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SEMESTER ASSIGNMENT

THE INFLUENCE OF DRUGS ON THE FETUS AND PREGNANCY TERMS 1

C
O
M
P
I
L
E
D
BY
DIAN SELVIA

AKADEMI KEBIDANAN
PEMERINTAHAN KOTA TEBING TINGGI
2014
FORWORDS

This semester assignment, in the form of paper, would not have been accomplished
without the guidance and suggestions from our lecturer of English. So, the presenters of seminar
would like to the this opportunity of thanking all the people.
The writer owes a great debt to Bapak H. Hadi Sahputra, S.Pd., M.Hum, the English
lecrures of Midwifery Academy of Pemerintah Kota Tebing Tinggi, as well as, the English
coordinator in this academy, who patiently spent countless hours on guiding and suggesting the
writer, especially in completing this semester assignment.
The writer also would like to thank to Ibu Dra. Hj. Sukmawati Hasibuan., as the
Director of this Midwifery Academy and to Ibu Sri Wahyuni SB, S.Si.T, M.PH., as the
Administrative Academic.
Last but not least, the writers sincere gratitude to all of the students of midwifery,
especially to all the students of midwifery, who involved both directly and indirectly in finishing
the process of completing for the better result of this semester assignment.

The Writer

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CONTENTS

Page

Forewords................................................................................................................... i
Table of Contents........................................................................................................ii
List of Lectures Sign..................................................................................................iii
List of Question...........................................................................................................iv

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The Influence............................................................................................1
Drugs.........................................................................................................2
Fetus..........................................................................................................4
Pregnancy terms 1.....................................................................................4
The Significance of the Study...................................................................4

Conclusion....................................................................................................................5
Suggestions...................................................................................................................5
References.....................................................................................................................6

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LIST OF LECTURES SIGN
A SEMESTER ASSIGNMENT

THE INFLUENCE OF DRUGS ON THE FETUS AND PREGNANCY TERMS 1


(PENGARUH OBAT-OBATAN TERHADAP JANIN DAN KEHAMILAN TRIMESTER
1)

THE WRITER
DIAN SELVIA

SIGNED BY
THE LECTURER

.............................................................

H.Hadi Sahputra, S.Pd., M. Hum.


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LIST OF QUESTIONS
These questions are closely related to the title of semester assignment.
(Pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini sangat berhubungan dengan judul tugas semester)

1.What is meant by drugs?


(Apa yang dimaksud dengan obat-obatan)
2. What is meant by fetus?
(Apa yang dimaksud dengan janin?)
3. What is meant by pregnancy terms 1?
(Apa yang dimaksud dengan kehamilan trimerter 1?)
4. What do you know about good influence of drugs on fetus?
(Apa yang kamu ketahui tentang dampak baik dari obat-obatan terhadap janin?)
5. What do you know about bad influence of drugs on fetus?
(Apa yang kamu ketahui tentang dampak buruk dari obat-obatan terhadap janin?)
6. What do you know about good influence of drugs on mothers pregnancy terms 1?
(Apa yang kamu ketahui tentang dampak baik dari obat-obatan terhadap kehamilan
trimester 1?)
7. What do you know about bad influence of drugs on pregnancy terms 1?
(Apa yang kamu ketahui tentang dampak buruk obat-obatan terhadap kehamilan
trimester 1?
8. Mention the types of drugs that good effect for fetal growth!
(Sebutkan jenis-jenis obat yang berpengaruh baik untuk pertumbuhan janin!)
9. Mention the types of drugs that bad effect for fetal growth!
(Sebutkan jenis-jenis obat yang berpengaruh buruk untuk pertumbuhan janin!)
10. Mention the types of drugs that good effect for pregnancy terms 1?
(Sebutkan jenis-jenis obat yang berpengaruh baik untuk kehamilan trimester 1?)
11. Mention the types of drugs that bad effect for pregnancy terms 1!
(Sebutkan jenis-jenis obat yang berpengaruh buruk untuk kehamilan trimester 1!)
12. What if the mother does not consume drugs safely?
(Bagaimana jika ibu mengonsumsi obat yang tidak aman?)
13. How long should a mother take the drug?
(Berapa lama ibu boleh mengkonsumsi obat?)
14. Who can deliver drugs in pregnant women?
(Siapa yang boleh memberikan obat-obatan pada ibu hamil?)
15. How many doses of the drug to be administered to pregnant women?

