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QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

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Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

Y = mX + b
y_1

= m

x_1

= m

x_2

-0.333

3.667

x
5
2

y
2
3

+ b

3
m

+ b

2
y_2

323279413.xls

3 2.6666667

3.5
3
2.5

y_1 - y_2
x_1 - x_2

y_1 - m * x_1

1.5

x
3
y
2.667
Condensed solution
c
2.667

mX + b
1
0.5

Solution to be copied
x_1
2.5
y_1
2
x_2
y_2

0
1.5

5
6

2.5

3.5

4.5

Figure 58-1 A simple straight line.

x
3
y
2.800
Simplified solution to be copied
line 1
x_1
0
y_1
3.689
x_2
10
y_2
7.02
m
0.3331
b
3.689
formal
x
10.78
7.28
Condensed
x
4
y
5.02

line 2
3.5
0
10
6.5
1
-3.5

X
0
10

Y
3.689
7.02

3.5
10

0
6.5

10.780

7.280

7
6
5

10.78
7.28

line 1
line 2

3
2

10.78
7.28

1
0
0

Solve for the intersection of two lines


Algebra
line 1
y
1
y
mx
0.333
-mx
b
3.689
-b

y
1.000
1.000

- mx
-0.333
-1.000

10

12

Figure 58-2 The intersection of two straight lines


using y = mx + b.
line 2
1
1.000
-3.500

subtract
0
-0.667
7.189

x solution
y solution

10.780
7.280

minverse
1.499
1.499

-0.499
-1.499

Matrix
y = mx + b
y - mx = b
line 1
line 2

5.5

=b
3.689
-3.500

mmult intersection
7.280 = y
10.780 = x

Page 58 - 2

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

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Page 58 - 3

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

58

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Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
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323279413.xls
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QUADRATIC EQUATION
The quadratic equation shown below is a straight forward example of
spread sheet math that makes a somewhat difficult calculation more
accurate. The ERR flag indicates imaginary ( i ) root(s).
ax
2

bx
-12

700
600

c
9

500

[ -b + (b2 - 4ac)0.5 ] / 2a = 0
x1
x2

5.12 first root


0.88 second root

Assign range names of A, B, and C to the input values


to make the equations more readable.

400

ax1 + bx1+ c

300

Polynomial (ax1 + bx1+


c)

200

ax2 + bx2 + c
mx + b

100

For a straight line y = mx + b


m
1
b
100 this is the y intercept at x = 0

0
-100

Note: as a convention, capitalized X and Y are data plots and


lower case x and y are distances from the plot to a fitted line or
curve. #NUM! is not plotted, text is plotted as 0.

Figure 58-3 Solutions to the quadratic equation.


x1
x2
mx+b
ax12 + bx1 + c
ax22 + bx2 + c

Test
a
b
c
d

5.121320344
0.878679656
105.1213203
0
0

6.1213203
1.8786797
106.12132
10.485281
-6.4852814

7.1213203
2.8786797
107.12132
24.970563
-8.970563

8.1213203
3.8786797
108.12132
43.455844
-7.4558441

9.1213203
4.8786797
109.12132
65.941125
-1.9411255

10.12132
5.8786797
110.12132
92.426407
7.5735931

11.12132
6.8786797
111.12132
122.91169
21.088312

12.1213
7.87868
112.121
157.397
38.603

13.1213
14.12
8.87868
9.88
113.121 114.121
195.882 238.368
60.1177 85.6325

Linest Fit to the Quadratic Equation


x increment
0.6
X
0.32
0.92
1.52
2.12
2.72
3.32
3.92
4.52
5.12
5.72
6.32
6.92
7.52
8.12
8.72
9.32
9.92
10.52
11.12
11.72
12.32
12.92
13.52
14.12
14.72
15.32
15.92

aX2
0.2
1.7
4.6
9.0
14.8
22.1
30.8
40.9
52.5
65.5
79.9
95.8
113.1
131.9
152.1
173.8
196.9
221.4
247.4
274.8
303.6
333.9
365.7
398.8
433.4
469.5
507.0

bX
-3.9
-11.1
-18.3
-25.5
-32.7
-39.9
-47.1
-54.3
-61.5
-68.7
-75.9
-83.1
-90.3
-97.5
-104.7
-111.9
-119.1
-126.3
-133.5
-140.7
-147.9
-155.1
-162.3
-169.5
-176.7
-183.9
-191.1

c
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

Y
5.4
-0.4
-4.6
-7.5
-8.8
-8.8
-7.3
-4.4
0.0
5.8
13.1
21.8
31.9
43.5
56.5
70.9
86.8
104.1
122.9
143.1
164.8
187.9
212.4
238.4
265.8
294.6
324.9

