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Engineering Guidelines

Propagation Models
Issue/Project Number:
003
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MFC-PROJ-003.0003-en
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MFC / PROJ
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Alfred Torn y Olmos, 9 Esc B 1 Planta,
E 46023 Valencia
Spain

Confidential

Author (name)
Mauro J. Andr Jr.

Date
30/03/01

Address and Contact Details

Approved by (name)
Gregorio Delgado

Date
30/03/01

Role/Authority
Program Manager

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Issue-No./Proj.-No.:
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Engineering Guidelines
Propagation Models

Table of Contents
1.

DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................4

2.

INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................5
2.1.

Aim of Document....................................................................................................................5

2.2.

Path losses in the Projects......................................................................................................5

2.2.1.
2.3.

3.

Diffraction path loss.............................................................................................................................6

Intended Document Audience................................................................................................6

OKUMURA-HATAS MODEL...............................................................................................7
3.1.

4.

Macrocells Hatas model........................................................................................................8

MICROCELLS WALFISCH-IKEGAMI MODEL...............................................................11


4.1.

COST231 Walfisch-Ikegami Model..................................................................................13

5.

OUTDOOR-INDOOR MODELS.........................................................................................15

6.

INDOOR / PICOCELL.........................................................................................................17
6.1.

7.

COST231 model for Picocell................................................................................................18

WORKING WITH ASSET....................................................................................................19


7.1.

Asset Macrocell model..........................................................................................................19

7.2.

Asset Microcell model..........................................................................................................21

7.2.1. Line of sight region (LOS).................................................................................................................21


7.2.2. Signal Strength Calculation for Non-Line of Sight Regions............................................................23
7.2.2.1.
Virtual Source Positioning........................................................................................................23
7.2.2.2.
Signal Strength Calculation......................................................................................................23
7.2.2.3.
Antenna Height Gain (GAntHeight) and Masking Loss (GMask)......................................................24
7.2.2.4.
Higher-Order Virtual Sources...................................................................................................24
7.2.2.5.
Points Affected by more than One Virtual Source....................................................................24
7.2.2.6.
Clutter Loss...............................................................................................................................24
7.2.2.7.
Low-Building Rejection............................................................................................................24
8.

SUMMARY............................................................................................................................25

9.

REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................25

10.

APPENDICES...................................................................................................................26

Appendix 1.

O.H. Path Loss................................................................................................26

Appendix 2.

Average path loss as function of base station antenna height......................27

Appendix 3.

Mobile station antenna loss term...................................................................28

Appendix 4.

Average radio path loss model for macrocells (typical).................................29

Appendix 5.

Bergs model NLOS........................................................................................30

Appendix 6.

Picocell average path loss...............................................................................31

Appendix 7.

Picocell COST 231..........................................................................................32

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Engineering Guidelines
Propagation Models

Appendix 8.

Propagation Models Setup Window by Asset (I)............................................33

Appendix 9.

Propagation Models Setup Window by Asset (II)..........................................34

DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY


Tool Used
File Location
Version
Date
00.01
07-03-01
00.02
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01.00
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e.g. Word for Windows Version 7.0


G:/...
Author/Changed by
Changes
Mauro J. Andr Jr.
(1)
Initial draft for internal review
David Caete
(2)
First review.
Mauro J. Andr Jr.
(3)
First version.

(4)

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Engineering Guidelines
Propagation Models

1. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS


3G
LOS
NLOS

Third generation of mobile systems


Line of Sight
Non-line of Sight

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Propagation Models

2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Aim of Document
This document aims to define the principal propagation models used and their application.
It will be defined the different parameters and the approaches used for the different frequency bands
and environment (rural, urban etc).
At the end will be linked with the formulation used by the Enterprise AIRCOM software.

