ELECTRICAL MACHINES II
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
Regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF
methods
Regulation of three phase alternator by ZPF and ASA methods
Regulation of three phase salient pole alternator by slip test
Measurements of negative sequence and zero sequence
impedance of alternator
V and inverted V curves of three phase synchronous motor
Load test on three phase induction motor
No load and Blocked rotor test on three phase induction motor
Separation of No load losses of three phase induction motor
Load test on single phase induction motor
No load and Blocked rotor test on single phase induction motor
S.NO
CONTENTS
Name of the Experiment
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The aim of the experiment is to predetermine the regulation of three phase alternator by
EMF and MMF methods.
3 alternator
Dc shunt motor
Volts:
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
FUSE RATING:
125% of rated current (full load current)
For Dc shunt motor:
For Alternator:
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Ammeter
Ammeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Rheostat
Rheostat
Tachometer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
QUANTITY
(02)A
(010)A
(010)A
(010)A
(0600)V
(0150)V
370,1.5A
270,1.5A

MC
MC
MC
MI
MI
MI
Wire wound
Wire wound
Digital

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
As required
FORMULA USED:
EMF METHOD:
1. Armature resistance Ra = 1.6*Rdc
Rdc = Resistance in dc supply
2. Synchronous impedance Zs = Open circuit voltage(E1(ph))/ Short circuit current(Isc)
(From the graph)
3. Synchronous impedance Xs = (Zs2 Ra2)
4. Open Circuit voltage Eo = (Vrated Cos + IaRa) 2+ (Vrated sin + IaXs)2(For
lagging power factor)
5. Open circuit voltage Eo = Vrated + IaRa)2 + (IaXs)2 (For unity power factor)
6. Percentage regulation = EoVrated / Vrated *100
(For both EMF and MMF method)
THEORY:
EMF METHOD:
i)
ii)
Open circuit characteristics are plotted from the data obtained from the open
circuit test.
Short circuit characteristics are drawn from the data given by the short circuit test.
It is a straight line passing through the origin.
Consider a field current If. The open circuit voltage corresponding to this field current is
Eo. When winding short circuited the terminal voltage is zero. Hence it may be assumed
that the whole of this voltage Eo is being used to circulate the armature short circuit
current Ia against the synchronous impedance Zs,
Eo= IaZs
iii)
Knowing Ra and Xs, Vector diagram can be drawn for any load and any power
factor.
MMF METHOD:
This method also utilizes open and short circuit data and it is the converse of the emf
method in the sense, that armature leakage reactance is treated as an additional armature
reaction.
Now field ampere turn (AT) required to produce a voltage of V on full load is the
vector sum of the following.
i)
ii)
Field AT required to produce rated voltage V on no load. This can be found from
open circuit curve.
Field AT required to overcome the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction on
full load. This value is found from short circuit test. The field AT required to
produce full load current on short circuit balances the armature reaction and the
impedance drop.
The impedance drop can be neglected because Ra is usually very small and Xs is also
small. Under short circuit power factor is almost zero lagging and the field AT are used
entirely to overcome the armature reaction which is wholly demagnetizing. AT on full load
are equal and opposite to the field AT required to produce full load current on short circuit.
PRECAUTIONS:
i)
ii)
iii)
PROCEDURE:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
v)
vi)
Join the points O and A and find the field current (if) by measuring the distance
OA that gives the open circuit voltage (Eo) from the open circuit characteristics.
Find the percentage regulation by using suitable formula.
RESULT:
TABULAR COLUMN:
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
S.N
O
(amps)
(volts)
(Voph) (volts)
Armature Current
Armature Voltage(V)
Armature Resistance
(I) (amps)
(volts)
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1)
are called synchronous motors. Both these machines work at a specific constant speed called
synchronous speed and hence in general called synchronous machines.
2) Define voltage regulation. Name two methods used to determine voltage regulation
of alternators.
%Reg = EVrated / Vrated *100
Where E = No load voltage
Vrated = Rated voltage
Two methods to determine voltage regulation:
i)
EMF method
ii)
MMF method
3) What are the two types of alternators?
i)
Non salient pole alternator
ii)
Salient pole alternator.
4) State the principle of alternator.
When the rotor is rotated by the prime mover, the stator windings or
conductors are cut by the magnetic flux hence an emf is induced in the stator
conductors. (Faradays law of electromagnetic induction).
5) Is EMF method an accurate method?
No, it is not an accurate method because the value of synchronous
impedance found is always more than the original value.
6) Write the emf equation of an alternator.
E = 4.44f TKcKd volts
Where, f = frequency in hertz
= flux per pole
T = Number of turns in stator windings
Kc = Pitch factor
Kd = Distribution factor
7) What is known as Armature reaction?
The effect of armature flux on main flux is called as armature reaction.
8) What is meant by synchronous reactance?
Synchronous reactance Xs = Xl + Xa
Xl = leakage reactance
Xa = Armature reactance
9) Can a DC generator be converted into an alternator? How?
Yes, by providing two collector rings on end of the armature and connecting
these two rings to two points in the armature windings 180 degree apart.