Y linest
linest
m1
m2
b
5.4
m
1.00
1.00
9.00
#N/A
-0.4
se
0.00
0
0
#N/A
-4.6 note that the r2
r2
1.0000 4E-014 #N/A
#N/A
-7.5 shows a good
F
1.14E+032
24 #N/A
#N/A
ssreg
-8.8 (exact) fit
288499
3E-026
#N/A
#N/A
-8.8
-7.3
-4.4
0.0
5.8
13.1
describe the linest range, enter the equation,
21.8
and then press [Ctrl] [Shift] [Enter] simultaneously
31.9
to get this equation throughout the range
43.5
56.5
70.9
86.8
104.1 350.0
122.9
300.0
143.1
164.8 250.0
187.9
200.0
212.4
238.4 150.0
Column E
265.8
100.0
294.6
324.9
50.0
0.0
0.00
-50.0

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Page 58 - 4

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

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Figure 58-4 The cubic equation.

Page 58 - 5

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

58

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CUBIC EQUATION ALGEBRAIC and TRIGONOMETRIC SOLUTION


Typically, if the algebraic solution can provide an answer, the trigonometric solution will return #NUM's and vice versa.
Algebraic Solution

i represents imaginary numbers

x
0.034

p
3
px
0.316

q
2
qx
0.649

r
-1
r
-1.000

sum = y
0
=Y
0.000

x1

0.325 OK

-11.010

14.847

-4.449

-1.000

-1.612

x2

-2.225 !!! i

-1.331

3.631

-2.200

-1.000

-0.901

x3

-1.100 !!! i

60.000
50.000

-1.000

1 / 3 * ( 3 * q - p2 )
1 / 3 * ( 3 * 2.0 - 3.0^2 )

-1.000

1 / 27 * ( 2 * p3 - 9 * p * q + 27 * r )
1 / 27 * ( 2 * 3.0^3 - 9 * 3.0 * 2.0 + 27 * -1.0 )

flag 1
flag 2
flag 3
[A]

1 logic
0 logic
0 logic

b /4 + a /27 > 0
b / 4+ a /27 = 0
b /4 + a /27 < 0

30.000
20.000
10.000

1 real root and 2 imaginary roots


3 real roots of which 2 at least are equal
3 real and unequal roots

0.987

logic

B_eq

0.338

abs( -b / 2
- sqrt(b^2 /4
+ a^3 / 27) )^(1/3)
ABS( - -1.000 / 2 - SQRT(-1.000^2 /4 + -1.000^3 / 27) )^(1/3)

[B]

0.338

If(logic, B_eq, -B_eq)


IF( 1, 0.338, -0.338 )

X1

0.325

[A]
+ [B] -p/3
0.987 + 0.338 - 3.000 /3

X2

-2.225

-( [A] + [B] ) /2 + ( [A] - [B] ) /2 *


-3 ) -p/3
-(0.987 + 0.338 ) /2 + ( 0.987 - 0.338 ) /2 * ( -3^0.5) - 3.000 /3

X3

-1.100

-( [A] + [B] ) /2 - ( [A]


- [B] ) /2 *
-3 )
- p/3
-(0.987 + 0.338 ) /2 - ( 0.987 - 0.338 ) /2 * ( -3^0.5) - 3.000 /3

Trigonometric Solution
p
3
x
px
0.236
1.146
-8.000
12.000
-4.236
7.854

40.000

-b / 2 +
b2 /4
+
a3 / 27
( - -1.000 / 2 + SQRT ( -1.000^2 /4 + -1.000^3 /27 ) )^(1/3)

Y1
Y2
Y3

0.000
-4.000-3.000-2.000-1.000 0.000 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000
-10.000
-20.000
Figure 58-5 The cubic equation algebraic
solution.

