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Pure Bending

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You are on page 1of 28

Lectured by:

Dr Volkan Esat

Based on:

Mechanics of Materials

Beer, Johnston, DeWolf, Mazurek

McGraw Hill

Contents

Introduction: Pure Bending, Other

Loading Types

Symmetric Member in Pure Bending

Deformations in a Symmetric

Member

Stresses and Deformations in the

Elastic Range

Beam Section Properties

Properties of American Standard

Beam Shapes

Deformations in a Transverse

Cross Section

Example 17

Eccentric Axial Loading in a

Plane of Symmetry

Example 18

Example 19

Unsymmetric Bending

Example 20

General Case of Eccentric Axial

Loading

Introduction: Where?

medal in Barcelona 1992 Olympics,

adapted from olympic88.tumblr.com

Structural beams

in pure bending

Pure Bending

700 N

700 N

400 mm

800 mm

400 mm

280 Nm

700 N

280 Nm

700 N

couples acting in the same longitudinal plane

A clamp

which does not pass through section

centroid produces internal forces

equivalent to an axial force and a

couple.

or distributed transverse load

produces internal forces equivalent

to a shear force and a couple

A cantilever

beam

normal stress due to pure bending

may be combined with the normal

stress due to axial loading and shear

stress due to shear loading to find

the complete state of stress.

5

Internal forces in any cross section are

equivalent to a couple. The moment of the

couple is the section bending moment.

equal and opposite forces.

The sum of the components of the forces in

any direction is zero.

The moment is the same about any axis

perpendicular to the plane of the couple

and zero about any axis contained in the

plane.

These requirements may be applied to the

sums of the components and moments of

the statically indeterminate elementary

internal forces.

6

bends uniformly to form a circular arc

cross-sectional plane passes through

arc center and remains planar.

length of top decreases and length of

bottom increases.

a neutral surface must exist that is parallel

to the upper and lower surfaces and for

which the length does not change.

(compressive) above the neutral plane and

positive (tension) below it.

After deformation, the length of the neutral surface remains L.

8

A beam section with a larger section

modulus will have a lower maximum

stress.

Between two beams with the same cross

sectional area, the beam with the greater

depth will be more effective in resisting

bending.

have a large section modulus.

American wide-flange beam

(I-beam, H-beam)

American standard beam

10

11

12

Deformation due to bending moment M is

quantified by the curvature of the neutral

surface.

when subjected to bending moments, in-plane

deformations are nonzero.

contraction below it cause an in-plane

curvature.

13

Example 17

A cast-iron machine part is

acted upon by a 3 kNm

couple. Knowing E = 165 GPa

and neglecting the effects of

fillets, determine

(a) the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses,

(b) the radius of curvature.

14

Example 17

A cast-iron machine part is

acted upon by a 3 kNm

couple. Knowing E = 165 GPa

and neglecting the effects of

fillets, determine

(a) the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses,

(b) the radius of curvature.

SOLUTION:

Based on the cross section

geometry, calculate the location of

the section centroid and moment

of inertia.

yA

A

Ix

Ad 2

to find the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses.

m

Mc

I

1

M

EI

15

16

17

700 N

Example 18

An open link chain is obtained by

bending low-carbon steel rods of 12

mm diameter into the shape shown.

Knowing that the chain carries a load

of 700 N, determine

12 mm

16 mm

stresses in the straight portion of a

link,

(b) The distance between the centroidal

and the neutral axis of a cross

section.

700 N

18

Example 18

16 mm

bending low-carbon steel rods of 12

mm diameter into the shape shown.

Knowing that the chain carries a load

of 700 N, determine

(a) the largest tensile and compressive

stresses in the straight portion of a

link,

(b) The distance between the centroidal

and the neutral axis of a cross

section.

66 MPa

700 N

72.2 MPa

6.2 MPa

-66 MPa

-59.8 MPa

19

Example 19

Knowing that for the cast iron link shown the allowable stresses are 30

MPa in tension and 120 MPa in compression. Determine the largest

force P which can be applied to the link. (NOTE: The same T-shaped

cross sectional area in Example 17 is used.)

20

Example 19

21

Unsymmetric Bending

22

Unsymmetric Bending

23

Unsymmetric Bending

24

Unsymmetric Bending

25

Example 20

180 Nm

wooden beam, of rectangular cross

section 40 by 90 mm in a plane

forming angle of 30 with the vertical.

Determine

90 mm

and

(b) the angle that the neutral surface

forms with the horizontal plane.

40 mm

26

Example 20

A 180 Nm couple is applied to a

wooden beam, of rectangular cross

section 40 by 90 mm in a plane

forming angle of 30 with the vertical.

Determine

180 Nm

90 mm

and

(b) the angle that the neutral surface

forms with the horizontal plane.

40 mm

-6.64 MPa

6.64 MPa

27

28

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