10) What is the other name for EMF and MMF method?
The other name for EMF method is called as Synchronous impedance method
and MMF method is called as Ampere turn method.
EMF method Pessimistic method
MMF method Optimistic method
3 alternator
Dc shunt motor
Volts:
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
FUSE RATING:
125% of rated current (full load current)
For Dc shunt motor:
For Alternator:
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Ammeter
Ammeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Rheostat
Rheostat
Rheostat
Inductive load
Tachometer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
QUANTITY
(02)A
(010)A
(010)A
(010)A
(0600)V
(075)V
370,1.5A
270,1.5A
1000,1A
3 phase

MC
MC
MC
MI
MI
MC
Wire wound
Wire wound
Wire wound
Digital

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
As required
FORMULA USED:
1. Percentage regulation = Eo Vrated / Vrated *100
(For both ZPF and ASA method)
THEORY:
ZERO POWER FACTOR METHOD:
ZPF method is based on the separation of armature leakage reactance and armature
reaction effects. To determine armature leakage reactance and armature reaction mmf
separately, two tests are performed on the alternator. The two tests are
1. Open circuit test
10
PROCEDURE:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
11
Draw the open circuit characteristics curve (Generated voltage per phase Vs field
current).
Mark the point A at X axis, which is obtained from short circuit test with full load
armature current.
From the ZPF test, mark the point B for the field current to the corresponding rated
armature current and the rated voltage.
Draw the ZPF curve which is passing through the point A and B in such a way parallel
to the open circuit characteristic curve.
Draw the tangent for the OCC from the origin (Air gap line).
Draw the line BC from B towards Y axis which is parallel and equal to OA.
Draw the parallel line for the tangent from c to the OCC curve.
Join the point B and D also draws a perpendicular line DE to BC.
DE = Armature leakage reactance drop
BC=Armature reaction excitation
9. Extend the line BC towards the Y axis up to the point O. The same line intersects the air
gap line at point G.
10. Mark the point I in Y axis with the magnitude of Eair and draw the line from I towards
OCC curve which should be parallel to X axis. Let this line cut the air gap line at point H and
the OCC curve at point F.
11. Measure the length of OG, HF and OA
RESULT:
TABULAR COLUMN:
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
S.N
O
(amps)
(volts)
(Voph) (volts)
12
(amps)
(Isc) (amps)
Field
current (If)
(amps)
Rated
armature
current (Ia)
(amps)
Rated armature
Voltage (V)
(volts)
W1
Obs
Act
(watts)
W2
Obs
Act
(watts)
Total power
(W1+W2)
(watts)
Armature Current
Armature Voltage(V)
Armature Resistance
(I) (amps)
(volts)
13
VIVA OUESTIONS:
1. Why is the field system of an alternator made as a rotor?
The field system of an alternator is made rotating to avoid interaction of
mechanical and electrical stress. So with rotating field system, it is easier to collect
currents at very high voltages from stationary member. The insulation required is less;
the problem of sparking is avoided.
2. Define the terms distribution factor and pitch factor.
The factor by which there is a reduction in the emf due to distribution of coils is
called distribution factor, denoted by Kd.
The factor by which induced emf gets reduced due to short pitching of coil
is called pitch factor, denoted by Kc.
3. Potier method is also called Potier reactance method. Why?
14
S.no
1.
EMF METHOD
Regulation of alternator of any load
condition and power factor condition can be
determined.
2.
POTIER METHOD
Separate curves foe every load
condition are to be plotted if
regulation at various load condition is
required.
It is also called as Potier reactance
method.
MMF METHOD
This method which gives regulation lower
than actual, hence called optimistic method.
POTIER METHOD
The results obtained are nearer to
reality.
2.
Energy is wasted.
9. What are the different methods available to determine the voltage regulation of an
alternator?
1. Direct loading method
2. Synchronous Impedance method or EMF method
3. Ampere Turn method or MMF method
4. Zero Power Factor method or Potier method
5. ASA method
15
3 alternator
Dc shunt motor
Volts:
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
16
FUSE RATING:
125% of rated current (full load current)
For Dc shunt motor:
For Alternator:
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Rheostat
3 Auto transformer
Tachometer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
QUANTITY
(05) A
(05) A
(0150) V
(0150)V
300,1.5A
MI
MC
MI
MC
Wire wound
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
As required
FORMULA USED:
1. Armature Resistance Ra =1.6 *Rdc
2. Direct impedance per phase (Zd) = Vmin / Imax in
3. Quadrature axis impedance per phase (Zq) = Vmax / Imin in
4. Direct axis reactance per phase (Xd) = Zd2 Ra2 in
5. Quadrature axis reactance per phase (Xq) = Zq2 Ra2 in
6. Percentage Regulation = Eo Vrated / Vrated *100
7. Eo = Vtcos IqRa IdXd (Motoring)
8. Eo = Vtcos+ IqRa+IdXd (Generating)
9. =  (Generator)
10. = (Motor)
11. = tan 1 (Vtsin+ IaXq / Vtcos + IaRa)
+ For generating mode
 For Motoring mode
THEORY:
In non salient pole alternators air gap length is constant and reactance is also constant.
