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UNIVERSITY OF LIGE

EMSHIP PROGRAM

STRUCTURES

Assignment presented at the EMSHIP


Program by Guanaeli Taquini Deolindo, at the
University of Lige, as a partial requirement for
evaluation of Structures discipline.
Prof. Philippe Rigo.

Lige,
2015

1.

Bending Moment and Shear Force in salt water.

Consider the distributions and forces acting on the ship below. Calculate the shear force
and the bending moment and provide their respective diagrams.

2000 tons

700 tons

700 tons

10 m

10 m

10 m

30 t/m

30 t/m

10 m

10 m

30 t/m

60 t/m

10 m

10 m

100 m

10 m

15 m
2.

Solution Still Water

Considering all these loads as a load distribution, so:


1 =

2000
25

= 80 /

1 = 80 + 30 = 110 /
2 =

700
25

(1)
For 0 < x <25

= 28 /

(2)
(3)

2 = 28 + 30 = 58 /

(4)

2 = 3 = 58 /

(5)

Both applied for 25 < x < 75.


4 = 60 /

For 0 < x <25

(6)

By these informations its possible to calculate the total distributed load to graph the
weight curve as represented in the Figure 1

Weight Curve
120

Load Distribution

100
80
60
40

20
0
0

20

40

60
x (m)

80

100

120

Figure 1 - Weight Curve

The next step is to calculate the final fore and aft draft due the trim, so, based in the figure
2:

Tf
Tavg
Ta
Figure 2 Fore and aft draft

In order to calculate these drafts, it is necessary to consider that LCG=LCB, so, its
possible to apply weighted average to find Tavg. Therefore, LCB = 43.6m.
With this result, its possible to apply the equations 7 e 8 to find the Ta e Tf:

= + ( ) 2 2

(2)

(22)
3

( ) 2 2 (2 +

(7)
+

(8)

By this equations, the values calculated for Ta and Tf are:


Table 1 - Ta e Tf due the trim

Ta (m)
Tf (m)
Where the volume submerged is:

6,501
2,800

30253+6025+2700+2000
1.025

= 6.975.613

(9)

And the buoyancy was calculated based in the equation 10.


= ()

(10)

Where:
= 1.025 /3 (Salt Water)

(11)

Considering that for Ta = 6.501m; x = 0m


calculated by the equation 12:

and Tf = 2.80m; x = 100m, the T(x) can

() = +

(13)

Replacing the data in the equation 13 given above, draft is calculated by the equation 14:
() = 0.037 + 6.501

(14)

With this equation was possible to plot the Bonjean Curve (figure 3).

Bonjean Curve
300

Area (m)

250
200
150
100
50
0
0

20

40

60
x

80

100

120

Figure 3 - Bojean curve

2.1.

Shear Force

To solve this exercise, the ship was divided in 20 sections (range between them of 5.0m),
but to compute the local weight, buoyancy and net loads were considered the sections
between the sections defined before, it is of 2.5m.
The following steps explain better the methodology adopted to solve this exercise.

Calculation of the weight distribution and graphs that (Figure 1);

Definition of T(x) in order to define the Buoyancy;

Calculation of the area to graph the Bonjean curve;

Calculation of the buoyancy force based in the equation 10;

Definition of the net loads based in the summation of the weight distributions and

buoyancy forces and also to plot the net loads graphics (figure 4);

Net Loads
30

10
0
-10

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

Net Loads

20

-20
-30

x (m)
Figure 4 - Net Loads Graphic

With this net loads, it will be necessary to calculate an increment to the shear

force, to take an account all the shear forces between the sections.

And then, with this increment, the shear force were calculated by a summation of

the shearing force in the point x = 2 plus the increment in the section before, x=1. Its
showed in the equation 15:
() = ( 2) + ( 1)

(15)

According to the (TUPPER, 2013, p. 304) [] First the shear force and bending moment
must be zero at the ends of the ship []. Therefore; thats one restriction that could
shows if the calculation and spreadsheet on Excel were made correctly.
After this check, the shear force can be plotted, as is showed in the figure 5.

Shear Force V(x)


400

Shear Force (ton)

200
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-200
-400
-600

x (m)

Figure 5- Graphics of the shear force V(x)

2.2.

