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PURE BENDING

Lectured by:

Dr Volkan Esat
Based on:
Mechanics of Materials
Beer, Johnston, DeWolf, Mazurek
McGraw Hill

Contents
Introduction: Pure Bending, Other
Loading Types
Symmetric Member in Pure Bending
Deformations in a Symmetric
Member
Stresses and Deformations in the
Elastic Range
Beam Section Properties
Properties of American Standard
Beam Shapes

Deformations in a Transverse
Cross Section
Example 17
Eccentric Axial Loading in a
Plane of Symmetry
Example 18
Example 19
Unsymmetric Bending
Example 20
General Case of Eccentric Axial
Loading

Introduction: Where?

Barbell in pure bending

Naim Sleymanolu, winning gold


medal in Barcelona 1992 Olympics,
adapted from olympic88.tumblr.com

Structural beams
in pure bending

Adapted from www.cmrp.com

Pure Bending

700 N

700 N

400 mm

800 mm

400 mm

280 Nm
700 N

280 Nm

700 N

Pure Bending: Prismatic members subjected to equal and opposite


couples acting in the same longitudinal plane

Other Loading Types

A clamp

Eccentric Loading: Axial loading


which does not pass through section
centroid produces internal forces
equivalent to an axial force and a
couple.

Transverse Loading: Concentrated


or distributed transverse load
produces internal forces equivalent
to a shear force and a couple

A cantilever
beam

Principle of Superposition: The


normal stress due to pure bending
may be combined with the normal
stress due to axial loading and shear
stress due to shear loading to find
the complete state of stress.
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Symmetric Member in Pure Bending


Internal forces in any cross section are
equivalent to a couple. The moment of the
couple is the section bending moment.

From statics, a couple M consists of two


equal and opposite forces.
The sum of the components of the forces in
any direction is zero.
The moment is the same about any axis
perpendicular to the plane of the couple
and zero about any axis contained in the
plane.
These requirements may be applied to the
sums of the components and moments of
the statically indeterminate elementary
internal forces.
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Deformations in a Symmetric Member


bends uniformly to form a circular arc
cross-sectional plane passes through
arc center and remains planar.
length of top decreases and length of
bottom increases.
a neutral surface must exist that is parallel
to the upper and lower surfaces and for
which the length does not change.

stresses and strains are negative


(compressive) above the neutral plane and
positive (tension) below it.

Deformations in a Symmetric Member

Consider a beam segment of length L.


After deformation, the length of the neutral surface remains L.
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Stresses and Deformations in the Elastic Range

Beam Section Properties


A beam section with a larger section
modulus will have a lower maximum
stress.
Between two beams with the same cross
sectional area, the beam with the greater
depth will be more effective in resisting
bending.

Structural steel beams are designed to


have a large section modulus.
American wide-flange beam
(I-beam, H-beam)
American standard beam

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Properties of American Standard Beam Shapes

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Properties of American Standard Beam Shapes

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Deformations in a Transverse Cross Section


Deformation due to bending moment M is
quantified by the curvature of the neutral
surface.

Although cross sectional planes remain planar


when subjected to bending moments, in-plane
deformations are nonzero.

Expansion above the neutral surface and


contraction below it cause an in-plane
curvature.

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Example 17
A cast-iron machine part is
acted upon by a 3 kNm
couple. Knowing E = 165 GPa
and neglecting the effects of
fillets, determine
(a) the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses,
(b) the radius of curvature.

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Example 17
A cast-iron machine part is
acted upon by a 3 kNm
couple. Knowing E = 165 GPa
and neglecting the effects of
fillets, determine
(a) the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses,
(b) the radius of curvature.

SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section
geometry, calculate the location of
the section centroid and moment
of inertia.
yA
A

Ix

Ad 2

Apply the elastic flexural formula


to find the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses.
m

Mc
I

Calculate the curvature


1

M
EI
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Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of Symmetry

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Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of Symmetry

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700 N

Example 18
An open link chain is obtained by
bending low-carbon steel rods of 12
mm diameter into the shape shown.
Knowing that the chain carries a load
of 700 N, determine

12 mm
16 mm

(a) the largest tensile and compressive


stresses in the straight portion of a
link,
(b) The distance between the centroidal
and the neutral axis of a cross
section.
700 N

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Example 18

16 mm

An open link chain is obtained by


bending low-carbon steel rods of 12
mm diameter into the shape shown.
Knowing that the chain carries a load
of 700 N, determine
(a) the largest tensile and compressive
stresses in the straight portion of a
link,
(b) The distance between the centroidal
and the neutral axis of a cross
section.
66 MPa

700 N
72.2 MPa

6.2 MPa

-66 MPa

-59.8 MPa

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Example 19
Knowing that for the cast iron link shown the allowable stresses are 30
MPa in tension and 120 MPa in compression. Determine the largest
force P which can be applied to the link. (NOTE: The same T-shaped
cross sectional area in Example 17 is used.)

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Example 19

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Unsymmetric Bending

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Unsymmetric Bending

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Unsymmetric Bending

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Unsymmetric Bending

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Example 20

180 Nm

A 180 Nm couple is applied to a


wooden beam, of rectangular cross
section 40 by 90 mm in a plane
forming angle of 30 with the vertical.
Determine

90 mm

(a) the maximum stress in the beam,


and
(b) the angle that the neutral surface
forms with the horizontal plane.

40 mm
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Example 20
A 180 Nm couple is applied to a
wooden beam, of rectangular cross
section 40 by 90 mm in a plane
forming angle of 30 with the vertical.
Determine

180 Nm

90 mm

(a) the maximum stress in the beam,


and
(b) the angle that the neutral surface
forms with the horizontal plane.
40 mm
-6.64 MPa

6.64 MPa

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General Case of Eccentric Axial Loading

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