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You are on page 1of 68

By

Farhan Ahmad

University of Engineering & Technology Lahore

Chapter 8

Energy Transport

HEAT CONDUCTION

molecular level only

Simplest among the three modes of heat transfer.

It occurs in all three phases of matter (gas, liquid and solid).

In solids, it is the only mechanism of heat transfer.

The driving force for the heat conduction is the temperature gradient,

that is whenever a gradient in temperature exists there exists a

conductive heat flow.

Note:

transferred through any given plane per unit area per

unit time. It is called heat flux.

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

Property of material through which the heat is conducted

Units: W/m/K

Materials

Thermal conductivity

Hydrogen @ 100K

0.067

Water @ 293K

0.600

83.70

Aluminum

206.0

Insulating materials have low k

Materials

Thermal conductivity

Glass @ 298K

1.00

Brick @ 293K

0.6 1.00

0.07

Chapter 9

Distributions in Solid and Laminar flow

In this chapter .

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

Heat conduction

Electrical heat source

Nuclear heat source

Viscous heat source

Chemical heat source

through composite walls

in cooling fin

Forced and free convection

SHELL BALANCE

PROCEDURE OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ANALYSIS

3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all transport

processes identified in step 2.

4. Draw a shell in such a way that its surfaces are perpendicular to the

transport direction.

5. Carry out the energy shell balance as below:

Rate of Rate of

Rate of Production

Accumulation

of

Energy

6. Apply the Fourier law: This should give a second order ODE in terms

of temperature.

7. Impose physical constraints on the boundary of the physical system.

8. This gives rise to BCs.

Note that the number of boundary conditions must match the order of

the differential equation.

6. Solve the equation for the temperature distribution.

7. Obtain the mean temperature, heat flux.

Energy production:

1. Chemical reaction

2. Electrical heat

3. Viscous dissipation (degradation of mechanical energy)

4. Nuclear Reactions

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Temperature may be specified at the surface. This is called

At the surface, the heat flux equals to the flux supplied (given).

At the surface, the heat flux entering the domain equals the heat

flux across the thin film surrounding the object. BC of the third

kind (Robin BC).

At the interface between the two domains, the temperatures and

kind.

13

14

15

16

Nuclear fuel element of spherical

form

17

18

19

20

Incompressible Newtonian fluid

Coaxial cylinders

Outer surface is rotating

Viscous dissipation

Inner surface at T0

Outer surface at Tb

T is only function of r

21

length L

Sv = - xz(dvz/dx) = (dvz/dx)2

vz = (x/b) V

So

Sv = (V/b)2

22

dqx/dx = (V/b)2

qx = x(V/b)2 + C1

Substitute Fourier law of heat conduction

-k dT/dx = x(V/b)2 + C1

23

24

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

flow

flow

flow

of

of

of

molten

lubricant

polymers

highly

viscous

between

through

fluids

in

rapidly

dies

in

moving

high-speed

high-speed

parts,

extrusion,

viscometers,

and

(iv) flow of air in the boundary layer near an earth satellite or rocket during reentry

25

A chemical reaction is being

fixed-bed flow reactor with

inner radius R.

The reactor

three zones:

26

is divided into

It is assumed that the fluid proceeds through the reactor tube in

value

vo = w / R2

the reactor wall is assumed to be well insulated, so that the

desired to find the steady-state axial temperature distribution

T(z).

When a chemical reaction occurs, thermal energy is produced or

products. The volume rate of thermal energy production by

chemical reaction, Sc .

Sc = Sc1 (T To ) / (T1 To)

27

Assume a shell of finite thickness z

At steady state, the thermal energy balance contains following

terms:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

28

Thermal energy out by conduction at z+z

Thermal energy in by flow at z

Thermal energy out by flow at z+z

Thermal energy produced

Here we have assumed that we can use the same value of the

29

Boundary conditions

Z = z/L

= (T To ) / (T1 To)

B = 1v1CpL / kz,eff

N = Sc1L / 1v1Cp (T1 To)

30

I = c1 + c2eBZ

II = c3em3Z + c4em4Z

III = c5 + c6eBZ

In which

m3 = 1/2 B(1 (1 (4N/B))1/2)

m3 = 1/2 B(1 + (1 (4N/B))1/2)

31

II = [(m4em4em3Z - m3em3em4Z)/(m42em4 m32em3)] (m3+m4)

III = [(m42 - m32)/m42em4 m32em3)] e(m3+m4)

32

33

Addition of Resistances

34

Problem Statement

Heat Transfer through walls made up of different layers of various

materials with their own characteristic thermal conductivity.

Various resistances to heat transfer are combined into total resistance.

35

Thickness of walls ----- Different

Thermal conductivities ----- Different

36

37

1. Film coefficient

ho

2. Thermal conductivity

k01

3. Thermal conductivity

k12

4. Thermal conductivity

k23

5. Film coefficient

h3

Energy in

+

Energy out

+

Energy production

=

Zero

38

Energy Balance

x approaches to zero

Integration gives

39

constant

40

Addition gives

41

42

Temperature Profile

43

44

The wall temperature is Tw,

and

the

ambient

temperature is Ta.

B << L

B << W

45

air

46

The energy balance is made over a segment z of the bar.

Since the bar is stationary, the terms containing v in the

contribution to the energy flux is q. Therefore the energy balance

is

47

Boundary conditions

48

Dimensionless quantities

49

50

effectiveness

51

Forced Convection

52

53

Forced Convection

Steady state forced convection

A viscous fluid with constant physical

properties ( , , k, Cp )

54

Assume a shell of finite thickness z

At steady state, the thermal energy balance contains following

terms:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

55

energy in by conduction at r

energy out by conduction at r+r

energy in by conduction at z

energy out by conduction at z+z

energy in by flow at z

energy out by flow at z+z

energy in by conduction at r

(qr)r . 2rz

energy out by conduction at r+r

(qr)r+r . 2rz

energy in by conduction at z

(qz)z . 2rr

energy out by conduction at z+z

(qz)z+z . 2rr

energy in by flow at z

Cpvz(T T0)z . 2rr

energy out by flow at z+z

Cpvz(T T0)z+z . 2rr

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

Other quantities

63

Free Convection

Steady state free convection

A viscous fluid with constant physical

properties ( , , k, Cp )

Laminar flow in 2 vertical plates

T1 = cooled wall temperature

T2 = heated wall temperature

64

65

66

67

Velocity distribution

Average velocity

68

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