-b / 2 b2 /4
+
a3 / 27
( - -1.000 / 2 - SQRT(-1.000^2 /4 + -1.000^3 /27 ) ) >= 0

i represents imaginary numbers


q
1
qx
1.236
-4.000
-3.236

r
-2
r
-1.000
-1.000
-1.000

sum = y
0
1.618
-1.000
-0.618

60.000
x1
x2
x3

0.618 !!! i
-2.000 !!! i
-1.618 !!! i

50.000
40.000

-2.000

1 / 3 * ( 3 * q - p2 )
1 / 3 * ( 3 * 1.0 - 3.0^2 )

-1.000

1 / 27 * ( 2 * p3 - 9 * p * q + 27 * r )
1 / 27 * ( 2 * 3.0^3 - 9 * 3.0 * 1.0 + 27 * -2.0 )

30.000
20.000

cos

0.919

-b/2 /
-a3 /27
- -1.000 /2 / SQRT( - ( -1.000^3 ) /27 )

arcos

0.406

X1

0.618

X2

-2.000

-2 *
-a/3
* cos( /3 - p /3)
- p /3
- 2 * ( - -1.000 /3 )^0.5 * COS( 0.406 /3 - PI/3) - 3.000 /3

X3

-1.618

-2 *

10.000

2*
-a/3
* cos( /3)
- p /3
2 * ( - -1.000 /3 )^0.5 * COS(0.406 /3 ) - 3.000 /3

-a/3

cos( /3

p /3 * 2/3)

Y
1
Y
2

0.000
-4.000 -3.000 -2.000 -1.000 0.000 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000

- p /3

-10.000
Figure 58-6
The cubic equation
trigonometric solution.

Page 58 - 6

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

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2 * ( - -1.000 /3 )^0.5 * COS( 0.406 /3+2 * PI * 2/3) - 3.000 /3

Page 58 - 7

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

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CUBIC EQUATION GRAPHING


For the equation x + px + qx + = 0 , the value of x crosses the Y-axis at y = 0.
The graph X-axis is calculated around the y = 0 value. Each X-axis and its
corresponding y values are a separate series in the same graph.
Left click on the graph and right click on the Source Data in the pop-up menu.
Left click on the Series tab to view the source data for each xy series.

Algebraic Solution
increment
0.1
X axis
-0.775
-0.675
-0.575
-0.475
-0.375
-0.275
-0.175
-0.075
0.025
0.125
0.225
0.325
0.425
0.525
0.625
0.725
0.825
0.925
1.025
1.125
1.225
1.325
1.425
1.525
1.625
1.725
1.825
1.925
2.025
2.125
2.225
2.325
2.425
2.525
2.625
2.725

Y
-1.213
-1.290
-1.348
-1.380
-1.381
-1.344
-1.264
-1.134
-0.949
-0.702
-0.388
0.000
0.467
1.020
1.664
2.406
3.251
4.205
5.276
6.467
7.786
9.239
10.831
12.568
14.457
16.504
18.714
21.093
23.648
26.385
29.308
32.426
35.743
39.265
42.999
46.950

0.1
X axis
-3.325
-3.225
-3.125
-3.025
-2.925
-2.825
-2.725
-2.625
-2.525
-2.425
-2.325
-2.225
-2.125
-2.025
-1.925
-1.825
-1.725
-1.625
-1.525
-1.425
-1.325
-1.225
-1.125
-1.025
-0.925
-0.825
-0.725
-0.625
-0.525
-0.425
-0.325
-0.225
-0.125
-0.025
0.075
0.175

Y
-11.238
-9.785
-8.466
-7.275
-6.205
-5.250
-4.405
-3.664
-3.019
-2.467
-2.000
-1.612
-1.298
-1.051
-0.866
-0.736
-0.656
-0.619
-0.620
-0.652
-0.710
-0.787
-0.877
-0.975
-1.075
-1.170
-1.254
-1.322
-1.368
-1.385
-1.367
-1.309
-1.205
-1.047
-0.832
-0.552

0.1
X axis
-2.200
-2.100
-2.000
-1.900
-1.800
-1.700
-1.600
-1.500
-1.400
-1.300
-1.200
-1.100
-1.000
-0.900
-0.800
-0.700
-0.600
-0.500
-0.400
-0.300
-0.200
-0.100
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.700
0.800
0.900
1.000
1.100
1.200
1.300

Y
-1.528
-1.231
-1.000
-0.829
-0.712
-0.643
-0.616
-0.625
-0.664
-0.727
-0.808
-0.901 where y = 0
-1.000
-1.099
-1.192
-1.273
-1.336
-1.375
-1.384
-1.357
-1.288
-1.171
-1.000
-0.769
-0.472
-0.103
0.344
0.875
1.495
2.212
3.031
3.958
4.999
6.160
7.447
8.866

