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You are on page 1of 30

CONCEPT OF STRESS

Lectured by:

Dr Volkan Esat

Based on:

Mechanics of Materials

Beer, Johnston, DeWolf, Mazurek

McGraw Hill

Contents

Concept of Stress

Review of Statics

Component Free-Body

Diagram

Method of Joints

Stress Analysis

Design

Axial Loading: Normal Stress

Centric & Eccentric Loading

Shearing Stress

Shearing Stress Examples

Stress in Two Force Members

Stress on an Oblique Plane

Maximum Stresses

Stress Under General Loadings

State of Stress

Factor of Safety

Concept of Stress

materials is to provide the future engineer with the

means of analyzing and designing various machines

and load bearing structures.

Both the analysis and design of a given structure

involve the determination of stresses and

deformations. This chapter is devoted to the

concept of stress.

Truss roof

Adapted from

http://stratco.com.au/

Cranes

Cranes

Adapted from

theagregator.com

Adapted from www.vivekmachinetools.com/

Hydraulic

excavators

Adapted from

http://www.momentexpo.com/

Scissor lift

Adapted from studiointhesky.blogspot.com

Review of Statics

rod

to support a 30 kN load.

The structure consists of a

boom and rod joined by

pins (zero moment

connections) at the

junctions and supports.

boom

determine the internal

force in each structural

member and the reaction

forces at the supports.

5

Structure is detached from

supports and the loads and

reaction forces are indicated.

Conditions for static equilibrium:

M C = 0 = Ax (0.6 m ) (30 kN )(0.8 m )

Ax = 40 kN

Fx = 0 =Ax + C x

C x = Ax = 40 kN

Fy = 0 = Ay + C y 30 kN = 0

Ay + C y = 30 kN

from these equations.

6

In addition to the complete structure,

each component must satisfy the

conditions for static equilibrium.

Consider a free-body diagram for the boom:

M B = 0 = Ay (0.8 m )

Ay = 0

Substitute into the structure equilibrium equation:

C y = 30 kN

Results:

A = 40 kN C x = 40 kN C y = 30 kN

boom and rod

7

Method of Joints

The boom and rod are 2-force members,

i.e., the members are subjected to only

two forces which are applied at member

ends.

For equilibrium, the forces must be parallel

to an axis between the force application

points, equal in magnitude, and in

opposite directions.

Joints must satisfy the conditions for static

equilibrium which may be expressed in

the form of a force triangle:

r

F

B =0

FAB FBC 30 kN

=

=

4

5

3

FAB = 40 kN

FBC = 50 kN

Stress Analysis

Can the structure safely support the 30

kN load?

From a statics analysis

FAB = 40 kN (compression)

FBC = 50 kN (tension)

At any section through member BC,

the internal force is 50 kN with a

force intensity or stress of

dBC = 20

mm

P

50 103 N

BC = =

= 159 MPa

A 314 10-6 m 2

steel, the allowable stress is

all = 165 MPa

is adequate.

9

Design

Design of new structures requires selection

of appropriate materials and component

dimensions to meet performance

requirements.

For reasons based on cost, weight,

availability, etc., the choice is made to

construct the rod from aluminum (all= 100

MPa). What is an appropriate choice for the

rod diameter?

P

all =

A

An aluminum rod

26 mm or more in

diameter is

adequate.

A=

all

50 103 N

100 106 Pa

= 500 10 6 m 2

d2

A=

4

d=

4A

4 500 10 6 m 2

10

The resultant of the internal forces for an

axially loaded member is normal to a section

cut perpendicular to the member axis.

The force intensity on that section is

defined as the normal stress.

stress

F

A 0 A

= lim

ave =

P

A

not be equal to the average stress but the

resultant of the stress distribution must

satisfy:

P = ave A = dF = dA

A

statically indeterminate, i.e., can not be

found from statics alone.

11

A uniform distribution of stress in a

section infers that the line of action for

the resultant of the internal forces passes

through the centroid of the section.

A uniform distribution of stress is only

possible if the concentrated loads on the

end sections of two-force members are

applied at the section centroids. This is

referred to as centric loading.

If a two-force member is eccentrically

loaded, then the resultant of the stress

distribution in a section must yield an

axial force and a moment.

The stress distributions in eccentrically

loaded members cannot be uniform or

12

symmetric.

Shearing Stress

Forces P and P are applied transversely to

the member AB.

Corresponding internal forces act in the

plane of section C and are called shearing

forces.

The resultant of the internal shear force

distribution is defined as the shear of the

section and is equal to the load P.

The corresponding average shear stress is,

ave =

P

A

the member surfaces to maximum values

that may be much larger than the average

value.

The shear stress distribution cannot be

assumed to be uniform.

13

Single Shear

ave =

P F

=

A A

Double Shear

ave =

P F

=

A 2A

14

Bolts, rivets, and pins create

stresses on the points of

contact or bearing surfaces

of the members they

connect.

The resultant of the force

distribution on the surface is

equal and opposite to the

force exerted on the pin.