(Berapa dosis obat yang harus diberikan kepada ibu hamil?)


16. What is the drug classification categories for pregnant terms 1 women?
(Berapa kategori penggolongan obat untuk ibu hamil trimester 1?)
17. What midwives do in the event of complications in drug delivery in pregnant women
and fetuses?
(Apa yang bidan lakukan jika terjadi komplikasi dalam pemberian obat pada ibu hamil
dan janin?)
18. How long does it take to get the drug to the pregnancy terms 1?
(Berapa lama waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk memperoleh obat untuk kehamilan trimester
1?)
19. When is a midwife can deliver the drug to the pregnancy terms 1?
(Kapan seorang bidan dapat memberikan obat kepada kehamilan trimester 1?)
20. What diseases will arise if it happens drug administration errors?
(Apakah penyakit yang timbul jika terjadi kesalahan pemberian obat?)

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1. The Influence
It is necessary to clarify the definition of influence. According to Big Indonesian
Dictionary KBBI (2005), "Influence is the power of existing or arising from something (person
or object) that helped shape the character, beliefs or actions of a person." Meanwhile, Surakhmad

(1982) states that the effect is strength that comes from an object or person and also the
symptoms that can make a difference to anything around him. So, of those opinions can be
concluded that the effect of a power or force that arises from something, be it a person or object
as well as everything in nature that affect anything around him.
The influence of the drug within 20 days after fertilization effect is lethal or not at all. At
this time the fetus is very resistant to the occurrence of birth defects. At the age of 3-8 weeks
after conception, the use of drugs can cause a miscarriage, the presence of congenital defects, or
may not effect anything. At this time, the organs of the fetus is growing, so the fetus is
susceptible to the occurrence of birth defects. When the second and third trimesters, fetal organ
development is complete. The use of drugs may not cause obvious defects Bawan at birth, but it
is not known about the long-term effects. However, there could be a change in the normal growth
and function of organs and tissues of the body Nicholas (2012).
2. Drugs
Drug (or often referred to as modern medicine) is a material or alloy materials intended
for use in establishing the diagnosis, prevent, reduce, eliminate, cure disease or symptoms of
disease, injury, or physical and mental disorders in humans or animals and for beautified or
human bodies or body parts (Joenoes, 2001).
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Australian Therapeutic Good Administration TGA (2005) categorize drugs according to
some groups. Categorization include the following :

Category A : Drugs that have a large amount of consumption by pregnant women and women of
childbearing age with no evidence of an increased frequency of birth defects or harmful effects
either directly or indirectly to the fetus. Some drugs in category A are :
Antacids (Antacid)
Bisacodyl (laxative, laxatives)
Digoxin (heart medicine)
Oral iron preparations (with or without folic acid) (Drug iron deficiency anemia)
Paracetamol (anti-pain)
Dimenhidrinat, Diphenhydramine, Metoclopramide (Antiemetic)
Category B1 : Drugs which have been taken by a small number of pregnant women or women of
childbearing age, without an increase in the frequency of birth defects or harmful effects either
directly or indirectly to the fetus. There is no evidence to suggest an increased frequency of fetal
compromise on research with animals try.
Some drugs in the B1 category are :
Cimetidine, Famotidine, Ranitidine, Sucralfate (Antacid)
Sefaklor, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone (Antibiotics , goals Sefalosforin)
Category C : Drugs, due to their pharmacological effects, cause or suspected of causing harmful
effects on the fetus or newborn without cause birth defects. The effects may be reversible (able to
return to normal).
2
Some drugs in category C are :
Amlodipine, diltiazem, nifedipine ,verapamil (antihypertensive, calcium channel inhibitors