Trigonometric Solution
0.1
X axis
-0.482
-0.382
-0.282
-0.182
-0.082
0.018
0.118
0.218
0.318
0.418
0.518
0.618
0.718
0.818
0.918
1.018
1.118
1.218
1.318
1.418
1.518
1.618
1.718
1.818
1.918
2.018
2.118
2.218
2.318
2.418
2.518
2.618
2.718
2.818
2.918
3.018

Y
-1.897
-2.000
-2.066
-2.089
-2.062
-1.981
-1.839
-1.629
-1.346
-0.985
-0.538
0.000
0.635
1.373
2.220
3.182
4.266
5.476
6.819
8.302
9.930
11.708
13.644
15.743
18.011
20.454
23.078
25.889
28.893
32.097
35.505
39.125
42.961
47.021
51.310
55.833

0.1
X axis
-3.100
-3.000
-2.900
-2.800
-2.700
-2.600
-2.500
-2.400
-2.300
-2.200
-2.100
-2.000
-1.900
-1.800
-1.700
-1.600
-1.500
-1.400
-1.300
-1.200
-1.100
-1.000
-0.900
-0.800
-0.700
-0.600
-0.500
-0.400
-0.300
-0.200
-0.100
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400

0.1
Y
-6.061
-5.000
-4.059
-3.232
-2.513
-1.896
-1.375
-0.944
-0.597
-0.328
-0.131
0.000
0.071
0.088
0.057
-0.016
-0.125
-0.264
-0.427
-0.608
-0.801
-1.000
-1.199
-1.392
-1.573
-1.736
-1.875
-1.984
-2.057
-2.088
-2.071
-2.000
-1.869
-1.672
-1.403
-1.056

X axis
-2.718
-2.618
-2.518
-2.418
-2.318
-2.218
-2.118
-2.018
-1.918
-1.818
-1.718
-1.618
-1.518
-1.418
-1.318
-1.218
-1.118
-1.018
-0.918
-0.818
-0.718
-0.618
-0.518
-0.418
-0.318
-0.218
-0.118
-0.018
0.082
0.182
0.282
0.382
0.482
0.582
0.682
0.782

Page 58 - 8

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

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Page 58 - 9

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

58

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Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
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THE SHOOTING METHOD


Algebraic Solution
p
q
4
2
x
px
qx
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
a.
b.
flag 1
flag 2
flag 3

-3.333
1.074

323279413.xls
E

i represents imaginary numbers


r
-1
r
-1.000
-1.000
-1.000

sum = y
=Y
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502

3
3
4
-3
1

2
12
2
3
-1

-1
-6
-1
-1
-1

increment
x1
0.3

y1

x2
0.3

y2

x3
0.3

-2.997
-2.697
-2.397
-2.097
-1.797
-1.497
-1.197
-0.897
-0.597
-0.297
0.003
0.303
0.603
0.903
1.203
1.503
1.803
2.103
2.403
2.703
3.003
3.303
3.603
3.903
4.203
4.503
4.803
5.103
5.403
5.703
6.003
6.303
6.603
6.903
7.203
7.503

2.014
3.083
3.416
3.175
2.521
1.616
0.623
-0.297
-0.981
-1.267
-0.994
0.000
1.878
4.801
8.932
14.433
21.465
30.190
40.771
53.369
68.147
85.267
104.890
127.178
152.294
180.399
211.656
246.227
284.272
325.956
371.439
420.883
474.451
532.304
594.605
661.516

-6.603
-6.303
-6.003
-5.703
-5.403
-5.103
-4.803
-4.503
-4.203
-3.903
-3.603
-3.303
-3.003
-2.703
-2.403
-2.103
-1.803
-1.503
-1.203
-0.903
-0.603
-0.303
-0.003
0.297
0.597
0.897
1.197
1.497
1.797
2.097
2.397
2.697
2.997
3.297
3.597
3.897

###
###
-85.172
-67.783
-52.753
-39.920
-29.123
-20.199
-12.987
-7.325
-3.050
0.000
1.986
3.071
3.416
3.183
2.535
1.634
0.641
-0.281
-0.971
-1.267
-1.006
-0.026
1.834
4.737
8.844
14.317
21.320
30.012
40.557
53.117
67.853
84.928
104.503
126.740