2.2. Path losses in the Projects


In a 3G radio planning we will have to consider the several classes of services offered. The mobility
characteristics and occupied band.
The mobile radio channel model comprises 3 components. The first component is the model for the
average path loss as function of the distance in different propagation environments. The second
component is the long-term fading due to shadowing from large buildings and other obstacles. The third
component is the model for the fast fading due to multipath propagation at a given distance. While the
two first components are assumed to be independent of the signal bandwidth, this is not true for the
third component. For a wide-band channel fast fading attenuation is no longer adequate, but
multiparameter models must be applied.
Propagation Model

Distance effects

Slow fading Power distribution

Outdoor

Multipath effects

Shadowing effects

Multipath effects Fast fading

Macrocells
o Hatas Model
Microcells
o COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegamis model
Outdoor-indoor models
Indoor models
Fig. 1 - Modelling Channel structure

Applying the Okumura-Hatas propagation model we can summarize the propagation losses in one it
formulates basic it conforms below:
Lb LOH Ldif

where:
Lb Total path losses.
LOH Okumura Hata path loss.
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Propagation Models

Ldif Diffraction path loss

2.2.1. Diffraction path loss


The main used method for losses calculation provoked by waves diffractions in obstacles it is the
Epstein-Pertersons model, that takes in consideration sharp obstacles round obstacles and contained
obstacles. In this document we will limit to discuss the models of propagation losses according to the
environment.

2.3. Intended Document Audience


MFC-net engineers.

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3. Okumura-Hatas Model
The COST Subgroup on Propagation Models proposed in document COST 231 a first working
assumption on an improved propagation model for urban areas to be. The model was based on Hatas
formula for the basic transmission loss. We will see a little about your formulation, application and
generalization for application in the projects.
Because of the propagation environment is very complex in cellular systems, path loss modeling is
mostly based on experimental propagation data. In practice this means that mathematical functions are
matched to the measured data and different environmental factors are taken into account by a number
of parameters. In addition, the cell size is very important, quite different models are used in large cells
(macrocells, diameter > 1 km), in small outdoor cells (microcells, diameter < 1 km), and in indoor cells
(picocells, diameter < 0,1 km).
Average attenuations models have been derived from experimental data in many countries. The most
well known one is the Okumura-Hata model, which has been adopted by ITU-R. This model is based
on Japanese measurements done by Okumura, while Hata originally made the mathematical
formulation.

3.1. Macrocells Hatas model

Hatas basic formula for macrocells:

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LOHata (dB ) C K C F log f C HT log hBS AhMS , i (44,9 6,55 log(hBS )) log d
where

f
d
CK
CF
C HT
hBS

frequency (MHz).
distance (Km).
path independent term.

hMS

mobile station antenna height above ground in m.

lognormal distribution based on the frequency.


lognormal distribution based on the base station antenna height above ground in m.
base station antenna height above ground in m.

AhMS , i

correction factor (dB) based on mobile station height and city model.
correction factor used in distances above 20Km.

The AhMS correction factor depends on the value of the height of the mobile station. The standard value
is AhMS =0 for hMS =1.5 meters. For other heights we should consider the city type. It follows some
rules below.
MS-antenna height correction in dense urban environments:

and in urban environments:

In suburban areas the average attenuation model is obtained by adding a correction term to the city
model, which shows no dependence on MS antenna height:

and in rural areas:

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Below parameters C K , C F and C HT depending on base station height and operation frequency.

Frequency

f1.500MHz

1.500MHzf2GHz

hbs 220m

Okumura Hata

Ext. COST 231

Ck=69.55 dB

Ck=43.33 dB

CF=26.16

CF=33.9

CHT=13.82

CHT=13.82

Effective height methods


extension

composed extension

Ck=92.23 dB

Ck=67.63 dB

CF=26.16

CF=33.9

CHT=23.5

CHT=23.5

hbs 220m

These formulas are valid then:


f (150,1500MHz )
hMS (1,10m)
hBS (30,200m)
d (1,20 Km)

The Okumura-Hata model is extended to distances d = 20...100 km with the following correction:

1 d 20Km

d 0.8
4
3
1

(
0
,
14

1
,
87

10

1
,
07

10

h
)

(log
) d 20Km
BS

20

The model has often been used also for higher frequencies than 1500 MHz. One possible extension is
the Hata-COST231-model, which is valid for frequencies between 1500 and 2000 MHz. This model
contains the term C m , which is either 0 or 3 dB depending on the environment.

