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Transport Phenomena

By
Farhan Ahmad

Department of Chemical Engineering,


University of Engineering & Technology Lahore

Chapter 8

Thermal Conductivity & Mechanism of


Energy Transport

HEAT CONDUCTION

Transfer occurs due to the pure random motion of the molecules at


molecular level only
Simplest among the three modes of heat transfer.
It occurs in all three phases of matter (gas, liquid and solid).
In solids, it is the only mechanism of heat transfer.
The driving force for the heat conduction is the temperature gradient,
that is whenever a gradient in temperature exists there exists a
conductive heat flow.

Note:

The heat flow is measured as the amount of energy


transferred through any given plane per unit area per
unit time. It is called heat flux.

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
Property of material through which the heat is conducted
Units: W/m/K

In general, ksolid > kliquid > kgas

Materials

Thermal conductivity

Hydrogen @ 100K

0.067

Water @ 293K

0.600

Liquid sodium @373K

83.70

Aluminum

206.0
Insulating materials have low k

Materials

Thermal conductivity

Glass @ 298K

1.00

Brick @ 293K

0.6 1.00

Glass wool @298K

0.07

Chapter 9

Shell Energy Balance & Temperature


Distributions in Solid and Laminar flow

In this chapter .

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8

Shell Energy Balance : Boundary conditions


Heat conduction
Electrical heat source
Nuclear heat source
Viscous heat source
Chemical heat source
through composite walls
in cooling fin
Forced and free convection

SHELL BALANCE
PROCEDURE OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ANALYSIS

1. Draw a physical diagram as carefully as possible.

2. Identify all possible energy transport mechanisms


3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all transport
processes identified in step 2.
4. Draw a shell in such a way that its surfaces are perpendicular to the
transport direction.
5. Carry out the energy shell balance as below:

Rate of Rate of
Rate of Production

Energy In Energy Out of Energy

Accumulation

of
Energy

This should give a first- in terms of heat flux

Procedure Of Transport Phenomena Analysis, contd


6. Apply the Fourier law: This should give a second order ODE in terms
of temperature.
7. Impose physical constraints on the boundary of the physical system.
8. This gives rise to BCs.
Note that the number of boundary conditions must match the order of
the differential equation.
6. Solve the equation for the temperature distribution.
7. Obtain the mean temperature, heat flux.
Energy production:
1. Chemical reaction
2. Electrical heat
3. Viscous dissipation (degradation of mechanical energy)
4. Nuclear Reactions

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Temperature may be specified at the surface. This is called

boundary condition of the first kind (Dirichlet BC)


At the surface, the heat flux equals to the flux supplied (given).

Boundary condition of the second kind (Neumann BC)


At the surface, the heat flux entering the domain equals the heat

flux across the thin film surrounding the object. BC of the third
kind (Robin BC).
At the interface between the two domains, the temperatures and

the heat fluxes of those domains are continuous. BC of the fourth


kind.

Heat conduction with Electrical Heat source

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Heat conduction with Nuclear Heat source


Nuclear fuel element of spherical

form

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Substitute Fourier law of heat conduction

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Heat conduction with Viscous Heat source


Incompressible Newtonian fluid
Coaxial cylinders
Outer surface is rotating
Viscous dissipation
Inner surface at T0
Outer surface at Tb
T is only function of r

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Make an energy balance over a shell of thickness x, width W, and

length L
Sv = - xz(dvz/dx) = (dvz/dx)2

Velocity profile for given system is

vz = (x/b) V

So

Sv = (V/b)2

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Apply energy balance

(WLqx)x (WLqx)x+x +WLx (V/b)2 = 0


dqx/dx = (V/b)2

qx = x(V/b)2 + C1
Substitute Fourier law of heat conduction
-k dT/dx = x(V/b)2 + C1

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(i)
(ii)
(iii)

flow
flow
flow

of
of
of

molten

lubricant
polymers

highly

viscous

between
through
fluids

in

rapidly

dies

in

moving

high-speed

high-speed

parts,
extrusion,

viscometers,

and

(iv) flow of air in the boundary layer near an earth satellite or rocket during reentry

into the earth's atmosphere.