-4.300
-4.000
-3.700
-3.400
-3.100
-2.800
-2.500
-2.200
-1.900
-1.600
-1.300
-1.000
-0.700
-0.400
-0.100
0.200
0.500
0.800
1.100
1.400
1.700
2.000
2.300
2.600
2.900
3.200
3.500
3.800
4.100
4.400
4.700
5.000
5.300
5.600
5.900
6.200

convergance

OK

Err:502
Err:502
Err:502

1 real root, 2 imaginary


1 real root, 2 imaginary
3 real and unequal roots
3 real w/ atleast 2 equal
3 real w/ atleast 2 equal

1 / 3 * ( 3 * 2.0 - 4.0^2 )
1 / 27 * ( 2 * 4.0^3 - 9 * 4.0 * 2.0 + 27 * -1.0 )

0 logic
0 logic
3 logic

b /4 + a /27 > 0
b / 4+ a /27 = 0

b /4 + a /27 < 0

1 real root and 2 imaginary roots


3 real roots of which 2 at least are equal

3 real and unequal roots

[A].

Err:502

( - 1.074 / 2 + SQRT ( 1.074^2 /4 + -3.333^3 /27 ) )^(1/3)

logic

Err:502

( - 1.074 / 2 - SQRT(1.074^2 /4 + -3.333^3 /27 ) ) >= 0

B_eq

Err:502

ABS( - 1.074 / 2 - SQRT(1.074^2 /4 + -3.333^3 / 27) )^(1/3)

[B].

Err:502

X1
X2
X3

ISNUMBER
Err:502
0
Err:502
0
Err:502
0

Err:502
Err:502
Err:502
Err:502

Trigonometric Solution
p
q
4
2
x
px
qx
0.0277564 0.3666923 0.6055513
-36.02776 43.633308 -6.605551
-1
4
-2

r
sum = y
where y = 0
-1
0 daisy chained from algebraic
r
inputs above
-1 -1.44E-015
OK
-1 -8.88E-016
OK
-1
0
OK

a
b

-3.333
1.074

1 / 3 * ( 3 * 2.0 - 4.0^2 )
1 / 27 * ( 2 * 4.0^3 - 9 * 4.0 * 2.0 + 27 * -1.0 )

cos F
arcos F

-0.459
2.047

- 0.000 /2 / SQRT( - ( 0.000^3 ) /27 )

X1
X2
X3

ISNUMBER
0.303 0.3027756 2 * ( - 0.000 /3 )^0.5 * COS(2.047 /3 ) - 4.000 /3
-3.303 -3.302776 - 2 * ( - 0.000 /3 )^0.5 * COS( 2.047 /3 - PI/3) - 4.000 /3
-1.000
-1 2 * ( - 0.000 /3 )^0.5 * COS( 2.047 /3+2 * PI * 2/3) - 4.000 /3

The value of X is determined by where the line crosses the X-axis at Y = 0


The trigonometric solution is used for 3 real and unequal roots.
800.000
700.000
600.000
500.000
400.000
300.000
200.000
100.000
0.000
-8.000 -6.000 -4.000 -2.000 0.000
-100.000
-200.000

2.000

4.000

6.000

8.000 10.000

OK

600.000
500.000
400.000

Page 58 - 10

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

300.000

58

200.000
100.000
0.000
ENGINEERING with the SPREADSHEET
-8.000 -6.000
-4.000 -2.000
0.000
2.000 4.000
Copyright
2006 American
Society
of
Civil Engineers
-100.000
A

-200.000
Figure 58-7 The shooting method solution.

6.000

323279413.xls

8.000 10.000
F

Page 58 - 11

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

58

ENGINEERING with the SPREADSHEET


Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

323279413.xls

CURVE FITTING with EXCEL TRENDLINE


x
p
0.562
4
increment
0.03
x3
px2
0.232
0.012
0.215
0.262
0.018
0.275
0.292
0.025
0.341
0.322
0.033
0.415
0.352
0.044
0.496
0.382
0.056
0.584
0.412
0.070
0.679
0.442
0.086
0.781
0.472
0.105
0.891
0.502
0.127
1.008
0.532
0.151
1.132
Y intercept
0.562
0.178
1.263
0.592
0.207
1.402
0.622
0.241
1.548
0.652
0.277
1.700
0.682
0.317
1.860
0.712
0.361
2.028
0.742
0.409
2.202
0.772
0.460
2.384
0.802
0.516
2.573
0.832
0.576
2.769
0.862
0.641
2.972
0.892
0.710
3.183
0.922
0.784
3.400
0.952
0.863
3.625
0.982
0.947
3.857
1.012
1.036
4.097
1.042
1.131
4.343
1.072
1.232
4.597
1.102
1.338
4.858
1.132
1.451
5.126
1.162
1.569
5.401
1.192
1.694
5.683
1.222
1.825
5.973
1.252
1.963
6.270
1.282
2.107
6.574
10.000
8.000