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4. Microcells Walfisch-Ikegami model

In microcells (0,1km < d < 1 km) several models are used. One example is the Walfish - Ikegami loss
model. The model depends on whether the path is line-of-sight (LOS) or not (NLOS). For the LOScase the average path loss is
L 42,6 26 log(d ) 20 log( f )

where

f
d

frequency (MHz).
distance (Km).

and for an NLOS-case the average path loss is the sum of three terms: the free space loss, the roof-tostreet diffraction loss, and the multi-screen loss which is caused by diffraction by preceding blocks /
buildings along the propagation path.
L 32,4 20 log( f ) Lrts Lmsd

where:
Lrts is the roof-top-to-street diffraction and scatter loss in dB.
Lmsd is the multi-screen diffraction loss in dB.
The roof-top-to-street diffraction and scatter loss is predicted with

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g ms

Lrts 10 log

b hms 2 w 2

2
1
1

where g ms ( ) is the mobile antenna gain in direction , k is the wave number, and

b hms

arctan

The multiple screen diffraction loss is predicted with equation.

Lmsd 10 log g bs Q 2

and when the base station is more than 0.5 s below roof level

1
1
1000d s
Q Ql

2k (b hbs ) 2 s 2 arctan b hbs 2 arctan b hbs

s
s

On intervening base station antenna heights the Q-value is obtained by linear interpolation of the Qvalues at height differences s and 0.5 s .
This model is valid when

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f 800,2000 MHz ,

d 20,5000m,
hbs 4,50m,
hms 1,3m.

4.1. COST231 Walfisch-Ikegami Model


This model contains the same three terms as the previous model, but the terms are determined by
different formulas. In addition this model takes into account also the street directions compared to the
propagation path.

Deterministic models
In microcells it is possible to obtain deterministic models e.g. by ray tracing techniques. Based on
knowledge of building dimensions and materials, the delay and amplitude of the signal propagation
along all possible paths between the transmitter and receiver can be determined.
This enables the estimation of the channel impulse response. In addition to the average path loss, also
the effects of slow and fast fading are known. Due to extensive calculation burden, these methods can
be applied only to rather small areas.
LOS- CASE: L 42.6 26 log d km 20 log f MHz
NLOS- CASE: L LO Lrts Lmsd

Lo 32.5 20 log d km 20 log f MHz


Lrts 16.9 10 log w 10 log f MHz 20 log hroof hms m Lori
10 0.354 ................................0 35

Lori 2.5 0.075 35.....................35 55


4 0.114 55........................55 90

Where is the angle between the street direction and incidence angle of radio wave.

Lmsd Lbsh k a k d log d km k f log f MHz 9 log b m


18(1 hbsm hmsm hmsm ),...........hbs hroof

Lbsh

0,.................................................hbs hroof

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54,..................................................hbs hroof

k a 54 0.8(hbs hroof ),.......................hbs hroof , d 0.5km

54 0.8(hbs hroof ) ( d ),.............hbs hroof , d 0.5km

0.5

18,...................................................hbs hroof

kd

18 15

(hbs hroof )
hroof

,......................hbs hroof

f MHz

0
.
7
1 ,.......small..cities

925
kf
4 1.5 f MHz 1 ,.......small..cities

925

where:
Lori .additional term for Lrts ...depeding .. ...angle
k a , k f , k d path loss for hbs and hroof height.
w street height.

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5. Outdoor-indoor models
Building penetration loss COST231 Bergs model - LOS situation.

L Lo L pen Lo Lext Lext (1

S 2
) MAX 1, 2
D

Where:
LO is the free space loss.
Lext is the external wall penetration loss when 90 .
Lext is the additional wall penetration loss when 0 , typically 20dB.
1 nLint
S
2 ( d 2) (1 ) 2
D
Lint is the internal wall penetration loss.
n is the number of penetrated internal walls.
is the indoor characteristics loss, typically 0.6 dB/m

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Building penetration loss COST231 Bergs model - NLOS situation.