Due to this the mmfs of armature and field act upon the same magnetic circuit all the time
hence can be added vector ally. But in salient pole alternators the length of the air gap varies
and reluctance also varies. Hence the armature flux and field flux cannot vary sinusoid ally in
the air gap. So the reluctance of the magnetic circuit on which mmf act is different in case of
salient pole alternators. This can be explained by two reaction theory.
PRECAUTIONS:
17
Maximum
Voltage per
phase (Vmax)
(volts)
Direct axis
impedance per
phase (Zd)
(Ohms)
Direct axis
Reactance per
phase (Xd)
(Ohms)
MinimumVoltage
per phase (Vmin)
18
Quadrature
axisimpedance
Quadrature
axis Reactance
(volts)
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is meant by salient pole type rotor?
The rotor poles projecting out from the rotor core of large diameter but small
length. This is used in low and medium speed (engine driven alternator)
2. What is the necessity of damper winding?
Most of the alternators have the pole shoes slotted for receiving copper bars of a
grid or damper winding. They are useful in preventing the hunting in generators
and are needed in synchronous motors to provide the starting torque.
3. What is meant by Two Reaction theory?
The method of analysis of the distributing effects caused by salient pole
construction is called Two Reaction theory.
4. State Two Reaction theory.
The armature mmf can be divided into two components as
1. Component acting along the pole axis called direct axis (d)
2. Component acting along at right angles to the pole axis called quadrature axis
(q).
5. What is d axis and q axis?
The reluctance offered to the mmf wave is lowest when it is aligned with the
field pole axis. This axis is called direct axis of pole.
The reluctance offered is highest when the mmf wave is oriented at 90 to the
field pole axis which is called quadrature axis.
6. What is meant by magnetizing and cross magnetizing component?
19
The component along direct axis can be magnetizing and the component acting
along the quadrature axis is called cross magnetizing component.
7. What is called slip test?
The method used to determine Xd and Xq, the direct and quadrature axis
reactances is called slip test.
8. What is meant by power angle?
The angle between Eo and V is called the power angle.
2.
20
3 synchronous motor
Volts:
Dc Excitation
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
FUSE RATING:
125% of rated current (full load current)
For Dc excitation:
For Synchronous motor:
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
RANGE
21
TYPE
QUANTITY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Ammeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Wattmeter
Rheostat
Tachometer
3 Auto transformer
Connecting wires
(010) A
(02) A
(0600) V
500V,10 A
500,1.2 A
MI
MC
MI
Double element
Wire wound
Digital
415/(0470)V
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
As required
THEORY:
Synchronous motor is constant speed motor which are not self starting in nature, so
that we have to start this motor by any one of the following starting methods,
1. Pony motor method starting
2. Auto induction starting
3. DC exciter starting
4. Damper winding method of starting
By construction there is no difference between synchronous generator and
synchronous motor. It is capable of being operated under wide range of power factor,
hence it can be used for power factor correction.
The value of excitation for which back emf is equal to applied voltage is known as
1005 excitation. The other two possible excitations are over excitations and under
excitation if the back emf is more or less to the applied voltage respectively.
The variations of armature current with field current are in the form of V curves
and the variation of power factor with field current are in the form of Inverted V
curves.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The potential divider should be in the maximum position.
2. The motor should be started without any load.
3. Initially TPST switch is in open position.
PROCEDURE:
22
By varying the field rheostat note down the excitation current, armature current and
the power factor for various values of excitation.
23
RESULT:
TABULAR COLUMN:
Armature voltage:
Without load:
S.no
With load:
S.no
24
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Define V and Inverted V curves.
The magnitude of armature current varies with excitation. If graph of armature current
drawn by the motor against field current is plotted then we get V curves.
If the power factor is plotted against field current then the shape of the graph looks
like an inverted V and are called as Inverted v curves.
2. When Synchronous motor is is said to receive 100% excitation?
The value of excitation for which back emf is equal to the applied voltage is known
as 100% excitation or when the power factor of the synchronous motor is unity.
Eb=V
or cos =1
25
6. What is hunting?
When synchronous motor is on no load, the stator and rotor pole axis coincide with
each other. When motor is loaded, the rotor pole axis falls back with respect to stator.
If the load connected to motor is suddenly changed by a large amount , the rotor tries
to take its new equilibrium position. But due to inertia of rotor, it cannot achieve
equilibrium instantaneously while achieving new position, it passes beyond its final
position corresponding to new load. This will produce more torque than demanded.
So the load angle is reduced and rotor swings in other direction.
Such oscillations of the rotor about its new equilibrium position, due to sudden
application or removal of load is called hunting.
7. Mention some application of synchronous motor.
1. Constant speed load service
2. Reciprocating compressor drives
3. Power factor correction
4. Voltage regulation of transmission lines
8. What could be the reasons if a synchronous motor fails to start?
It is usually due to the following reasons
1. Voltage may be to low
2. Some faulty connections in auxiliary apparatus
3. Too much starting load
4. Open circuit in one phase or short circuit
5. Field excitation may be excessive.
26
9. A synchronous motor starts as usual but fails to develop its full torque. What could be
due to?