Bending Moment

In order to calculate the bending moment, it was used the same methodology as in the
shear force section.
It means that was computed the shear force between the sections of 5m range, by this
result its possible to measure the increment of the moment in each section (equation 16):
0 +1

= (

) (5 0)

(16)

This methodology also consider a correction because of the areas. By the results (showed
in the table 2, the bending moment graphics was plotted (figure 6).

Bending Moment (ton.m)

Bending Moment
0
-1000 0
-2000
-3000
-4000
-5000
-6000
-7000
-8000
-9000
-10000

20

40

60

80

x (m)

Figure 6 - Bending Moment Graphic

100

120

Table 2 - The results of the calculation on Excel.

Section

x (m)

T (x)

Area (m)

6,50

2,5

6,41

16,025

6,32

31,6

7,5

6,22

46,65

10

6,13

61,3

12,5

6,04

75,5

15

5,95

89,25

17,5

5,85

102,375

20

5,76

115,2

10

22,5

5,67

127,575

11

25

5,58

139,5

12

27,5

5,48

150,7

13

30

5,39

161,7

14

32,5

5,30

172,25

15

35

5,21

182,35

16

37,5

5,11

191,625

17

40

5,02

200,8

18

42,5

4,93

209,525

19

45

4,84

217,8

20

47,5

4,74

225,15

21

50

4,65

232,5

22

52,5

4,56

239,4

23

55

4,47

245,85

24

57,5

4,37

251,275

25

60

4,28

256,8

Buoyancy

w(x)

NET LOADS

V(x)

V middle

correction

0
98,55

110

-11,45

-57,25

0
-28,625

-143,125

-57,25
95,63

110

-14,37

-71,85

92,87

110

-17,13

-85,65

-93,175

-465,875

-485,5875

-171,925

-859,625

-879,3375

-214,75
110

-20,06

-100,3

0
-264,9

-1324,5

-315,05
87,18

110

-22,82

-114,1

-372,1

-1860,5

58

26,26

131,3

81,49

58

23,49

117,45

-363,5

-1817,5

-1837,2125

-239,125

-1195,63

-1215,3375

-180,4
78,57

58

20,57

102,85

0
-128,975

-644,875

-77,55
75,8

58

17,8

89

-165,25

11,45
72,88

58

14,88

74,4

70,11

58

12,11

60,55

48,65

243,25

223,5375

116,125

580,625

560,9125

146,4
67,19

58

9,19

45,95

0
169,375

192,35

846,875

-2871,98
-4752,19
-6589,4
-7804,74
-8469,33

-184,9625
0

85,85

-1527,76

-664,5875
0

-33,05

-648,425

-1880,2125
0

-297,85

-162,838

-1344,2125
0

-429,15
84,26

-162,8375
0

-129,1

89,94

M (x)

-8654,29
-8430,75
-7869,84

827,1625
0

-7042,68

26

62,5

4,19

261,875

27

65

4,10

266,5

28

67,5

4,00

270

29

70

3,91

273,7

30

72,5

3,82

276,95

31

75

3,73

279,75

32

77,5

3,63

281,325

33

80

3,54

283,2

34

82,5

3,45

284,625

35

85

3,36

285,6

36

87,5

3,26

285,25

37

90

3,17

285,3

38

92,5

3,08

284,9

39

95

2,99

284,05

40

97,5

2,89

281,775

41

100

2,80

280

64,42

58

6,42

32,1

208,4

1042

224,45
61,5

58

3,5

17,5

0
233,2

1166

241,95
58,73

58

0,73

3,65

55,81

60

-4,19

-20,95

243,775

1218,875

1199,1625

235,125

1175,625

1155,9125

224,65
60

-6,96

-34,8

0
207,25

1036,25

189,85
50,12

60

-9,88

-49,4

825,75

140,45
47,36

60

-12,64

-63,2

44,43

60

-15,57

-77,85
-0,60

-3674,94
-2519,03
-1502,49

806,0375
0

108,85

544,25

524,5375

38,325

191,625

171,9125

77,25

-4874,1

1016,5375
0

165,15

-6020,39

1146,2875
0

245,6

53,04

1022,2875

0
0

-696,45
-171,913
0,00

3.

Solution Considering waves

This part is divided in two parts:

Waves considering sagging and,

Waves considering hogging.

3.1.

