
1. Carbohydrate
* Starch made up of long chain of glucose
* The ratio of C:H:O in it is 1:2:1
* Cellulose that strengthens the cell walls of plants
* Maltose can be converted into glucose by hydrolysis
* Its glucose molecules can be converted into glycogen
2. Lipid
* Cholesterol is an example of it
* Fats have the triglyceride molecules in them
* Fatty acids can be saturated and unsaturated
* The hormone testosterone is an example of it
3. Nucleic Acid
* An example is the DNA found in the nucleus of a cell
* Genetic material that directs protein synthesis
* Contain pentose sugars and phosphate groups
4. Protein
* Amino acids are its building blocks
* Nearly all enzymes are examples of it
* The haemoglobin molecules in the red blood cells
* Builds muscles and aids growth
5. Water
* An inorganic compound with no carbon in it
* A polar molecule with two H atoms and one O atom
* A universal solvent
* Acts as a medium for reactions in one's body