q
1
qx
0.232
0.262
0.292
0.322
0.352
0.382
0.412
0.442
0.472
0.502
0.532
0.562
0.592
0.622
0.652
0.682
0.712
0.742
0.772
0.802
0.832
0.862
0.892
0.922
0.952
0.982
1.012
1.042
1.072
1.102
1.132
1.162
1.192
1.222
1.252
1.282

r
-2
r
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2

y graph
-1.540
-1.445
-1.342
-1.230
-1.109
-0.979
-0.839
-0.690
-0.532
-0.363
-0.185
0.003
0.201
0.410
0.630
0.860
1.101
1.353
1.616
1.891
2.177
2.475
2.784
3.106
3.440
3.786
4.145
4.516
4.901
5.298
5.708
6.132
6.569
7.020
7.485
7.963

y calculated
-1.540
-1.445
-1.342
-1.230
-1.109
-0.979
-0.839
-0.690
-0.532
-0.363
-0.185
0.003
0.201
0.410
0.630
0.860
1.101
1.353
1.616
1.891
2.177
2.475
2.784
3.106
3.440
3.786
4.145
4.516
4.901
5.298
5.708
6.132
6.569
7.020
7.485
7.963

f(x) = 1x^3 + 4x^2 + 1x - 2


R = 1

6.000
4.000

Plot
Polynomial (Plot)

2.000
0.000
0.000

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800

1.000

-2.000
-4.000
Figure 58-8 Using the Excel add trend function
to solve the equation This solution used the 3rd power.
linest
m
se
r2
F

m1
m2
m3
b
1.00
1.00
1.00
-2.00
2.37E-014 8.45E-015 1.4782E-014 4.94E-015
1.0000 2.10E-015 #N/A
#N/A
2.20E+031
32 #N/A
#N/A

1.200

1.400

Page 58 - 12

QUADRATIC and CUBIC EQUATIONS

58

ENGINEERING with the SPREADSHEET


Copyright 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers
A

ssreg

290.74466 1.41E-028 #N/A

323279413.xls
E

#N/A

Page 58 - 13
Christy
08:12
07/08/16

323279413.xls
N

#REF!

#REF!
4

4.5

5.5

line 1
line 2

#REF!

10

12

wo straight lines

row 60

row 70

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08:12
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N

row 80

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Christy
08:12
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323279413.xls
N

ax1 + bx1+ c
Polynomial (ax1 + bx1+
c)
ax2 + bx2 + c
mx + b

row 100

15.12
10.88
115.121
284.853
115.147

row 120

row 130

Column E row 140

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08:12
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N

row 150

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Christy
08:12
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323279413.xls
N

Y1
Y2
Y3

0 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000

row 170
c equation algebraic

row 180

Y
1
Y
2

1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000

Page 58 - 18
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N

row 220

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08:12
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N

row 230

Y
-2.635
-2.000
-1.462
-1.015
-0.654
-0.371
-0.161
-0.019
0.062
0.089
0.066
0.000
-0.103
-0.237
-0.396
-0.574
-0.766
-0.964
-1.163
-1.358
-1.542
-1.708
-1.852
-1.967
-2.047
-2.086
-2.078
-2.017
-1.897
-1.713
-1.457
-1.125
-0.709
-0.205
0.394
1.095

row 280

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08:12
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N

row 290

Page 58 - 21
Christy
08:12
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323279413.xls
N

1 real root, 2 imaginary


1 real root, 2 imaginary
3 real and unequal roots
3 real w/ atleast 2 equal
3 real w/ atleast 2 equal

y3

-15.147
-9.000
-4.293
-0.864
1.449
2.808
3.375
3.312
2.781
1.944
0.963
0.000
-0.783
-1.224
-1.161
-0.432
1.125
3.672
7.371
12.384
18.873
27.000
36.927
48.816
62.829
79.128
97.875
119.232
143.361
170.424
200.583
234.000
270.837
311.256
355.419
403.488
OK

Page 58 - 22
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08:12
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N

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08:12
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N

row 370

row 380

row 390

row 400

row 410

row 420

Page 58 - 24
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08:12
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N

row 430