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SPECIFICATIONS FOR JET GROUTING FOR GROUND STABILIZATION

PART 1
1.01

1.02

GENERAL

INTRODUCTION
A.

The process of creating soilcrete in place with stabilizing fluids delivered at high
velocity through nozzle(s) at the end of a monitor inserted in a borehole. The
soilcrete is created by rotating and lifting the monitor defined above at slow,
smooth, constant speeds, eroding the soil with fluid (water or grout slurry) and air,
and, if using water as the erosion media, tremie feeding an engineered grout slurry
through the base of the monitor to achieve more thorough mixing and a consistent
continuous geometry and quality. This section includes specifications for creating
soilcrete for ground stabilization for tunneling, seismic stabilization, and other
ground treatment.

B.

In situ soil types:


Jet Grouting is typically very effective in cohesionless soil
(s) and cohesive soil of low plasticity. Highly plastic soil requires
special consideration.

C.

Applications:

Soil stabilization, soil consolidation, bottom bracing for deep


trenches in soft soil, anchorages, sealing, underpinning and
excavation support, panel cutoff walls, impermeable shafts, tunnel
break ins and outs, and seismic stabilization.

INTENT
The intent of the Jet Grouting specified herein is to provide soil improvement within the
limits indicated on sheets 37 and 38 to achieve the required degree of improvement
detailed in section 3.02 of these specifications.

1.03

STANDARDS AND REFERENCES


A.

The most recent version of the following testing methods may be employed:
1.
2.
3.
4.

B.

ASTM C150 or AASHTO M85 Portland Cement


ASTM D1633-00 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of
Molded Soil-Cement Cylinders
API Recommended Practice 13B-1: Standard Procedures for Field Testing
Water Based Drilling Fluids
CI 233R Slag Cement in Concrete and Mortar or C989-99 Standard
Specification for Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in
Concrete and Mortars

Reference documents as provided to the grouting contractor shall include:


1.

This specification.
1

2.

Project drawings:
a.

Engineers drawings, sheets 37 and 38

b.

Engineers existing underground utilities plan in the work area.

c.

Grout injection point layout, as detailed in the Submittals section 1.06


of these specifications.

1.04

1.05

3.

Project geotechnical report.

4.

Contract documents.

DEFINITIONS
A.

Monitor (adjust for single, double, and triple systems): A single, double, or triplephase fluid drill pipe designed to deliver one to three elements of the Jet Grouting
process: air, water, and grout. The monitor has one or more injection points. The
nozzle(s) injects fluid at high velocity into the soil to erode and mix it with
cementitious slurry. The cutting action of the fluids is enhanced by surrounding it
with a concentric collar of compressed air.

B.

Field Quality Control Representative (FQCR): The individual given specific


inspection tasks identified in this specification.

SCOPE OF WORK
A.

The work shall consist of installation, monitoring and testing of Jet Grouting within
the limits indicated on sheets 37 and 38 to meet the acceptance criteria presented in
Section 3.02 of these specifications.

B.

In connection with the Jet Grouting program, as shown on the drawings, the Jet
Grouting contractor shall provide all labor, materials and equipment to accomplish
the following items of work:
1. Detect the location of reinforcing bars in existing culvert slabs.
2. Determine the location of grout holes to avoid all the existing reinforcing
bars.
3. Drill grout holes to the soil below the bottom of culvert as indicated on
sheets 37 and 38.
4. Perform the jet grout in accordance with this specification.
5. Seal the grout holes in accordance with TXDOT specification item 429,
Concrete Structure Repair.

C.
1.06

It shall be the Jet Grouting contractors responsibility to determine and implement


the systems and criteria to ensure that specified improvement is achieved.

SUBMITTALS
A.

The following shall be submitted to the Owners representative by the grouting


contractor with the bid documents:
2

1.

B.

The following shall be submitted to the Owners representative by the grouting


contractor three (3) weeks prior to the start of the work:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

C.

Resumes of the management, supervisory, and key personnel, for


approval by the Owners representative.
A ground movement monitoring plan, as detailed in section 3.03 of
these specifications.
A mix design for the project indicating sources and types of grout
materials, with volumetric proportions, and field test data from
previous projects indicating compressive strength achieved. If the
grouting contractor intends to deviate from the material provided in
Section 2.03 of this specification, it shall submit, with the bid,
evidence of satisfactory use of the proposed material from past
projects with similar soil conditions.
Work procedures, sequence, and control criteria (including
parameters for each stage).
A general Work Procedures Plan outlining the spacing, location, depth and
quantity of grout to achieve the specified criteria detailed in Section 3.02 of
this specification. Grout hole locations shall be dimensionally referenced to
the contract drawings.