1. Exciter voltage may be too low
2. Field spool may be reversal
3. There may be either open or short circuit in the field
10. What are the various methods of starting synchronous motor?
1. Pony motor method starting
2. Auto induction starting
3. DC exciter starting
4. Damper winding method of starting
11. What significant characteristic of a synchronous motor is revealed by its Vcurves?
The V curves of synchronous motor reveals the fact that its power factor is
controllable by means of its excitation.
27
3 Induction motor
Volts:
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
FUSE RATING:
125% of rated current (full load current)
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Wattmeter
Tachometer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
(010) A
(0600) V
600V,10 A
MI
MI
UPF
Digital
28
QUANTITY
1
1
2
1
As required
FORMULA USED:
1. Torque T =(S1~S2) (R+t/2)*9.81 NM
Where S1, S2 = Spring balance readings in Kg
R = Radius of the brake drum in m, t = Thickness of the belt in m
2. Input power = (W1+W2 )watts
W1, W2 = wattmeter readings in watts
3. Output Power = 2NT / 60 watts
N = Rotor speed in RPM
T = Torque in NM
4. Percentage efficiency = ( Output power/Input power ) *100
5. Percentage slip = (NsN)/Ns *100
Ns = synchronous speed in rpm
N = speed of the motor in rpm
6. Power factor = (W1+W2 )/3VLIL
THEORY:
Induction motor is a machine which converts AC electrical energy into mechanical energy.
In this motor the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction but by induction in
exactly as the secondary of 2 winding transformer receives its power from the secondary.
That is why such motors are known as rotating transformer. When you give three phase
supply to the three phase stator winding then it is called as three phase induction motor.
The effect of applying load on the speed, slip, stator current, power factor, efficiency
and torque are discussed below:
EFFECT ON SPEED:
When the induction motor is on no load the speed is slightly below the synchronous speed.
The current due to induced emf in the rotor is responsible for torque production required at no
load, as the load is increased the rotor speed is slightly reduced. The emf induced in the rotor
and hence the current increases to produce higher torque required until the torque is equal to
the torque required by the load on the motor.
EFFECT ON SLIP:
29
Synchronous speed depends upon of frequency stator supply voltage and number of poles
for which that motor winding is made. Therefore if poles and frequency are constant,
synchronous speed is constant. Thus with increase in load on the motor, rotor speed
decreases, slip will increase.
%slip = (Ns N /Ns) *100
EFFECT ON STATOR CURRENT:
Current drawn by the stator is determined by two factors. One component is the
magnetizing current required to maintain the rotating field. The second component produces a
field which is equal and opposites to that formed by the rotor currents. The rotor current
increases with loads, the stator current will also therefore increases with load.
Power factor of an induction motor on no load is very low because of the high value of
magnetizing current. With load the power factor increases because the power component of
the current is increased.
EFFECT ON TORQUE:
The torque will increases with increase in loads, with increase in output.\
APPLICATIONS:
1. Squirrel cage induction motor having moderate starting torque and constant speed
characteristics preferred for driving fans, blowers, water pumps, grinders, lathe machine,
printing machines and drilling machines.
2. Slip ring induction motors can have high starting torque as high as maximum torque. Hence
they are preferred for lifts, hoists, elevators, cranes, compressors.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The motor should be started without any load.
2. The supply should not be switched OFF before the motor is unloaded.
3. While running on load, the brake drum is cooled by pouring cold water.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The TPSTS is closed and the motor is started using on line starter to run at rated
speed.
3. At no load, the speed, current, voltage and power are noted down.
4. By applying the load gradually with the help of spring balance and brake drum
arrangement, the speed, current, power and spring balance readings are noted for
various loads up to the rated current.
30
5. The load is released late and the motor is switched off and the graph is drawn.
GRAPH:
1. Output Power Vs Speed
2. Output Power Vs Line current
3. Output Power Vs torque
4. Output Power Vs Power factor
5. Output Power Vs Efficiency
6. Output Power Vs %Slip
RESULT:
TABULAR COLUMN:
Radius of the Brake Drum:
Multiplication Factor:
31
S.no
IL
VL
W1
W2
W1 +W2
(A)
(V)
(Watts)
(Watts)
rpm
S1
S2
Kg Kg
S1~S2
Kg
Nm
O/P
Power
(Watts)
PF
Cos
IL = Load current
VL = Load Voltage
W1, W2 = Wattmeter readings
W1 + W2 = Input power
S1, S2 = Spring balance readings
T = Torque
= Efficiency
S = Slip
PF = Power factor
VIVA OUESTIONS:
1. What is the function of slip rings and brush assembly in three phase induction motor?
Slip rings are used to connect external stationary circuit to the internal rotating
circuit. Hence in induction motor, the external resistances can be added with the help
of brushes and slip ring arrangement in series with each phase of rotor winding.
2. List the difference between squirrel cage rotor and slip ring rotor
S.no
32
1.
2.