Waves - considering sagging

The same methodology applied in the section 2 is applied in this section with small
changes due the wave. So, it was defined the function of the sagging wave, based on the
data provided for this part of the exercise.
In order to calculate the buoyancy due the waves, its necessary to define the function that
the wave in saggings behave. Considering that the wave behave as sin x, the function
is defined as in the following equation:

w(x) = sin ((100) 2 + 2 )

(17)

The curve is represented in the figure 7:

Wave (Sagging)
1,5
1

W (x)

0,5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-0,5
-1
-1,5

x (m)

Figure 7 - Wave Behave

And then, it was calculated the buoyancy force for each point in x based in the wave
equation. With this buoyancy is possible to compute the total net loads, as is showed in
the equation 18:
= (()) + (()) + ()
The Net Loads Graphics is polled in the follow graphics:

(18)

Net Loads (x)


30

Net Loads

20
10
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-10
-20
-30

x (m)

Figure 8 - Net Loads (x)

3.1.1. Shear Force


After to calculate the buoyancy force, draft in the aft, fore and the wave elevation, it was
computed that is the sum of all these forces as was showed in the equation 18. So, the
next step is to calculate the shear force.
First it is necessary to compute the shear force increment and its correction, it was
organized in two parts in the excel spreadsheet, based in the following topics:
3.1.1.1.

Shear Force increment (SF)

To calculate the shear force increment, it was used the Simpsons, by the following
equation.
() =

( 1 )
12

(5 1 + 8 +1 )

(19)

Where NL = Net Loads.


3.1.1.2.

Correction

To correct the shear force increment calculated by the equation 19, it was computed the
error, by doing the sum of all shear force increment, with this result, it was used the
equation 20 to compute the correction.
= (

40

(20)

3.1.1.3.

Final Calculation - Shear Force

Finally, in order to compute the final result of the shear force, it is applied the equation
below, where:
() = 1 +

(21)

By applying the equation 21, it was found all the results for shear force related to x in
metros, the graphics is plotted and presented in the figure 9.

Shear Force Sagging


100
50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-50
-100
-150
-200

Figura 9 - Shear Force

3.1.2. Bending Moment


By the same methodology as presented for the shear force, is defined the bending
moment:
() =

( 1 )
12

(5 1 + 8 +1 )

(22)

Where this equation compute the increment of the bending moment. To calculate the
correction, it is applied the following equation:
= (

40

(23)

And the final bending moment was calculated by the equation 24:
() = 1 +
The bending moment diagram is presented in the figure 10:

(24)

Bending Moment Sagging


600
400
200
0
-200

20

40

60

80

-400
-600
-800
-1000
-1200
-1400
Figure 10 - Bending Moment Graphic

The general results are presented in the Table 3:

100

120

Table 2 Calculation for Sagging condition


Section

Area (m)

T (x)

Buoyancy

Wave (x)

x
(m)
0

6,55

100,71

2,5

16,145

6,458

99,29175

31,83

6,366

7,5

47,055

10

12,5

Buoyancy

w(x)