The following shall be submitted to the Owners representative by the grouting


contractor during the work:
1.
2.

1.07

A list of at least five, previously completed projects of similar scope and


purpose for approval by the Owners representative. The list shall include a
description of the project, relative size, and contact person with phone
number.

Accurate daily records of all Jet Grouting locations, depths of


treatment, start and stop times, all jetting parameters, and grout
injected for each location.
Any change in the predetermined grouting program necessitated by a
change in the subsurface conditions.

QUALITY ASSURANCE
A.

The Jet Grouting program, shall be performed by a specialist grouting contractor


with at least ten continuous years of documented experience in Jet Grouting.

B.

The grouting contractor shall provide experienced management, supervisory and


key personnel as required to implement the Jet Grouting program, as follows:
1.

The project manager shall have at least five years of continuous


experience in Jet Grouting, with at least the last two years in the fulltime employment of the grouting contractor.

2.

The superintendent shall have at least five years of experience in Jet


Grouting.

3.

C.

PART 2
2.01

As detailed in Section 1.06 of these specifications, the grouting


contractor shall provide:
a.

Evidence of previous Jet Grouting project experience.

b.

Evidence of management, supervisory and key


personnel experience.

The Owners representative will ensure that procedures and documentation


conform to these specifications.
EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

EQUIPMENT
A.

GENERAL:
1. All equipment used for drilling boreholes; lowering, raising and
rotating jet monitors; mixing grout; supplying pressurized grout and
air-water to jet monitors; and jet monitors used to perform the
seepage barrier shall have proven performance records for use in Jet
Grouting work, as demonstrated by the information to be submitted
under Article 1.03 herein.
2. Spare parts and equipment shall be available on site to maintain
Jet Grouting equipment in satisfactory operation condition at all
times during execution of the Jet Grouting work.

B.

DRILLING EQUIPMENT:
1. Use drilling equipment of a type and capacity suitable for drilling
required hole diameters and depths, and lowering, raising, and
rotating jet grout monitors to the depths and at the rates required to
perform the work as shown on the Contract Drawings and as
specified herein.

C.

JET GROUTING MONITORS:


1. Use Jet Grouting monitors as described in 1.01.C.1 having
capacity suitable for producing soilcrete columns in the work site
soil types identified in the Geotechnical Reports, and of the size and
depth shown on the Contract Drawings and as specified herein.

D.

GROUT MIXING AND INJECTION EQUIPMENT:


1. Use grout mixers and holding tanks, water tanks, air
compressors, and pumps of sufficient capacity to ensure adequate
supply of grout, air, and water at required pressure to the Jet
Grouting monitors during a full work shift to produce grout columns
of the quality and dimensions necessary.
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E.

QUALITY CONTRROL
1. Have available acceptable soilcrete sampling devices to collect and cast samples
as required in section 3.03.

2.02

GROUT MATERIALS
A.

The grout slurry may consist of any of the following materials:


1. Cement, Portland, type I or II, ASTM C-150 or AASHTO M85.
2. Flyash Class C or F, ASTM C618 or AASHTO M295.
3. Potable Water or approved other source shall be free of
deleterious materials that may adversely affect the grout.
4. Additives as approved by the engineer.

PART III
3.01

3.2

EXECUTION

SITE EXAMINATION
A.

Prior to submitting a bid price for the Jet Grouting, the grouting contractor shall
conduct a site inspection.

B.

If a building in distress is involved, a relevant building survey may be in order prior


to initiating work.

C.

If underground utilities are anticipated, a thorough investigation may be necessary


to ensure location, condition, and protection requirements.

JET GROUTING
A.

Jet Grouting shall be performed in accordance with the approved grout injection
area layout scheme to achieve the following acceptance criteria in the in situ soil
within the work area:
1. Volume coverage of 100% of the quantity shown on the drawings.
2. Strength by wet sampling/cast molds to average 150 psi after 28 day core
period. Up to 5% of the test results may be less than this value
3. Strength by core sampling to average 150 psi after 28 days core period. Up to
5% of the test results may be less than this value.