33
Mark:
Date:
Remark:
AIM:
34
The aim of the experiment is to conduct the no load and blocked rotor test on three
phase squirrel cage induction motor and to draw the equivalent circuit and also to
predetermine the performance using circle diagram.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
3 Induction motor
Volts:
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
FUSE RATING:
Load: 125% of rated current (full load current)
No Load: 10% of rated current (full load current)
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Wattmeter
Wattmeter
Tachometer
3 Auto transformer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
(010) A
(010) A
(0600) V
(0150) V
(075) V
600V,10 A
150V, 10 A
415/(0470) V
MI
MC
MI
MI
MC
LPF
UPF
Digital
FORMULA USED:
NO LOAD TEST:
35
QUANTITY
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
As required
THEORY:
An induction motor is simply an electric transformer whose magnetic circuit is separated
by an air gap into two relatively movable portions, one carrying the primary and the other the
secondary winding. Alternating current supplied to the primary winding induces an opposing
current in the secondary winding, when later is short circuited or closed through an external
impedance. Relative motion between the primary and secondary ie, stator and rotor is
36
produced by the electromagnetic forces corresponding to the power thus transferred across
the air gap by induction.
NO LOAD TEST OR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
No load test is performed to determine the no load current, no load power factor, wind
age and friction losses, no load input and no load resistance and reactance.
Since there is no power output on no load, the power supplied to the stator furnishes its
core loss and the friction and wind age losses in the rotor.
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST OR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:
It is also known as locked rotor or short circuit test. This test is used to find the short circuit
current with normal voltage applied to stator, power factor on short circuit, total leakage reactance and
resistance of the motor as referred to stator and full load copper loss.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The auto transformer should be kept at minimum voltage position.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For no load test by adjusting autotransformer apply rated voltage and note down the ammeter,
voltmeter and wattmeter readings. In this test the rotor is free to rotate.
3. For blocked rotor test by adjusting autotransformer apply rated current and note down the
ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings. In this test the rotor is blocked.
4. After that make the connections to measure the stator resistance as per the circuit diagram.
5. By adding the load through the loading rheostat note down the ammeter, voltmeter readings
for various values of load.
PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE CIRCLE DIAGRAM:
By using the data obtained from the no load test and the blocked test, the circle diagram can be
drawn using the following steps.
1. Draw the line by taking the current in X axis, voltage in Y axis.
2. From the no load test find out the current Io and draw the vector OA with the magnitude of Io
from the origin by suitable current scale, which lags behind the voltage by an angle o
o = Cos1(Wo / 3VoIo)
37
3. From the current Isc find out ISN (short circuit current corresponding to the normal voltage)
through the formula ISN = Isc (V/Vsc). draw the OB vector with the magnitude of ISN from the
origin by the same current scale , which lags the voltage V by an angle sc where
sc = Cos1(Wsc / 3VscIsc)
4. Join the points B and A to get the output line.
5. Draw the parallel line for the X axis from point A and for the Y axis from point B upto the X
axis (point E) let both the lines intersects at point d.
6. Then draw the bisector for the output line and extend it to the line AD, let the point of
intersection be C.
7. By keeping the point C as centre draw a semicircle with the radius CA
8. Let EB be the line of total loss (ED (constant loss) +DB(variable loss))
9. In the line DB locate the point G to separate the stator and rotor copper losses
Rotor Cu loss/Stator Cu loss = Wsc3Isc2 R1/ 3Isc2 R1
Where R1 = stator resistance in ohm
Variable loss = Stator Cu loss + Rotor Cu loss
10. To get the torque lines join the points A and G.
38
18. Join the points J and C and extend the same up to X axis. The point at where the line meets
the input line is named as J'.
19. Here the JJ will be the maximum input power.
20. From the circle diagram find maximum input power, maximum torque, maximum output
power, rotor Cu loss, stator Cu loss and slip.
To find the total input power on short circuit with normal voltage P SN by following
formula,
PSN = Wsc (Vrated / Vsc) 2 and value of line BE equal to PSN, so power for 1 cm is equal to
ratio between PSN and length of EB in cm.
TO FIND OUT THE FULL LOAD QUANTITIES:
21. Extend the line EB from B to K such that
BK = Output power (from the name plate details of motor) / Power scale.
22. Draw the parallel line to output line AB, which cuts the semicircle at point L. (near by Y axis)
23. Draw the parallel line for Y axis from point L to X axis (point Q). Then join O and L.
PROCEDURE TO FIND OUT THE FULL LOAD AND MAXIMUM QUANTITIES FROM
THE CIRCLE DIAGRAM:
RESULT:
TABULAR COLUMN:
NO LOAD TEST:
Speed of the induction motor:
40
Multiplication Factor:
S.no
No load current
(Io)
No load Power
W1
W2
(Amps)
(Volts)
(Watts)
Total No
load Power
W1+W2
(Watts)
Total Power
W1+W2
(Watts)
Short circuit
current (Isc)
(Amps)
Armature Current
Armature Voltage(V)
Armature Resistance
(I) (amps)
(volts)
41
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Enumerate the possible reasons if a three phase motor fails to start?
1. One or more fuses may be blown
2. Voltage may be too low
3. The starting load may be too heavy
4. Worn bearings due to which the armature may be touching field laminae, thus
introducing excessive friction.
