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B.

EDEGREE7thSemester,MechanicalandAeronauticalEngineering
ComputerIntegratedManufacturing

Unit:1
TwoMarksQuestionsandAnswers
1.ExplainCIM.
CIMistheintegrationofthetotalmanufacturingenterprisethroughtheuseof
integratedsystemsanddatacommunicationscoupledwithnewmanagerialphilosophies
thatimproveorganizationalandpersonnelefficiency.
2.WhatarethecomponentsofCIM?

3.Whatarethestepsinvolvedindesigningandmanufacturingaproduct?
Stepsinvolvedindesigningandmanufacturingaproduct.
Definitionofproduct
Designanalysis
Drifting
Pilotproduction
Inspection
Packing
Conceptualdesign
Prototype
Materialandprocessselection
Production,QualityassuranceandFinalproduct

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4.WhatistheroleofCIMinmanufacturing?
CIMismostcloselyassociatedwithfunctionsinmanufacturingengineering
suchaprocessplanningandnumericalcontrol(NC)partprogramming.
5.WhatareimportantapplicationsofCIMinmanufacturingplanning?
TheapplicationsofCIMcanbedividedintotwobroadcategories.
1)Manufacturingplanning2)Manufacturingcontrol
6. WhataretheimportantapplicationsofCIMinmanufacturingcontrol?
Theapplicationsofcomputerprocesscontrolarepervasivetodayin
automatedproductionsystems.
Qualitycontrolincludesavarietyofapproachestoensurethehighest
possiblequalitylevelsinthemanufacturedproduct.
Shopfloorcontrolreferstoproductionmanagementtechniques.
7. Whatismanagement?
Managementistheprocessofmakingdecisionsanddirectingtheactivitiesof
personneltoachievestatedobjective.Theobjectivesaresuccessfullymetwheneffortsare
organizedbycommunicatingappropriateinformationforcontrolandreadjustment.
8. Listourthetasksforthemanagersineffectivemanagement:
ThefollowingsixtasksforthemanagersofCIM:
1. Developabusinessmodeltounderstandtheproblemenvironment
2. Developafunctionalmodelfortheprocesses,functions,andactivitiestodescribe
both"asis"and"tobe".
3. Developaninformationmodelthatidentifiessysteminterfaces,information
exchangepatterns,databaserequirementsandapplicabletechnologies.
4. Developanetworkmodeltoidentifycommunicationandnetworkingrequirements
5. Developanorganizationalmodeltoinvestigatetheimplicationsofintegratingthe
variousislandsofautomationontheexistingorganizationstructureandculture,
andhowtosafeguardagainstdetrimentaleffects.
6. Finally, develop the implementation plan which should take into account
specialfeaturesofthebusinessandoperations.
9. Whatarethemajorcommunicationusedinmanufacturingindustry?
Themajorcommunicationusedinmanufacturingindustry
1. Telephones,includingcellularsystems
2. Facsimileterminals(or)Faxmachines
3. Satellitedishandvideoconferencing
4. Personalcomputers(PCs)
10. Whatisvideoconferencing?
Thevideoconferencingisalive,interactivetelevisionprogramdeliveredthrough
satelliteforaspecialaudience.Videoconferencingcanencompassseveralcountries.Init,
even two or more persons can participate. For example, in a videoconference
manufacturingengineersmaydiscuss"live"abouttheproductwiththedesignerswho
may be located at company headquarters 1000kms away. Occasionally, customers or
distributorsmaybecalledin"live"toclarifyapointrelatingtothedefect.
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11.Defineautomation.
Automation is generally defined as the process of having machines follow a
predeterminedsequenceofoperationswithlittleornohumanlabour,usingspecialized
equipmentanddevicesthatperformsandcontrolmanufactionprocesses.
12.Whatarethegoalsofautomationinmanufacturing
industry?Automationhasthefollowingprimarygoals.
1)

ProcessIntegration

2) ImproveProductivity
3) Economizeonfloorspace
5) Improvequality
13. Whatarethefunctionofautomatedmanufacturingsystem?
Automatingmanufacturingsystemsoperateinthefactoryonthephysicalproduct.
Theyperformoperationssuchasprocessing,assembly,inspection,ormaterialhanding,
insomecasesaccomplishingmorethanoneoftheseoperationsinthesamesystems.
14.Givetheclassificationofautomation.
Automatedmanufacturingsystemscanbeclassifiedintothreebasictypes:
1) Fixedautomation
2) Programmableautomation
3) Flexibleautomation.
15. Whatarethebenefitsofautomation?
1 Toincreaselabourproductivity
2 Toreducelabourcost
3 Tomitigatetheeffectsoflabourshortages
4 Toreduceoreliminateroutineandclericaltakes
5 Toimproveworkersafety.
16. Whatarethecapabilitiesofcomputercontrol?
Thecapabilitiesare:
1)Polling(or)Datasampling 2)Interlocks
3)Interruptsystem