L Loutside L pen Loutside Lext Lext 2 MAX 1, 2 G fh

where
Loutside is the outdoor path loss.
Lext is the external wall penetration loss when 90 .
Lext 2 is the additional wall penetration loss, typically 3-5 dB at 900MHz and 5-7 dB at
1800MHz.
1 nLint

2 d
Lint is the internal wall penetration loss.
n is the number of penetrated internal walls.
is the indoor characteristics loss, typically 0.6 dB/m.

m Gm
G fh
h Gh

is the floor height gain, G m = 1.5 2 dB/floor with normal room height, 4 7

dB/floor with room heights about 4 5 m.


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m is the floor number.


See the example in appendix 5.

6. Indoor / Picocell
The indoor path loss model depends on the building type (open-plan office, conventional office). Wall
and intermediate floor constructions have also important impact. One often used model is the original
Keenan-Motley-model which gives the average path loss in dB.

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6.1. COST231 model for Picocell


Cost 231 picocell average path loss model takes into account diffraction paths, which may be important
when there are many floors. The average path loss is

See picocell average path loss examples in appendix 6 and 7.

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7. Working with Asset


The propagation Models contained in Asset Enterprise software accomplish signal predictions based
macrocells and microcell standards. Follows below the models and applications supported by Asset
Aircom Software.
Brief Description
Based on the ETSI Hata model and is valid for
frequencies from 150MHz to 2GHz. Calibrated
typically to 8dB standard deviation.

Based on a pseudo ray-tracing technique. Calibrated


typically to 8dB standard deviation.

This is available as an extra COM component to


ASSET.As an add-on to ASSET, Wave sight is licensed
separately.

Use
Sites in environments where the distance from the
site is greater than approximately 500m
Base station antenna heights in the range of 15200m
Receiver heights in the range of 1-10m.
Sites found in urban environments
Propagation in the 'urban canyon' environment
In-building coverage
This model is highly efficient and very accurate in
urban areas. It is also fully deterministic, and
avoids costly and time consuming calibration.

7.1. Asset Macrocell model


The Asset has two macrocell models the standard macrocell and standard macrocell 2. Both standard
macrocell models are based on ETSI Hata model with a few additional features that enhance flexibility
accuracy, such as the introducction of clutter offsets and heights and the use of diffraction. The model
is designed for macrocells and incorporates an optimal dual slope loss model with respect to distance
from the base station.
The standard macrocell 2 model should be used specially in standard macrocell because provide more
accuracy results.
See below the asset Loss Path formula and the association with Hatas extended model.
Ploss k1 k 2 log d k 3(hms ) k 4 log(hms ) k 5 log(heff ) k 6 log(heff ) log d k 7 diffn c _ loss

Okumura-Hatas formula:

LOH (dB) C K C F log f C HT log hBS AhMS , i (44,9 6,55 log(hBS )) log d
Analysing and linking the terms of the both equations results:
k 7 and diffn are terms depends of diffraction calculated process.
c _ loss offset factor to clutter type (Asset parameter).
k1 independent term C k C f log f .
(k 2 k 6 log(heff )) log d (44.9 6.55 log hbs ) log d .
k 5 log(heff ) C HT log hbs

k 5 C HT

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k 3(hms ) k 4 log(hms ) Ahbs , i

k6 = -6.55 (default)
heff hbs

The propagation model can be fine-tuned by modifying the k-factors. For improved near and far
performance, dual slope attenuation can be introduced by specifying both near and far values for k1
and k2 and the crossover point.

setup window for macrocell propagation model.

See more about Propagation Models editor windows in 8 and 9 appendixes.