2. What happens if single phasing occurs when the motor is running? And when it is
stationary?
42
1.
If already running and carrying half load or less, the motor will continue
running as a single phase motor on the remaining single phase supply,
without damage because half loads do not blow normal fuses.
2. If motor is very heavily loaded, then it will stop under single phasing and
since it can neither restart nor blow out the remaining fuses, the burn out prompt.
A stationary motor will not start with one line broken. In fact due to heavy
standstill current, it is likely to burn out quickly unless immediately
disconnected.
3. What is meant by plugging?
Plugging means stopping a motor by instantaneously reversing it till it stops.
4. What are the starters used in three phase induction motor?
1. Primary resistance starter
2. Auto transformer starter
3. Direct on line starter
4. Star Delta starter
5. Rotor resistance starter
5. What are the different methods of speed control of three phase induction motor?
1. Control from stator side:
i)
ii)
iii)
ii)
iii)
The rotor of a squirrel cage induction motor sometimes refuses to start at all, particularly
when the voltage is low. This happens when the number of stator teeth is equal to the number
of rotor teeth and is due to the magnetic locking between the stator and rotor teeth. That is
why this phenomenon is also called as teeth locking.
8. What are the advantages of skewing?
1. It reduces magnetic humming.
2. It helps in reducing the locking tendency of the rotor. ie, the
tendency of the rotor teeth to remain under the stator teeth due to
the magnetic attraction between the two.
9. What is jogging?
Jogging means inching a motor ie, make it to move a little at a time by constant starting and
stopping.
10. What are the indications of winding faults in an induction motor?
1. Excessive and unbalanced starting currents
2. Some peculiar noises and
3. Over heating
Mark:
Date:
Remark:
AIM:
The aim of the experiment is to separate the no load losses in three phase squirrel cage
induction motor as core loss and mechanical loss.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
44
3 Induction motor
Volts:
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
FUSE RATING:
Load: 10% of rated current (full load current)
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.N
O
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Wattmeter
Tachometer
3 Auto transformer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
(010) A
(010) A
(0600) V
(075) V
600V,10 A
415/(0470) V
MI
MC
MI
MC
LPF
Digital
QUANTITY
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
As required
FORMULA USED:
1. Input Power W = (W1 + W2) watts
2. Stator cu loss = 3Io2Ra watts
3. Constant loss / phase Wc = (W  3Io2Ra )/3 watts
4. Core loss/phase Wi = Constant loss/phase Mechanical loss
Here the mechanical loss Wm will be the distance from the origin to the point at
where the constant loss/phase Vs voltage curve cuts the y axis.
THEORY:
45
The no load losses are the constant losses which include core loss and friction and
windage loss. The separation between the two can be carried out by the no load test
conducted from variable voltage, rated frequency supply.
When the voltage is decreased below the rated value, the core loss reduces as nearly
square of voltage. The slip does not increase significantly the friction and windage loss
almost remains constant.
The voltage is continuously decreased, till the machine slip suddenly begins to increase
and the motor tends to stall. At no load this takes place at a sufficiently reduced voltage. The
graph showing no load losses versus voltage is extrapolated to V =0 which gives friction and
windage loss as iron or core loss is zero at zero voltage.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The auto transformer should be kept at minimum voltage position.
2. The motor should not be loaded throughout the experiment.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. By giving the three phase supply through the autotransformer, start the motor.
3. The auto transformer should be varied till the motor attains its rated speed and no
voltage and current.
4. Repeat the same procedure for some more low values of the voltage and tabulate the
readings.
5. Find the stator copper loss and constant loss by respective formula.
6. Draw the suitable graph to find the mechanical loss.
7. Obtain the core loss by separating the mechanical loss from the constant loss.
8. To measure the stator resistance, connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
9. By adding the load through the loading rheostat note down the ammeter, voltmeter
readings for various values of load.
GRAPH:
The graph drawn between constant loss and input voltage.
46
RESULT:
TABULAR COLUMN:
NO LOAD TEST:
Speed of the induction motor:
Multiplication Factor:
S.no
(Io)
(Vo)
(Amps)
(Volts)
W1
W2
(Watts)
47
W1+W2
Stator
Cu loss
(Watts)
(Watts)
Constan
t loss per
phase
(Watts)
Core
loss per
phase
(Watts)
Io = No load Current
Vo = No load voltage
W1, W2 = Wattmeter readings
W1 + W2 = Total no load input power
ARMATURE RESISTANCE Ra:
S.N
O
Armature Current
Armature Voltage(V)
Armature Resistance
(I) (amps)
(volts)
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Mention the losses that occur in induction motor.
1. Stator losses
i)
ii)
48
3. In which type of induction motor can resistance be introduced in the rotor circuit?
In slip ring induction motor the resistance can be introduced in the rotor circuit.
4. The squirrel cage rotor is also known as short circuited rotor. Why?
In squirrel cage rotor, the copper bars are placed in the slots. These bars are short
circuited at each end with the help of conducting copper ring called end ring. The
entire rotor resistance is very small. Hence this rotor is also called as short circuited
rotor.