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Heat conduction with Chemical Heat source


A chemical reaction is being

carried out in a tubular,


fixed-bed flow reactor with
inner radius R.
The reactor

three zones:

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is divided into

Heat conduction with Chemical Heat source


It is assumed that the fluid proceeds through the reactor tube in

"plug flow-that is, with axial velocity uniform at a superficial


value
vo = w / R2
the reactor wall is assumed to be well insulated, so that the

temperature can be considered essentially independent of r. It is


desired to find the steady-state axial temperature distribution
T(z).
When a chemical reaction occurs, thermal energy is produced or

consumed when the reactant molecules rearrange to form the


products. The volume rate of thermal energy production by
chemical reaction, Sc .
Sc = Sc1 (T To ) / (T1 To)
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Apply Shell energy balance


Assume a shell of finite thickness z
At steady state, the thermal energy balance contains following

terms:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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Thermal energy in by conduction at z


Thermal energy out by conduction at z+z
Thermal energy in by flow at z
Thermal energy out by flow at z+z
Thermal energy produced

Here we have assumed that we can use the same value of the

effective thermal conductivity in all three zones.

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Boundary conditions

Introduce the dimensionless quantities

Z = z/L
= (T To ) / (T1 To)
B = 1v1CpL / kz,eff
N = Sc1L / 1v1Cp (T1 To)
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I = c1 + c2eBZ
II = c3em3Z + c4em4Z
III = c5 + c6eBZ
In which
m3 = 1/2 B(1 (1 (4N/B))1/2)
m3 = 1/2 B(1 + (1 (4N/B))1/2)

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Temperature profile in 3 zones

I = 1+[(m3m4(em4 em3))/(m42em4 m32em3)] e(m3+m4)Z


II = [(m4em4em3Z - m3em3em4Z)/(m42em4 m32em3)] (m3+m4)
III = [(m42 - m32)/m42em4 m32em3)] e(m3+m4)

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Heat Conduction Through Composite Walls:


Addition of Resistances

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Problem Statement

Heat Transfer problem related to conduction phenomena


Heat Transfer through walls made up of different layers of various
materials with their own characteristic thermal conductivity.
Various resistances to heat transfer are combined into total resistance.

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Composite Wall ----- 3 different materials


Thickness of walls ----- Different
Thermal conductivities ----- Different
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Mechanism of Heat Transfer

Convection + Conduction + Conduction + Conduction + Convection

Resistances to Heat Transfer

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1. Film coefficient

ho

2. Thermal conductivity

k01

3. Thermal conductivity

k12

4. Thermal conductivity

k23

5. Film coefficient

h3

Shell Energy balance

Consider a system of a slab with gas film resistances

Energy in
+
Energy out
+
Energy production
=
Zero

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Energy Balance

Energy in Energy out + Energy generation = zero

x approaches to zero

Integration gives

For region 01, 12, 23

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For different surfaces

Integration of these equations while assuming thermal conductivities are


constant

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According to Newtons Law of Cooling

Addition gives

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U = overall heat transfer coefficient

This is the generalized equation for n slabs

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Temperature Profile

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Heat Conduction in a Cooling Fin

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Heat conduction in a cooling Fin


The wall temperature is Tw,

and

the

ambient

temperature is Ta.

B << L

B << W

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air

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Shell Energy Balance


The energy balance is made over a segment z of the bar.
Since the bar is stationary, the terms containing v in the

combined energy flux vector e may be discarded, and the only


contribution to the energy flux is q. Therefore the energy balance
is

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Insert Fouriers Law

Boundary conditions

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Dimensionless quantities

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effectiveness

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Forced Convection

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Forced Convection
Steady state forced convection
A viscous fluid with constant physical
properties ( , , k, Cp )

Laminar flow in a circular tube of radius R

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Apply Shell Energy Balance


Assume a shell of finite thickness z
At steady state, the thermal energy balance contains following

terms:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

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energy in by conduction at r
energy out by conduction at r+r
energy in by conduction at z
energy out by conduction at z+z
energy in by flow at z
energy out by flow at z+z

energy in by conduction at r
(qr)r . 2rz
energy out by conduction at r+r
(qr)r+r . 2rz
energy in by conduction at z
(qz)z . 2rr
energy out by conduction at z+z
(qz)z+z . 2rr
energy in by flow at z
Cpvz(T T0)z . 2rr
energy out by flow at z+z
Cpvz(T T0)z+z . 2rr
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r and z approaches to zero

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Apply Fouriers Law

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Other quantities

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Free Convection
Steady state free convection
A viscous fluid with constant physical

properties ( , , k, Cp )
Laminar flow in 2 vertical plates
T1 = cooled wall temperature
T2 = heated wall temperature

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Shell energy balance

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Momentum balance over same thickness

Coefficient of Volume expansion is defined by

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Velocity distribution

Average velocity

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