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Blood-Type

Genetics

Blood Cell Antigens


Blood types are the result of the
presence (or absence) of antigens
(molecules) on the surface of the
individuals red blood cells. These fall
into two groups:

A, B, O blood type
Rh factor

Codominance
The gene for antigen A and the gene
for antigen B are CODOMINANT.
Both traits are expressed completely
when the gene for A is inherited from
one parent and the gene for B is
inherited from the other parent.

Bloodtype antigens and


antibodies

A, B, O Inheritance
Allele from
Parent 1

Allele from
Parent 2

Childs
genotype

Childs
phenotype

AA

AO

AB

AB

AB

AB

BB

BO

OO

Blood Type Problem


Three children recently born in a hospital were
accidently mixed up. The blood types of the parents
involved are given along with the blood types of the
infants. Determine which baby belongs with which
parents, and explain your reasoning for the decisions
you made.
Mother and Father_____ _____Babies_______
Parents #1 Type A & Type B Child x
Type A
Parents #2 Type O & Type AB
Child y
Type O
Parents #3 Type B & Type O Child z
Type AB

Rh Inheritance
Rh inheritance is independent of A, B, O
blood type.
Rh factor
Rh+

Possible genotypes
Rh+/Rh+

RhParent 1
Rh allele

OR Rh+/RhRh-/Rh-

Parent 2
Childs
Rh allele phenotype

Rh+

Rh+

Rh+

Rh-

Rh+

Rh+

Rh-

Rh-

Rh-

ABO and Rh blood type distribution by nation (population averages)


Country
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Hong Kong,
China
Ireland
South
Korea
Netherland
s
New
Zealand
Norway
Poland
Sweden
Turkey
UK
USA

O+
40%
30%
38.1%
39%
35%
27%
36%
35%

A+
31%
33%
34%
36%
37%
38%
37%
37%

B+
8%
12%
8.5%
7.6%
8%
15%
9%
9%

AB+
2%
6%
4.1%
2.5%
4%
7%
3%
4%

O
9%
7%
7%
7%
6%
4%
6%
6%

A
7%
8%
6%
6%
7%
6%
7%
6%

B
2%
3%
1.5%
1.4%
2%
2%
1%
2%

AB
1%
1%
0.8%
0.5%
1%
1%
1%
1%

40%

26%

27%

7%

<0.3%

<0.3%

<0.3%

<0.3%

47%

26%

9%

2%

8%

5%

2%

1%

35.2%

28.1%

26.1%

11.3%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.05%

39.5%

35%

6.7%

2.5%

7.5%

7%

1.3%

0.5%

38%

32%

9%

3%

9%

6%

2%

1%

34%
31%
32%
29.8%
37%
37.4%

42.5%
32%
37%
37.8%
35%
35.7%

6.8%
15%
10%
14.2%
8%
8.5%

3.4%
7%
5%
7.2%
3%
3.4%

6%
6%
6%
3.9%
7%
6.6%

7.5%
6%
7%
4.7%
7%
6.3%

1.2%
2%
2%
1.6%
2%
1.5%

0.6%
1%
1%
0.8%
1%
0.6%

Blood Type Problem


A man whose alleles for blood type are A/O
and Rh+/Rh- marries a woman whose alleles
are B/O and Rh+/Rh-.
a) What are the phenotypes of the
parents with respect to blood type?
b) What are the possible genotypes for
their offspring with respect to
blood type?
c) What are the possible phenotypes
for their offspring with respect to
blood type?

What are the phenotypes of the


parents with respect to blood type?
Father:
AO is expressed as type A
Rh+/Rh- is expressed as Rh+
Fathers phenotype is A+
Mother:
BO is expressed as type B
Rh+/Rh- is expressed as Rh+
Mothers phenotype is B+

What are the


possible genotypes
for their offspring
with respect to
blood type?

Maternal
gametes

Paternal gametes
A/Rh+ A/Rh-

O/Rh+

O/Rh-

B/Rh+

AB
AB
BO
BO
Rh+Rh+ Rh+Rh- Rh+Rh+ Rh+Rh-

B/Rh-

AB
AB
BO
BO
Rh+Rh- Rh-Rh- Rh+Rh- Rh-Rh-

O/Rh+

AO
AO
OO
OO
Rh+Rh+ Rh+Rh- Rh+Rh+ Rh+Rh-

O/Rh-

AO
AO
OO
OO
Rh+Rh- Rh-Rh- Rh+Rh- Rh-Rh-

What are the possible phenotypes for their


offspring with respect to blood type?
AB+ = 3/16
AB
AB
BO
BO
Rh+Rh+ Rh+Rh- Rh+Rh+ Rh+RhAB
AB
BO
BO
Rh+Rh- Rh-Rh- Rh+Rh- Rh-RhAO
AO
OO
OO
Rh+Rh+ Rh+Rh- Rh+Rh+ Rh+RhAO
AO
OO
OO
Rh+Rh- Rh-Rh- Rh+Rh- Rh-Rh-

AB- = 1/16
A+ = 3/16
A- = 1/16
B+ = 3/16
B- = 1/16
O+ = 3/16
O- = 1/16