The table below provides suggested default parameters for macrocell model that are entered in
propagation model editor:
Parameter
Mobile Rx Height
Earth Radius
K1
K2
K1 (near)
K2 (near)
K3
D<
K4
K5
K6
K7
Effective site antenna height
(heff) algorithm
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900MHz
1.5
8493
135
38
0
0
-2.55
0
0
-13.82
-6.55
0.7
relative

1800MHz
1.5
8493
160
40
0
0
-2.55
0
0
-13.82
-6.55
0.8
relative

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Diffraction loss algorithm


Merge knife edges closer than
Dual slope
Clutter parameters
Use clutter heights
Use clutter separations
Use mobile heights

Epstein perterson
Leave unaltered (0.00)
No
N/A
No
No
No

Epstein perterson
Leave unaltered (0.00)
No
N/A
No
No
No

7.2. Asset Microcell model


The Asset microcell model is based on a pseudo ray-tracing technique that uses building outlines
(vector data) and terrain DTM height (raster data) to represent the propagation environment. The
prediction area is divided into pixels and path loss is calculated at each pixel.
The model examines wave propagation in a horizontal direction assuming that the predominant method
of RF propagation is down street Canyons" bounded by buildings. Each section of the propagation
path also incurs an additional clutter loss.
This can be used to correct the street-based propagation formulae for propagation over large open
areas (such as large squares, parks) where the wave-guiding effects of street propagation are not
present.
The path loss is calculated by considering paths of direct and diffracted rays between the base site
(source) and prediction point. Reflection and transmission at building walls is not considered in the
current version of the model, or is in-building coverage calculated.
The model uses a combination of real and virtual sources to model wave propagation between two
points. Real sources are positioned in the center of the prediction area and correspond to a physical
base station. Virtual sources are positioned to model diffraction effects at vertical building edges, which
are assumed to be infinitely tall. Two types of path loss model are used depending on whether the
prediction point has line of sight (LOS) to the real source, or if it only receives contributions from
diffracted waves.

7.2.1. Line of sight region (LOS)


The total signal strength in a line of sight region is give ASSET by:
PRX PTX GStreet G AntHeight GMask

Where:
PRX Received power.
PTX Transmitted power.
G Street
Path Loss.
G AntHeight and GMask will be explained later on. The G Street is expressed as negative gain.

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Engineering Guidelines
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s1log10 d............................................d dbreak


GStreet d I1m
s2 log10 d s1 s2 log10 dbreak .........d dbreak
Where:
d
I 1m
s1
s2
d break

is the distance of mobile from source (m).


Intercept: path loss (0) at 1m from the antenna (dB).
Initial Slope: Slope (0) before breakpoint (dB/decade).
Final Slope: Slope (0) after breakpoint (dB/decade).
Breakpoint Distance (m).

The breakpoint distance is given by:


d break

( 2 2 )

2
4

2 2
2
16

Where:

hTX
hRX

RF wavelength (m).

hTX hRX

hTX hRX
Base station height (m).
Mobile height (m).

You can specify the breakpoint distance in the propagation Model Editor in Asset software.
Antenna Height Gain:
G AntHeight K AntHeight . log 10 hTX

The antenna Height gain factor (KAntHeight) is given in the Propagation Model Editor.
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Masking Loss ( G Mask )


An antenna masking loss (negative gain) is applied to all points in the LOS region.

7.2.2. Signal Strength Calculation for Non-Line of Sight Regions


Regions without Line of Sight to the real source receive radio energy via
diffraction around the edges of buildings. This is modeled by placing a virtual
source on the line joining the real source to the edge of the building and on the
far side of the edge from the real source. Emitted rays are considered differently
from real and virtual sources. A real source emits rays in all directions whereas a
virtual source only emits rays in the half-plane containing the area shadowed by
the diffracting edge.

7.2.2.1. Virtual Source Positioning


Diffraction occurs at the edges of buildings, but for modeling purposes, it is
preferable to place a virtual source some distance away from the edge that
produces it. It is then necessary to place an upper limit on the distance between
a diffracting edge and the virtual source it produces.
The ASSET microcell model will place a virtual source halfway between the edge
that creates it and the next building encountered except when this value
exceeds the Maximum Distance from Edge parameter d edge specified in the
Propagation Model Editor, in which case, d edge is used to position the source.