Net Loads

15,375

-110

6,085

0,987688341

15,18570824

-110

97,87725

0,951056516

14,62249394

6,274

96,46275

0,891006524

61,82

6,182

95,04825

76,125

6,09

Correction

V(x) Sagging

Correction

M(x) Sagging

4,477458237

13,28

12,56273288

12,56

16,63

50,88

50,88

-110

2,499743938

8,79651

8,079246921

20,64

42,63

76,88

127,76

13,69922531

-110

0,161975309

3,39742

2,680157025

23,32

56,26

90,51

218,27

0,809016994

12,43863629

-110

-2,513113711

-2,8751

-3,59238168

19,73

55,29

89,54

307,81

93,63375

0,707106781

10,87176676

-110

-5,494483239

-9,9537

-10,6709927

9,06

37,61

71,86

379,67

15

89,97

5,998

92,21925

0,587785252

9,037198254

-110

-8,743551746

-17,751

-18,4684513

-9,41

1,31

35,56

415,23

17,5

103,355

5,906

90,80475

0,4539905

6,980103933

-110

-12,21514607

-26,163

-26,8798324

-36,29

-55,27

-21,02

394,21

20

116,28

5,814

89,39025

0,309016994

4,751136289

-110

-15,85861371

-35,068

-35,7850942

-72,08

-133,53

-99,28

294,93

10

22,5

128,745

5,722

87,97575

0,156434465

2,4051799

-110

-19,6190701

-44,335

-45,0520336

-117,13

-232,28

-198,03

96,9

11

25

140,75

5,63

86,56125

1,22515E-16

1,88367E-15

-110

-23,43875

-64,656

-65,3728756

-182,5

-390,6

-356,35

-259,45

12

27,5

152,295

5,538

85,14675

-0,156434465

-2,4051799

-58

24,7415701

12,4495

11,73225311

-170,77

-450,9

-416,65

-676,1

13

30

163,38

5,446

83,73225

-0,309016994

-4,75113629

-58

20,98111371

57,129

56,41171499

-114,36

-354,48

-320,23

-996,33

14

32,5

174,005

5,354

82,31775

-0,4539905

-6,98010393

-58

17,33764607

47,8626

47,14537566

-67,21

-225,11

-190,86

-1187,19

15

35

184,17

5,262

80,90325

-0,587785252

-9,03719825

-58

13,86605175

38,9583

38,24099561

-28,97

-118,47

-84,22

-1271,41

16

37,5

193,875

5,17

79,48875

-0,707106781

-10,8717668

-58

10,61698324

30,548

29,83075599

0,86

-33,51

0,74

-1270,67

17

40

203,12

5,078

78,07425

-0,809016994

-12,4386363

-58

7,635613711

22,7519

22,03467063

22,89

31,16

65,41

-1205,26

18

42,5

211,905

4,986

76,65975

-0,891006524

-13,6992253

-58

4,960524691

15,6749

14,9576308

37,85

77,23

111,48

-1093,78

19

45

220,23

4,894

75,24525

-0,951056516

-14,6224939

-58

2,622756062

9,40409

8,686822506

46,54

106,61

140,86

-952,92

20

47,5

228,095

4,802

73,83075

-0,987688341

-15,1857082

-58

0,645041763

4,00685

3,289579637

49,83

121,4

155,65

-797,27

21

50

235,5

4,71

72,41625

-1

-15,375

-58

-0,95875

-0,471

-1,18827398

48,64

123,82

158,07

-639,2

22

52,5

242,445

4,618

71,00175

-0,987688341

-15,1857082

-58

-2,183958237

-4,0063

-4,72355294

43,92

116,24

150,49

-488,71

23

55

248,93

4,526

69,58725

-0,951056516

-14,6224939

-58

-3,035243938

-6,599

-7,31628115

36,6

101

135,25

-353,46

24

57,5

254,955

4,434

68,17275

-0,891006524

-13,6992253

-58

-3,526475309

-8,2724

-8,98969126

27,61

80,43

114,68

-238,78

25

60

260,52

4,342

66,75825

-0,809016994

-12,4386363

-58

-3,680386289

-9,0724

-9,78965255

17,82

56,79

91,04

-147,74

26

62,5

265,625

4,25

65,34375

-0,707106781

-10,8717668

-58

-3,528016761

-9,0663

-9,78354155

8,04

32,18

66,43

-81,31

27

65

270,27

4,158

63,92925

-0,587785252

-9,03719825

-58

-3,107948254

-8,3413

-9,05858293

-1,02

8,5

42,75