Corresponding average

force intensity is called the

bearing stress,

b =

P P

=

A td

15

Would like to determine

the stresses in the

members and

connections of the

structure shown.

From a statics analysis:

FAB = 40 kN (compression)

FBC = 50 kN (tension)

Must consider maximum

normal stresses in AB

and BC, and the shearing

stress and bearing stress

at each pinned

connection

16

The rod is in tension with an axial force of 50

kN.

At the rod center, the average normal stress in the

circular cross-section (A = 314x10-6m2) is BC =

+159 MPa.

At the flattened rod ends, the smallest crosssectional area occurs at the pin centerline,

A = (20 mm )(40 mm 25 mm ) = 300 10 6 m 2

P

50 103 N

BC ,end = =

= 167 MPa

A 300 10 6 m 2

40 kN and average normal stress of 26.7 MPa.

The minimum area sections at the boom ends are

unstressed since the boom is in compression.

17

The cross-sectional area for pins at A,

B, and C,

2

25 mm

6 2

A = r =

= 49110 m

2

2

the force exerted by the rod BC,

50 103 N

P

C , ave = =

= 102 MPa

A 49110 6 m 2

a total force equal to the force

exerted by the boom AB,

A, ave =

P

20 kN

=

= 40.7 MPa

A 49110 6 m 2

18

determine the section with the largest shear

force,

PE = 15 kN

PG = 25 kN (largest)

shearing stress,

B, ave =

PG

25 kN

=

= 50.9 MPa

A 49110 6 m 2

19

AB, we have t = 30 mm and d = 25 mm,

b =

P

40 kN

=

= 53.3 MPa

td (30 mm )(25 mm )

bracket, we have t = 2(25 mm) = 50 mm and d

= 25 mm,

b =

P

40 kN

=

= 32.0 MPa

td (50 mm )(25 mm )

20

Axial forces on a two force

member result in only normal

stresses on a plane cut

perpendicular to the member

axis.

Transverse forces on bolts and

pins result in only shear

stresses on the plane

perpendicular to bolt or pin

axis.

Will show that either axial or

transverse forces may produce both

normal and shear stresses with

respect to a plane other than one

cut perpendicular to the member

axis.

21

Pass a section through the member

forming an angle q with the normal

plane.

From equilibrium conditions, the

distributed forces (stresses) on the

plane must be equivalent to the force P.

Resolve P into components normal and

tangential to the oblique section,

F = P cos

V = P sin

stresses on the oblique plane are

=

F

P cos

P

cos 2

=

=

A A0

A0

cos

V

P sin

P

=

=

sin cos

A A0

A0

cos

22

Maximum Stresses

Normal and shearing stresses on an

oblique plane

=

P

cos 2

A0

P

sin cos

A0

reference plane is perpendicular to the

member axis,

m =

P

A0

= 0

plane at + 45o with respect to the axis,

m =

P

P

sin 45 cos 45 =

=

A0

2 A0

23

A member subjected to a

general combination of loads is

cut into two segments by a

plane passing through Q .

The distribution of internal

stress components may be

defined as,

F x

x = lim

A0

xy = lim

A0

V yx

A

Vzx

xz = lim

A 0 A

opposite internal force and

stress distribution must be

exerted on the other segment

of the member.

24

State of Stress

Stress components are defined for the

planes cut parallel to the x, y and z axes.

For equilibrium, equal and opposite

stresses are exerted on the hidden

planes.

The combination of forces generated by

the stresses must satisfy the conditions

for equilibrium:

Fx = Fy = Fz = 0

Mx = My = Mz = 0

Consider the moments about the z axis:

M z = 0 = ( xy A)a ( yx A)a

xy = yx

similarly, yz = zy

and yz = zy

stress are required to define the complete

25

state of stress

Factor of Safety

Structural members or

machines must be designed

such that the working stresses

are less than the ultimate

strength of the material.

FS = Factor of safety

FS =

u

ultimate stress

=

all allowable stress

uncertainty in material properties

uncertainty of loadings

uncertainty of analyses

number of loading cycles

types of failure

maintenance requirements and

deterioration effects

importance of member to integrity

of whole structure

risk to life and property

influence on machine function

26

Example 1

man is momentarily subjected to a

force which is 5 times his weight.

Determine the average normal stress

developed in the tibia T of his leg at

the mid section a-a. The cross

section can be assumed circular,

having an outer diameter of 45 mm

and an inner diameter of 25 mm.

Assume the fibula F does not

support a load.

27

Example 2

The small block has a thickness of 5 mm. If the stress distribution

at the support developed by the load varies as shown, determine

the force F applied to the block, and the distance d to where it is

applied.

28

Example 3

The boom has a uniform weight of 3 kN and is hoisted into

position using the cable BC. If the cable has a diameter of 15 mm,

plot the average normal stress in the cable as a function of the

boom position for 0 90.

29

Example 4

The 250-N lamp is supported by three steel rods connected by a

ring at A. Determine the angle of orientation of AC such that the

average normal stress in rod AC is twice the average normal stress

in rod AD. What is the magnitude of stress in each rod? The

diameter of each rod is given in the figure.

30

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