5. Why air gap length is minimum in an induction motor?
The air gap length is kept minimum in induction motor
i)
ii)
6. Define operating torque, starting torque and breakdown torque. Which of these is the
largest?
Operating Torque: Torque from light load to full load
Starting Torque: Torque at start ie, speed = 0 or slip = 1
Breakdown Torque: Maximum torque that motor can develop.
If loaded beyond this torque the motor will decelerate and come to standstill.
Breakdown torque is the largest among these for normal induction motor.
7. Why do induction motor runs at low power factor when lightly loaded?
At no load an induction motor draws large magnetizing current to create flux in the
air gap. This current has very low power factor of the order 0.2 lag. The power is
mainly drawn to provide for core loss. As the motor is loaded, it draws a load
component of current with much higher power factor. Therefore the power factor of
the net current drawn from main increases with load. It rises to 0.8  0.85 at full load.
At light load the power factor will be slightly more than that at no load.
8. Why an induction motor is not operated under conditions of maximum load?
Maximum power output condition corresponds to matching of the load resistance in
the circuit model to the circuit impedance as seen by the load resistance. This
condition corresponds to much larger than the normal operating slip and hence larger
current than the full load value. As copper loss is proportional to square of motor
current, the motor efficiency under condition of maximum power output is well below
50% which is unacceptable for a power device. Acceptable efficiencies are about 85%
or higher.
49
Mark:
Date:
Remark:
AIM:
The aim of the experiment is to conduct the load test on single phase induction motor
and to draw the performance characteristics.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
1 Induction motor
Volts:
Amps:
50
KVA:
RPM:
FUSE RATING:
125% of rated current (full load current)
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Wattmeter
Tachometer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
(010) A
(0300) V
300V,10 A
MI
MI
UPF
Digital
QUANTITY
1
1
2
1
As required
FORMULA USED:
1. Torque T =(S1~S2) (R+t/2)*9.81 NM
Where S1, S2 = Spring balance readings in Kg
R = Radius of the brake drum in m, t = Thickness of the belt in m
2. Input power = (W) watts
3. Output Power = 2NT / 60 watts
N = Rotor speed in RPM
T = Torque in NM
4. Percentage efficiency = ( Output power/Input power ) *100
5. Percentage slip = (NsN)/Ns *100
Ns = synchronous speed in rpm
51
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The motor should be started without any load.
2. The supply should not be switched OFF before the motor is unloaded.
3. While running on load, the brake drum is cooled by pouring cold water.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The TPSTS is closed and the motor is started using on line starter to run at rated
speed.
3. At no load, the speed, current, voltage and power are noted down.
52
4. By applying the load gradually with the help of spring balance and brake drum
arrangement, the speed, current, power and spring balance readings are noted for
various loads up to the rated current.
5. The load is released late and the motor is switched off and the graph is drawn.
GRAPH:
1. Output Power Vs Speed
2. Output Power Vs Line current
3. Output Power Vs torque
4. Output Power Vs Power factor
5. Output Power Vs Efficiency
6. Output Power Vs %Slip
RESULT:
TABULAR COLUMN:
Radius of the Brake Drum:
Multiplication Factor:
IL
VL
W1
W2
W1 +W2
(A)
(V)
(Watts)
(Watts)
rpm
S1
S2
Kg Kg
53
S1~S2
Kg
Nm
O/P
Power
(Watts)
PF
Cos
IL = Load current
VL = Load Voltage
W1, W2 = Wattmeter readings
W1 + W2 = Input power
S1, S2 = Spring balance readings
T = Torque
= Efficiency
S = Slip
PF = Power factor
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. A single phase induction motor is not self starting. Why?
When a single phase supply is connected across a single phase winding, a pulsating
magnetic field is produced. The force experienced by the upper conductors of the
rotor will be downward and the force experienced by the lower conductors will be
directed upward. The two sets of force will cancel and the rotor will experience no
torque. Hence the rotor will not rotate.
2. What is the rating of single phase machines? State its applications.
The rating of the single phase machine is from 1/8 to hp range. They are
widely used for fans, washing machines, refrigerators, blowers, centrifugal pumps
etc.
3. How will you change the direction of rotation of a split phase induction motor?
The direction of rotation of a split phase induction motor can be changed by
changing the direction of current either in the starting winding or in the running
winding.
4. What type of motor is used for ceiling fans?
Permanent magnet capacitor motor is used for ceiling fans.
54
55
Mark:
Date:
Remark:
AIM:
The aim of the experiment is to conduct the no load and blocked rotor test on single
phase induction motor and to draw the equivalent circuit.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
1 Induction motor
Volts:
Amps:
KVA:
RPM:
56
FUSE RATING:
Load: 125% of rated current (full load current)
No Load: 10% of rated current (full load current)
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
NAME OF THE
APPARATUS
Ammeter
Ammeter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Wattmeter
Wattmeter
Tachometer
1 Auto transformer
Connecting wires
RANGE
TYPE
(010) A
(010) A
(010) A
(0300) V
(0150) V
(075) V
300V,10 A
150V, 10 A
230/(0270) V
MI
MC
MI
MI
MI
MC
LPF
UPF
Digital
FORMULA USED:
NO LOAD TEST:
57
QUANTITY
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
As required
THEORY:
The equivalent circuit of a single phase induction motor can be developed by using
double field revolving theory. By using the equivalent circuit the performance of the single
phase induction motor can be obtained.