-38,56

28

67,5

274,455

4,066

62,51475

-0,4539905

-6,98010393

-58

-2,465353933

-7,0024

-7,71970179

-8,74

-12,58

21,67

-16,89

29

70

278,18

3,974

61,10025

-0,309016994

-4,75113629

-58

-1,650886289

-5,1697

-5,88694005

-14,63

-29,67

4,58

-12,31

30

72,5

281,445

3,882

59,68575

-0,156434465

-2,4051799

-58

-0,7194299

-2,9752

-3,69250058

-18,32

-41,78

-7,53

-19,84

31

75

284,25

3,79

58,27125

-2,4503E-16

-3,7673E-15

-58

0,27125

-0,1436

-0,86082532

-19,18

-46,7

-12,45

-32,29

32

77,5

286,595

3,698

56,85675

0,156434465

2,4051799

-60

-0,7380701

-0,9879

-1,70512068

-20,89

-50,16

-15,91

-48,2

33

80

288,48

3,606

55,44225

0,309016994

4,751136289

-60

0,193386289

-0,6565

-1,37374923

-22,26

-54,39

-20,14

-68,34

34

82,5

289,905

3,514

54,02775

0,4539905

6,980103933

-60

1,007853933

1,53736

0,820090104

-21,44

-55,01

-20,76

-89,1

35

85

290,87

3,422

52,61325

0,587785252

9,037198254

-60

1,650448254

3,36924

2,651970163

-18,79

-50,57

-16,32

-105,42

36

87,5

291,375

3,33

51,19875

0,707106781

10,87176676

-60

2,070516761

4,70698

3,989709773

-14,8

-42,14

-7,89

-113,31

37

90

291,42

3,238

49,78425

0,809016994

12,43863629

-60

2,222886289

5,43056

4,713295134

-10,09

-31,11

3,14

-110,17

38

92,5

291,005

3,146

48,36975

0,891006524

13,69922531

-60

2,068975309

5,4351

4,717834963

-5,37

-19,16

15,09

-95,08

39

95

290,13

3,054

46,95525

0,951056516

14,62249394

-60

1,577743938

4,63341

3,916143262

-1,45

-8,18

26,07

-69,01

40

97,5

288,795

2,962

45,54075

0,987688341

15,18570824

-60

0,726458237

2,95815

2,24088613

0,79

-0,19

34,06

-34,95

41

100

287

2,87

44,12625

15,375

-60

-0,49875

-0,0745

-0,79178979

0,82

35,07

0,12

3.2.

Waves considering hogging

The same methodology applied in the section 3.1 for the calculations of wave in sagging,
is applied in this section with small changes due the wave (now, it is hogging).
In order to calculate the buoyancy due the waves, its necessary to define the function that
the wave in hoggings behave. Considering that the wave behave as sin x, the function
is defined as in the equation 25:

w(x) = sin ((100) 2 2 )

(25)

This wave is represented in the graphic bellow (figure 11).

Wave (Hogging)
1,5
1

W (x)

0,5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-0,5
-1
-1,5

x (m)

Figure 11- Hogging Behave

By using the same technique to measure the net loads in the saggings wave, the net loads
graphics is plotted as a showed in the figure 12:

Net Loads (x)


40

30

Net Loads

20
10
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-10

-20
-30
-40

x (m)

Figura 12 - Net Loads Graphic

3.2.1. Shear Force


By using the trapezoidal approximation as well it was used in the shear force for sagging,
the graphics for shear force is plotted bellow in the figure 13.

Shear Forge Hogging


600
400

200
0

20

40

60

80

-200
-400

-600
-800
Figure 13 - Graphics Shear Force (x)

100

120

3.2.2. Bending Moment


The graphics is presented in the figure 14.

B (x)
0
-2000

20

40

60

80

-4000
-6000
-8000
-10000
-12000
-14000
-16000
-18000
Figure 14 - Bending Moment diagram

The general results presented in the table 4:

100

120

Table 3 - General Results for hogging


Section

x (m)

Area (m)

T (x)

Buoyancy

Wave (x)

Buoyancy

w(x)