B.

Use the same equipment, materials, and procedures as those


determined in the test program to give satisfactory results to perform
production Jet Grouting for underpinning and excavation support.

C.

Install soilcrete columns, ensuring that continuous spoil return up the


borehole annulus is achieved during all work.
At completion of daily Jet Grouting operations, thoroughly clean site

D.

and dispose of all spoil debris, water, and spilled material. Spoil
stockpiling overnight is permitted prior to transfer to a
predetermined waste or fill location.
3.03

FIELD QUALITY CONTROL


A. All Jet Grouting shall be performed under the inspection of the FQCR.
B. Monitoring and logging of Jet Grouting operations for both test areas and production
work shall be done by the FQCR.
C.

Any jet grout hole lost or damaged as the result of mechanical failure of equipment,
inadequacy of grout, air, or water supplies, or improper drilling or injection
procedures shall be backfilled with cement grout and replaced by another hole,
drilled and injected by the Contractor at no additional cost to the Owner.

D.

Grout injection and monitor rotation and extraction rates shall be sufficient to
produce grout columns meeting the diameter, depth, overlap, and material property
requirements specified herein.

E.

Proportion and inject grout mix so that the soilcrete column


produced meets the following requirements:
1. Cement factor of soilcrete not less than 200 kg/m3

F.

Equipment for mixing, holding, and pumping grout shall be in a


secure location and shall be operated to minimize spillage of
material. No material will be allowed to enter storm drains or other
drainage courses.

G. As detailed in section 1.06C, daily records shall be maintained by the grouting


contractor and submitted to the Owners representative.
H. Ensure continuous spoil return during all Jet Grouting operations.
I. The grouting contractor will monitor nearby structures and utilities as follows:
1.
3.04

TESTING AND INSPECTION


A. To evaluate the contractors proposed methods and the grout mixs
ability to produce soilcrete columns meeting the depth, diameter,
overlapping and material property requirements shown and specified
herein, construct a test section of the jet-grouted soilcrete
columns/panels in a location near the proposed Jet Grouting area and
approved by the Engineer, prior to starting Jet Grouting production
work at the site. The effectiveness of the Jet Grouting will be verified
as follows:
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1. The Owner may retain a soil testing firm or ask the Jet Grouting contractor to
perform the in situ testing as directed by the Owners engineer. Test sections
will be performed before and during production work, as follows:

3.05

a.

Test section locations will be agreed upon by the (FQCR/grouting


contractor) within the treatment area. A test section shall consist of a
single module comprised of at least three grout injection points. Tests
will be performed at the center of the module prior to and after
grouting. Spacing and diameter of elements shall be proposed by the
Jet Grouting contractor.

b.

All testing to determine specification compliance will be


provided by an independent testing agency retained by the
Owner. Regardless of the method selected, the same test
method shall be utilized both before and after the soil
improvement work in order to provide the most accurate
assessment of the degree of improvement obtained.

c.

The method of installation of the test section shall comply


with Section 3.02 of this specification and shall be performed
using the same grout line sizes, drilling and grouting
equipment and procedures as that to be used for production
work.

d.

Prior to commencement of production grouting, one (1) or two


(2) test columns shall be performed as necessary to confirm
the required geometry. If the pre-production test sections
indicate that the required ground improvement has not been
achieved, the grouting contractor shall revise the Work
procedure Plan and re-test.

RESTRICTIONS
A.

The Owner or General Contractor or Specialty Contractor shall be responsible for


obtaining any State and municipal permits ( if required) and conforming to all State
and local regulations.

B.

The owner will be responsible for the precise delineation of all above and below
ground utilities and obstructions.

C.

The following shall also be listed within this section when applicable:
1.

Environmental restrictions.

2.

Work boundaries.

3.

Hours for construction.

PART 4
4.01

PAYMENT

METHOD OF PAYMENT
A.

Layout of grout injection locations and installation under the Contractorproposed grout injection point layout scheme, and any required secondary
grouting within the limits indicated as requiring Jet Grouting on sheets 37
and 38 shall be lump sum.

B.

Cementitious materials may be included in the above lump sum, or may be


priced per cy of grout injected.

C.

Mobilization and demobilization shall be a separate lump sum item.

D.

Testing may be priced as a lump sum or unit price based on the methods specified.