goals)
Dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methysergide (drug antimigrai)
Aspirin (anti-pain)
Alprazolam, bromazepam, klordiazepoksid, klobazam ,diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam (drug
anticemas)
Chlorpromazine (antipsychotic)
Droperidol, haloperidol (antipsychotic)
Diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, piroxicam (anti-pain)
Co-trimoxazole (antibiotics, sulfonamides goals)
Category D : Drugs which cause, suspected of causing, or likely to cause an increase in the
incidence of birth defects or irreversible damage (beyond repair). This class of drugs may also
have adverse pharmacological effects.
Some drugs in category D are :
Captopril (antihypertensive, goals ACE inhibitors)
Losartan, valsartan (antihypertensives, goals Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists)
Doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline (antibiotic, tetracycline goals)
Amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin (antibiotic, aminoglycoside goals)

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Category X : Drugs are at high risk of causing permanent damage to the fetus. These medications
should not be used in pregnancy or the circumstances in which a woman thought to have been

pregnant.
One of the drug in category X is :
Misoprostol (Antacid)
3. Fetus
Fetus (en: fetal, fetus, Foetus, faetus, ftus) are mammals that evolved after the
embryonic phase and before birth. In Latin, the fetus literally means "containing young
seedlings, containing". In humans, the developing fetus at the end of the eighth week of
pregnancy, when the major structures and organ systems are formed, until birth. Candidates also
called baby fetus Webster (1828).
4. Pregnancy Terminology 1
Pregnancy is a period in which the ovum has been fertilized and develop in the uterus and
uterine diferenseasi undergo a process of growing up to be able to support its own life outside the
uterus Mochtar (1998). The first trimester of pregnancy was first measured period from
conception to 12 weeks gestation.
5. The Significance of Study
Firstly, the writer hopes taht this semester asiggnment will bring some advantages such
us: to know how to conduct a good drugs to a fetus and pregnancy trimester 1.
Secondly, as a midwife it is necessary to understand the types of good drugs for fetal and
pregnancy terminology 1.
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Conclusion

From the point of view, I can make conclusion that first terminology of pregnancy is a
pregnancy that is very vulnerable to taking drugs, because the 1st terminology fetal organs begin
to develop. Administration of the drug in pregnant women should be kept as it can have a
negative impact on the mother and fetus. While there are some medications that can be
consumed without adverse effects on the mother of the fetus and mother. If the mother taking the
wrong medication can cause defects in the fetus.
Suggestions
I, as the writer would like to suggest that administration of drugs in pregnant women
requires consideration really matured as a process in the period of organ formation
(organosenesis). The active drug substance may enter the fetal circulation and affect the process
of organ formation that will eventually lead to disability due to disruption of the process.

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REFERENCES

Tim

Depdiknas

(2005).

Kamus

Besar

Bahasa

Indonesia.

Jakarta:

Balai

Pustaka.

Surakhmad, Winarno (1982). Pengantar Penelitian Ilmiah. Bandung: Tarsito


Joenoes, N. Zaman (2001). Ars Prescribendi Resep yang Rasional Edisi ke-3. Airlangga
University Press. Surabaya.
J, Nicholas (2012). Prenatal Drug Exposure. The Merck Manual.
Therapeutic Goods Administration TGA (2005) : Prescribing Medicines in Pregnancy, 4th
edition. Department of Health and Ageing Therapeutic Goods Administration, Australian
Goverment.

Mochtar Rustam (1998). Sinopsis Obstetri Fisiologi, Obstetri Patologi. Jakarta : EGC.

Noah Webster (1828). American Dictionary of the English Language.