97,515

6,501

99,95288

-1

-15,375

-110

Net
Loads
-25,4221

2,5

96,16463

6,41098

98,56874

-0,98769

-15,1857

-110

-26,617

94,81425

6,32095

97,18461

-0,95106

-14,6225

-110

7,5

93,46388

6,23093

95,80047

-0,89101

-13,6992

10

92,1135

6,1409

94,41634

-0,80902

12,5

90,76313

6,05088

93,0322

15

89,41275

5,96085

17,5

88,06238

5,87083

20

86,712

10

22,5

11

V
0

Correction

V(x)
Hogging

Correction

M(x) Hogging

-65,13

-65,32675

-65,32675

-81,14

-28,98

-28,98

-27,4379

-67,64

-67,83675

-133,1635

-247,8

-195,62

-224,6

-110

-27,8988

-69,24

-69,43675

-202,60025

-419,6

-367,39

-591,99

-12,4386

-110

-28,0223

-69,97

-70,16675

-272,767

-594,2

-542,07

-1134,06

-0,70711

-10,8718

-110

-27,8396

-69,88

-70,07675

-342,84375

-769,7

-717,52

-1851,58

91,64807

-0,58779

-9,0372

-110

-27,3891

-69,08

-69,27675

-412,1205

-944

-891,84

-2743,42

90,26393

-0,45399

-6,9801

-110

-26,7162

-67,67

-67,86675

-479,98725

-1116

-1063,37

-3806,79

5,7808

88,8798

-0,30902

-4,75114

-110

-25,8713

-65,76

-65,95675

-545,944

-1283

-1230,73

-5037,52

85,36163

5,69078

87,49567

-0,15643

-2,40518

-110

-24,9095

-63,49

-63,68675

-609,63075

-1443

-1390,57

-6428,09

25

84,01125

5,60075

86,11153

-110

-23,8885

-71,83

-72,02675

-681,6575

-1633

-1580,54

-8008,63

12

27,5

82,66088

5,51073

84,7274

0,156434

2,40518

-58

29,13258

17,4

17,20325

-664,45425

-1694

-1642,28

-9650,91

13

30

81,3105

5,4207

83,34326

0,309017

4,751136

-58

30,0944

74,06

73,86325

-590,591

-1569

-1517,12

-11168,03

14

32,5

79,96013

5,33068

81,95913

0,45399

6,980104

-58

30,93923

76,33

76,13325

-514,45775

-1382

-1329,55

-12497,58

15

35

78,60975

5,24065

80,57499

0,587785

9,037198

-58

31,61219

78,24

78,04325

-436,4145

-1189

-1136,72

-13634,3

16

37,5

77,25938

5,15063

79,19086

0,707107

10,87177

-58

32,06263

79,65

79,45325

-356,96125

-991,9

-939,73

-14574,03

17

40

75,909

5,0606

77,80673

0,809017

12,43864

-58

32,24536

80,45

80,25325

-276,708

-792,1

-739,94

-15313,97

18

42,5

74,55863

4,97058

76,42259

0,891007

13,69923

-58

32,12182

80,53

80,33325

-196,37475

-591,2

-539,04

-15853,01

19

45

73,20825

4,88055

75,03846

0,951057

14,62249

-58

31,66095

79,8

79,60325

-116,7715

-391,1

-338,94

-16191,95

20

47,5

71,85788

4,79053

73,65432

0,987688

15,18571

-58

30,84003

78,2

78,00325

-38,76825

-193,9

-141,74

-16333,69

21

50

70,5075

4,7005

72,27019

15,375

-58

29,64519

75,69

75,49325

36,725

-1,83

50,33

-16283,36

22

52,5

69,15713

4,61048

70,88605

0,987688

15,18571

-58

28,07176

72,22

72,02325

108,74825

182,76

234,92

-16048,44

23

55

67,80675

4,52045

69,50192

0,951057

14,62249

-58

26,12441

67,82

67,62325

176,3715

357,51

409,67

-15638,77

24

57,5

66,45638

4,43043

68,11778

0,891007

13,69923

-58

23,81701

62,5

62,30325

238,67475

520,1

572,26

-15066,51

25

60

65,106

4,3404

66,73365

0,809017

12,43864

-58

21,17229

56,3

56,10325

294,778

668,27

720,43

-14346,08

26

62,5

63,75563

4,25038

65,34952

0,707107

10,87177

-58

18,22128

49,3

49,10325

343,88125

799,93

852,09

-13493,99

27

65

62,40525

4,16035

63,96538

0,587785

9,037198

-58

15,00258

41,58

41,38325

385,2645

913,17

965,33

-12528,66

28

67,5

61,05488

4,07033

62,58125

0,45399

6,980104

-58

11,56135

33,24

33,04325

418,30775

1006,3

1058,46

-11470,2

29

70

59,7045

3,9803

61,19711

0,309017

4,751136

-58

7,948249

24,41

24,21325

442,521

1078

1130,11

-10340,09

30

72,5

58,35413

3,89028

59,81298

0,156434

2,40518

-58

4,218158

15,22

15,02325

457,54425

1127

1179,11

-9160,98

31

75

57,00375

3,80025

58,42884

1,23E-16

1,88E-15

-58

0,428844

6,23

6,03325

463,5775

1154,1

1206,23

-7954,75

32

77,5

55,65338

3,71023

57,04471

-0,15643

-2,40518

-60

-5,36047

-6,59

-6,78675

456,79075

1152,9

1205,02

-6749,73

33

80

54,303

3,6202

55,66058

-0,30902

-4,75114

-60

-9,09056

-18,09

-18,28675

438,504

1121

1173,19

-5576,54

34

82,5

52,95263

3,53018

54,27644

-0,45399

-6,9801

