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Original Title: Binary Subtractor

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The Binary Subtractor is another type of combinational arithmetic circuit that is the opposite of

the Binary Adder we looked at in a previous tutorial. As their name implies, a Binary

Subtractor is a decision making circuit that subtracts two binary numbers from each other, for

example, X Y to find the resulting difference between the two numbers.

Unlike the Binary Adder which produces a SUM and a CARRY bit when two binary numbers

are added together, the binary subtractor produces a DIFFERENCE, D by using a BORROW

bit, B from the previous column. Then obviously, the operation of subtraction is the opposite to

that of addition.

We learnt from our maths lessons at school that the minus sign, is used for a subtraction

calculation, and when one number is subtracted from another, a borrow is required if the

subtrahend is greater than the minuend. Consider the simple subtraction of the two denary (base

10) numbers below.

123

78

45

We can not directly subtract 8 from 3 in the first column as 8 is greater than 3, so we have to

borrow a 10, the base number, from the next column and add it to the minuend to produce 13

minus 8. This borrowed 10 is then return back to the subtrahend of the next column once the

difference is found. Simple school maths, borrow a 10 if needed, find the difference and return

the borrow.

The subtraction of one binary number from another is exactly the same idea as that for

subtracting two decimal numbers but as the binary number system is a Base-2 numbering system

which uses 0 and 1 as its two independent digits, large binary numbers which are to be

subtracted from each other are therefore represented in terms of 0s and 1s.

Binary Subtraction

Binary Subtraction can take many forms but the rules for subtraction are the same whichever

process you use. As binary notation only has two digits, subtracting a 0 from a 0 or a 1

leaves the result unchanged as 0-0 = 0 and 1-0 = 1. Subtracting a 1 from a 1 results in a 0,

but subtracting a 1 from a 0 requires a borrow. In other words 0 1 requires a borrow.

0

For the simple 1-bit subtraction problem above, if the borrow bit is ignored the result of their

binary subtraction resembles that of an Exclusive-OR Gate. To prevent any confusion in this

tutorial between a binary subtractor input labelled, B and the resulting borrow bit output from the

binary subtractor also being labelled, B, we will label the two input bits as X for the minuend

and Y for the subtrahend. Then the resulting truth table is the difference between the two input

bits of a single binary subtractor is given as:

Symbol

As with the Binary Adder, the difference between the two digits is only a 1 when these two

inputs are not equal as given by the Ex-OR expression. However, we need an additional output to

produce the borrow bit when input A = 0 and B = 1. Unfortunately there are no standard logic

gates that will produce an output for this particular combination of X and Y inputs.

But we know that an AND Gate produces an output 1 when both of its inputs X and Yare 1

(HIGH) so if we use an inverter or NOT Gate to complement the input X before it is fed to

the AND gate, we can produce the required borrow output when X = 0 and Y = 1 as shown below.

Then by combining the Exclusive-OR gate with the NOT-AND combination results in a simple

digital binary subtractor circuit known commonly as the Half Subtractor as shown.

A half subtractor is a logical circuit that performs a subtraction operation on two binary digits.

The half subtractor produces a sum and a borrow bit for the next stage.

From the truth table of the half subtractor we can see that the DIFFERENCE (D) output is the

result of the Exclusive-OR gate and the Borrow-out (Bout) is the result of the NOTAND combination. Then the Boolean expression for a half subtractor is as follows.

D = X XOR Y = X

B = not-X AND Y = X.Y

If we compare the Boolean expressions of the half subtractor with a half adder, we can see that

the two expressions for the SUM (adder) and DIFFERENCE (subtractor) are exactly the same

and so they should be because of the Exclusive-OR gate function. The two Boolean expressions

for the binary subtractor BORROW is also very similar to that for the adders CARRY. Then all

that is needed to convert a half adder to a half subtractor is the inversion of the minuend input X.

One major disadvantage of the Half Subtractor circuit when used as a binary subtractor, is that

there is no provision for a Borrow-in from the previous circuit when subtracting multiple data

bits from each other. Then we need to produce what is called a full binary subtractor circuit to

take into account this borrow-in input from a previous circuit.

The main difference between the Full Subtractor and the previous Half Subtractorcircuit is

that a full subtractor has three inputs. The two single bit data inputs X(minuend)

and Y (subtrahend) the same as before plus an additional Borrow-in (B-in) input to receive the

borrow generated by the subtraction process from a previous stage as shown below.

Then the combinational circuit of a full subtractor performs the operation of subtraction on

three binary bits producing outputs for the difference D and borrow B-out. Just like the binary

adder circuit, the full subtractor can also be thought of as two half subtractors connected

together, with the first half subtractor passing its borrow to the second half subtractor as follows.

As the full subtractor circuit above represents two half subtractors cascaded together, the truth

table for the full subtractor will have eight different input combinations as there are three input

variables, the data bits and the Borrow-in, B input. Also includes the difference output, D and

IN

the Borrow-out, B

OUT

bit.

Symbol

For the DIFFERENCE (D) bit:

D = (X.Y.BIN) + (X.Y.B ) + (X.Y.B ) + (X.Y.BIN)

IN

IN

D = (X XOR Y) XOR BIN = (X

Y)

BIN

OUT

IN

BOUT = X AND Y OR (X XOR Y)BIN = X.Y + (X

Y)BIN

As with the binary adder, we can also have n number of 1-bit full binary subtractor connected or

cascaded together to subtract two parallel n-bit numbers from each other. For example two 4bit binary numbers. We said before that the only difference between a full adder and a full

subtractor was the inversion of one of the inputs.

So by using an n-bit adder and n number of inverters (NOT Gates), the process of subtraction

becomes an addition as we can use twos complement notation on all the bits in the subtrahend

and setting the carry input of the least significant bit to a logic 1 (HIGH).

Then we can use a 4-bit full-adder ICs such as the 74LS283 and CD4008 to perform subtraction

simply by using twos complement on the subtrahend, B inputs as X Y is the same as

saying, X + (-Y) which equals X plus the twos complement of Y.

If we wanted to use the 4-bit adder for addition once again, all we would need to do is set the

carry-in (C ) input LOW at logic 0. Because we can use the 4-bit adder IC such as the 74LS83

IN

circuit with a single control input for selecting between the two operations.

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