7.2.2.2. Signal Strength Calculation


For non-LOS regions, the signal strength is calculated using a modified version of
the equation for LOS regions. The path loss G street also uses takes the same form
as for LOS regions with the following modifications. The Fresnel zone breakpoint
cannot be calculated in non-LOS regions and so you must supply d break using the
Propagation Model Editor.

7.2.2.3. Antenna Height Gain (GAntHeight) and Masking Loss (GMask)


Virtual sources have no antenna and so G antHeight and G Mask are not applied to virtual sources.

7.2.2.4. Higher-Order Virtual Sources


Virtual sources may in turn spawn further higher-order virtual sources. The highest allowed order is
given by the Highest Order Virtual Source parameter in the Propagation Model Editor.
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7.2.2.5. Points Affected by more than One Virtual Source


If a predicted point receives a contribution from several virtual sources then the signal strength due to
each route is calculated and the strongest one chosen.

7.2.2.6. Clutter Loss


The propagation path includes an additional loss due to clutter given by:

Gclut er si di
Clut er
Types

Where:
d i is length of the path (meters) lying in clutter type.
s i is additional slope gain factor (>0) for clutter type (dB/m).
You can supply the s i parameters in the Propagation Model Editor.

7.2.2.7. Low-Building Rejection


In certain cases, you may find that some building data corresponds to
constructions that are only one or two meters tall. The microcell propagation
model assumed that buildings could be treated as infinitely tall. This
approximation is only valid if the heights of all sources (real and virtual) are
below building height.
The user-supplied parameter hLowBuilding signifies that all buildings with a height
below hLowBuilding meters should not be considered as obstructions. Consequently
they will not produce virtual sources, and will be treated in the same manner as
streets/open areas.
The table below provides suggested default parameters for microcell model that are entered in
propagation model editor:
LOS CASE:
PARAMETER
Mobile Rx Height
Earth Radius
Loss at 1 metre
Antenna Height Gain
Near slope
Far slope
Breakpoint

900 MHz
1.5
6370
41.2
12.6
8.7 dB/decade
41.3 dB/decade
Autocalculate

1800 MHz
1.5
6370
41.5
8.2
16.3 dB/decade
49 dB/decade
Autocalculate

FREQUENCY

900 MHz

1800MHz

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Non-LOS CASE:

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Forward scatter Near slope


Forward scatter Far slope
Back scatter Near slope
Back scatter Far slope
Ignore buildings metres tall
Highest order virtual source
Max. distance to diffracting
Clutter Loss (dB/m)
Building penetration loss
In-building slope

17.9 dB/decade
17.9 dB/decade
0
17.9
0
2
6
To be determined by user
10
1

18.7 dB/decade
18.7 dB/decade
0
18.7
0
2
6
To be determined by user
10
1

8. SUMMARY
9. REFERENCES
REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
No.
1
2
3
4

Document Title
Urban propagation models for small-cell mobile and micro-cell
mobile radio in 900 and 1800 MHz bands.
Cp. 4 Modelos de Propagacin, Trfico y Movilidad Vol 1
-Comunicaciones Mviles de Tercera Generacin
Internet Papers
Review of mobile channel modelling - Helsinki University of
Technology
Institute of Radio Communications
Communications Laboratory
ASSET User Reference Guide Version 3.3

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Document Identifier
EURO-COST.
COST 231 TD(90) 119
ISBN: 84-931836-1-X

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1. O.
H.
P
at
h
L
o
ss

10.

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Engineering Guidelines
Propagation Models

APPENDICES

Okumura-Hata model
for average path loss

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2. Average path loss as function of base station


Propagation Models
antenna height

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3. Mobile station
antenna loss term

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4. Average radio path loss model for


macrocells (typical)

Propagation Models

graphical Loss(dB) X frequency

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5. Bergs
model
NLOS

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Engineering Guidelines

6. Picocell
average path
loss

Propagation Models

- example of Microcells path loss application.

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7. Picoc
ell
COST
231

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8. Propagation Models Setup


Window by Asset (I)

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9. Propagation Models Setup


Window by Asset (II)

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Propagation Models

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