-60

-12,7037

-27,28

-27,47675

411,02725

1063,8

1115,91

-4460,63

35

85

51,60225

3,44015

52,89231

-0,58779

-9,0372

-60

-16,1449

-36,11

-36,30675

374,7205

983,92

1036,08

-3424,55

36

87,5

50,25188

3,35013

51,50817

-0,70711

-10,8718

-60

-19,3636

-44,44

-44,63675

330,08375

882,61

934,77

-2489,78

37

90

48,9015

3,2601

50,12404

-0,80902

-12,4386

-60

-22,3146

-52,16

-52,35675

277,727

761,22

813,38

-1676,4

38

92,5

47,55113

3,17008

48,7399

-0,89101

-13,6992

-60

-24,9593

-59,16

-59,35675

218,37025

621,41

673,57

-1002,83

39

95

46,20075

3,08005

47,35577

-0,95106

-14,6225

-60

-27,2667

-65,36

-65,55675

152,8135

465,09

517,25

-485,58

40

97,5

44,85038

2,99003

45,97163

-0,98769

-15,1857

-60

-29,2141

-70,68

-70,87675

81,93675

295,74

347,9

-137,68

41

100

43,5

2,9

44,5875

-1

-15,375

-60

-30,7875

-81,74

-81,93675

85,35

137,51

-0,17

4.

Solution Considering trapeze as area.

Considering the mid-section of a ship as a trapeze bellow:


20 m

10 m

10 m
Figure 15 Mid-section of a ship

As a defined in the first part of this report, its necessary to calculate the aft and the fore
draft by using the equations 7 and 8.
As a result, Ta = 7.2222m; Tf = 3.662m and Tavg = 5.47618m.
By these values, the T(x) is defined as:
() = 0.036 + 7.222

(26)

The same method used for the calculations in still water is used in this topic, it was defined
the new function for the draft, so is possible to compute the net loads, and then to plot the
net loads graphic:

Net Loads
120
100

80

Net Loads

60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60

x (m)

Figure 16- Net Loads Graphic

From the net loads results, is calculated the shear force and bending moment by
considering the necessity to compute the increments and the small differences created
because of the integration.
Additionally it was used the solver in order to approximate the values and generate good
results for this case. So, it was plotted the graphic for the shear force and bending moment,
it is showed in the figures 17 and 18, respectively.

V(x)
2500

Shear Force

2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

80

100

120

x (m)

Figure 17 - Shear Force

M (x)
25000

Bending Moment

20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0

20

40

60

-5000
-10000
-15000

x (m)
Figure 18- Bending Moment

The generals results are showed in the table 5:

Tabela 4 - General Results for the trapeze mid-section


Section
1

x
(m)
0

T (x)

Area (m)

7,2222

593,8237

2,5

0,536493

8,243183

7,04419

566,648

7,5

0,812406

14,72411

10

6,86618

540,1061

12,5

1,068288

22,09529

15

6,68817

514,1979

17,5

1,304431

30,0597

20

6,51016

488,9234

10

22,5

1,521139

38,35002

11

25

6,33215

464,2827

12

27,5

1,718737

46,72792

13

30

6,15414

440,2758

14

32,5

1,897561

54,98299

15

35

5,97613

416,9026

16

37,5

2,057964

62,93181

17

40

5,79812

394,1632

18

42,5

2,200314

70,41695

19

45

5,62011

372,0575

20

47,5

2,32499

21

50

5,4421

77,30569
350,5855

22

52,5

2,432387

83,48894

23

55

5,26409

329,7473

24

57,5

2,522913

88,88

Buoyancy

w(x)

Net Loads

V(x)

V midle

correction

0
8,449263

110

101,550737

507,7537

0
253,8768

1269,384

-5574,68

507,7537
15,09221

110

94,9077892

474,5389

-5574,68
745,0232

3725,116

-3118,95

982,2926
22,64767

110

87,3523299

436,7616

30,81119

110

79,188809

395,944

-8693,63
1200,673

6003,367

-840,7

1617,026

8085,132

1241,065

1419,054

-9534,33

1814,998
39,30877

110

70,6912263

353,4561

-8293,27
1991,726

9958,632

3114,565

2168,454
47,89612

58

10,1038805

50,5194

-5178,7
2193,714

10968,57

4124,504

2218,974
56,35757

58

1,64243376

8,212169

64,50511

58

-6,5051088

-32,5255

-1054,2
2223,08

11115,4

4271,333

2210,923

11054,62

4210,549

2227,186

3217,133

2194,66
72,17737

58

-14,177372

-70,8869

7427,682
2159,217

10796,09

3952,018

2123,774
79,23833

58

-21,23833

-106,192

11379,7
2070,678

10353,39

3509,322

2017,582
85,57617

58

-27,576165

-137,881

14889,02
1948,642

9743,208

2899,141

1879,701
91,102

58

-33,102004

-165,51

M (x)