The single phase induction motor can be visualized to be made of single stator
winding and two imaginary rotors. The developing torques of the induction motor is forward
torque and backward torque.
When the single phase induction motor is running in the direction of forward
revolving field at a slip S, then the rotor currents induced by the forward field has frequency
sf. The rotor mmf rotates at slip speed with respect to the rotor but at synchronous speed with
respect to the stator. The resultant forward stator flux and the rotor flux produce a forward air
gap flux. This flux induces the voltage in rotor. Thus due to the forward flux, the rotor circuit
referred to stator has an impedance of R2 /2s + jX2/2.
The backward flux induces a current in the rotor at a frequency (2s)f. the
corresponding rotor mmf rotates in the air gap at synchronous speed in the backward
direction. The resultant backward stator flux and the rotor flux produce a backward air gap
flux. This flux induces the voltage in rotor. Thus due to backward flux the rotor circuit
reffered to stator has an impedance of
R2/2(2s )+ jX2/2
NO LOAD TEST OR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
58
No load test is performed to determine the no load current, no load power factor, wind
age and friction losses, no load input and no load resistance and reactance.
Since there is no power output on no load, the power supplied to the stator furnishes its
core loss and the friction and wind age losses in the rotor.
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST OR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:
It is also known as locked rotor or short circuit test. This test is used to find the short circuit
current with normal voltage applied to stator, power factor on short circuit, total leakage reactance and
resistance of the motor as referred to stator and full load copper loss.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The auto transformer should be kept at minimum voltage position.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For no load test by adjusting autotransformer apply rated voltage and note down the ammeter,
voltmeter and wattmeter readings. In this test the rotor is free to rotate.
3. For blocked rotor test by adjusting autotransformer apply rated current and note down the
ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings. In this test the rotor is blocked.
4. After that make the connections to measure the stator resistance as per the circuit diagram.
5. By adding the load through the loading rheostat note down the ammeter, voltmeter readings
for various values of load.
RESULT:
59
TABULAR COLUMN:
NO LOAD TEST:
Speed of the induction motor:
Multiplication Factor:
S.no
No load current
(Io)
No load Power
W1
W2
(Amps)
(Volts)
(Watts)
Total No
load Power
W1+W2
(Watts)
Total Power
W1+W2
(Watts)
Short circuit
current (Isc)
(Amps)
60
Armature Current
Armature Voltage(V)
Armature Resistance
(I) (amps)
(volts)
61
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the function of capacitor in a single phase induction motor?
Capacitor is used to improve the power factor of the motor. Due to the capacitor
connected in series with the auxiliary winding, the capacitive circuit draws a leading
current which increases the split phase angle between the two current I m and Ist.
2. Define double field revolving theory.
According to this theory, any alternating quantity can be resolved into two rotating
components which rotates in opposite directions and each having magnitude as half of
the maximum magnitude of the alternating quantity.
3. What are the classifications of single phase induction motor based on the method of
starting?
1. Split phase motor
2. Capacitor start motor
3. Capacitor run motor
4. Capacitor start Capacitor run motor
5. Shaded pole motor
4. What design features are incorporated in a split phase motor to make it starting?
The split phase motor is provided with windings, main winding and auxiliary
winding. These two windings are excited from the same voltage. The currents in the
two windings can be made out of phase by adjustment of the impedance of the
auxiliary winding in relation to the main winding. As a result the mmf of main
winding and mmf of auxiliary winding constitute an unbalanced field set with 900
electrical space phase relationship. The two symmetrical components now being
unequal the forward rotating field is made stronger than the backward rotating field,
which results in the net production of starting torque. Thus the two windings with
phase difference make the split phase motor self starting.
62
5. What is the advantage of a capacitor start motor over a resistance split phase motor?
In case of capacitor start, it is possible to have the phase angle between the two
currents. Therefore this type of motor has high starting torque as compared to
resistance split phase motor and used for heavy loads such as compressors, conveyors,
pumps, certain machine tools, refrigerators and air conditioning equipment.
6. In which direction does a shaded pole motor runs?
It runs from the unshaded to the shaded part.
7. Give the function performed by induction motor starter.
1. To improve the starting torque
2. To limit the initial in rush of current during starting conditions, which would
otherwise produce larger line voltage drop affecting equipments connected to
the same line.
8. What do you mean by synchronous condenser?
A single machine which is available to convert ac to dc is known as synchronous
converter or rotary converter. A synchronous converter combines the function of a
synchronous motor and a dc generator.
9. What type of motor is used in computer drives and wet grinders?
For computer drives Permanent magnet dc motors
Wet grinders Universal motor
10. What is the difference between the dc motors and single phase induction motor?
An important difference between the two is that the dc motors are self starting
while single phase induction motors are not self starting.
63