17788,16
1796,946

8984,731

2140,664

25

60

5,08608

309,5429

26

62,5

2,596986

93,41323

27

65

4,90807

289,9722

28

67,5

2,65504

97,04279

29

70

4,73006

271,0353

30

72,5

2,697519

99,74128

31

75

4,55205

252,7321

32

77,5

2,724878

101,4984

33

80

4,37404

235,0627

34

82,5

2,737584

102,3195

35

85

4,19603

218,027

36

87,5

2,736115

102,2244

37

90

4,01802

201,625

38

92,5

2,720957

101,2456

39

95

3,84001

185,8569

40

97,5

2,692607

99,42742

41

100

3,662

170,7224

1714,191
95,74856

58

-37,748556

-188,743

19928,83
1619,82

8099,099

1255,032

1525,448
99,46886

58

-41,468858

-207,344

21183,86
1421,776

7108,881

264,8141

1318,104
102,2348

58

-44,234814

-221,174

21448,67
1207,517

6037,585

-806,482

1096,93
104,0359

60

-44,035854

-220,179

20642,19
986,8404

4934,202

-1909,87

876,7507
104,8775

60

-44,877506

-224,388

18732,33
764,5569

3822,785

-3021,28

652,3632
104,78

60

-44,77998

-223,9

15711,04
540,4132

2702,066

-4142

428,4633
103,7767

60

-43,77675

-218,884

11569,04
319,0214

1595,107

-5248,96

209,5795
101,9131

60

-41,913104

-209,566

6320,083
104,7968

0,01401

523,9839

-6320,08
0,00

5.

Critical Analysis

The calculations in this report was made by using Excel and considering approximate
integrations in the shear forces and bending moments, for this reason, some residual force
or moment is usually corrected arbitrarily if its assumed that the difference can be spread
along to the length ship, (TUPPER, 2013, p. 304).

For the first case, the maximum values are presented in the table 6:
Table 5 - Maximum and minimum values for the first case

M
V

MAX
0
245,6

MIN
-8654,29
-429,15

For x = 45m; the minimum moment is critical because it reach its lowest value. But also,
between x = 30m and x = 65m, the bending moment in the ship are very low with its
values converging to the minimum value. It means that between this section the ship
suffer the most dangerous chance to fail, other situation is that, even the ship is in still
water, this moment shows that there is a tendency to hogging.
Also, considering the maximum and minimum shear force, is very important to project
and design the structures that can resist to this forces, especially in critical situations.
In situations that the loads distribution are more complicated and more close to the reality,
it will be better to compute all these data in a software to collect confinable information.
It was the case of the third part of the exercise where the mid-section of the ship is a
trapeze and to calculate the accurate area its necessary to make an analytical analysis.
Table 6 - Maximum and minimum values for the third case

M
V

MAX
21448,67
2227,186

MIN
-9534,33
0

In this case, the critical section is for x = 70m; where the moment is too high and the force
is 1096.6 tons, value that represents almost 50% of the maximum shear force computed
by the spreadsheet on Excel.

To compute the shearing forces and bending moments in the case of the waves, this report
was separated in sagging and hogging.
The maximum and minimum values computed for the sagging and hogging are,
respectively, 8 and 9:
Table 7- Maximum and minimum values for sagging condition

V
M

MAX

MIN

49,83
415,23

-182,5
-1271,41

Tabela 8 - Maximum and minimum values for the hogging condition

V(
M

MAX

MIN

463,5775
0

-681,6575
-16333,69

For sagging, the critical situation if for x = 35m, where the bending moment reach its
maximum value, also, for, x = 30 m until x = 45 m, all the bending moments calculated
have values very close, it means that the section 30 < x < 45 is the critical section and it
should be designed and projected to support these values, especially because the naval
architect or the engineers involved in the project have to consider the fatigue risks due
the waves and the behave of the ship in these cases.
Even if in the sagging, the ship behave in a way to distribute better all the loads, especially
in this case where the forces are concentrated in the fore and the aft of the ship.
For the hogging behave, it was find the maximum values below:
For hogging, the critical situation if for x = 47.5m, where the bending moment reach its
maximum value, also, for , x = 30m until x = 70m, all the bending moments calculated
have values very close, it means that the section 30 < x < 70 is the critical section.
For finish, its very important to consider these values for the structures and to have best
values and good results to be in a safe area its better to use softwares.