4)Exceptionhandling

17.Explainthetypesofinterlocks.
Therearetwotypesofinterlocks:
i)Inputinterlocks

ii)Outputinterlocks
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1) Inputinterlocks:Aninputinterlocksthatoriginatesfromanexternaldevice.
(e.g.,alimitswitch,sensor,orproductionmachine)andissenttothecontroller.

2) Outputinterlocks:Anoutputinterlockisasignalfromsentthecontrollertosame
externaldevises.Itisusedtocontroltheactivitiesofeachexternaldeviceandcoordinate
itsoperationwiththatoftheotherequipmentinthecell.
18.WhatisMAP?
ManufacturingAutomationProtocol(MAP)isaspecializedLANdesignedfora
factory environment. It is hardware cumsoftware implement able set of rules that
facilitate information transfer amoung networked computers and computerbased
equipment.
19.Whataretheapproachesofphysicaldistributions?
1 Customerservice:Whatlevelofcustomerserviceshouldbeprovided?
2 Transportation:Howwilltheproductsbeshipped?
3 Warehousing:Wherewillthegoodsbelocated?Howmanywarehouses
shouldbeutilized?
4 Orderprocessing:Howshouldtheorderbehandled?
5 Inventorycontrol: Howmuchinventoryshouldbemaintainedateach
location?
6 Protectivepackingandmaterialshandling:Howcanefficientmethods
bedevelopedforhandlinggoodsinthefactory,warehouse,andtransport
terminals?
Chapter2
1.DefineGroupTechnology(GT).
GroupTechnology(GT)isamanufacturingmethodologyinwhichindenticalor
similar components grouped processed together during design, process planning and
manufacturingsothatawidevarietyofcomponentscanbemanufactured,attheleast
expenseoftime,inventory,manhoursandmaterialhandling.
2. ListoutthestagesinGroupTechnology.
1) ProductionplannerstosetuptheGTdatabase.
2) Groupingthepartsorcomponentsintopartfamilieswithsomesimilar
characteristics.
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c)Redesigntheshopfloorarrangementaccordingtocommonshape,functionor
manufacturingprocessandtooling.
3.DefinePartfamilies.
Partfamily is defined as" collection of parts which are similar in terms of
geometricshape,size,andsimilarprocessingstepsrequirdinmanufacturing,soflowof
materialsthroughtheplantimproves".
4.WhatarethemethodsavailableforsolvingproblemsinGT?

5.Explainthetwocategoriesofattributesofparts.
1) Designattributes,whichareconcernedwithpartcharacteristicssuchasgeometry,size,
andmaterial.
2) Manufacturingattributes,whichconsiderthesequenceofprocessingstepsrequiredto
makeapart.
6.ListoutthepremisesforthedevelopedofDCLASScode.
1)A part may be best characterized bytes basic shape, usually is most
appartmentattribute.
2) AEachbasicshapemayhaveseveralfeatures,suchasholes,slots,threadsand
grooves.
3) Apartcanbecompletelycharacterizedbybasicshape;size;precisionand
materialtype,fromandcondition.
4) Severalshortcodesegmentscanbelinkedtofromclassificationcodethatis
humanrecognizableandadequateforhumanmonitoring.
5) Eachofthesecodesegmentscanpointtomoredetailedinformation.

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7.WhatisPFA?
Productionflowanalysisisatechniqueforpreplanningthedivisionofthewhole
factoryintogroupsordepartmentalgroups.Whentheknowledgeofdivisionisavailable,
thenitispossibletoplanthelayout.
8.WhatistheweaknessofPFA?
Theweaknessofproductionflowanalysis(PFA)thatthedatausedarederived
fromproductionroutesheets.Buttheprocesssequenceshavebeenpreparedbydifferent
processlannersandthedifferenceisreflectedontotheseroutesheets.
9. WhataretheapplicationsofGT?
1. Design:Inafirmmanycomponentshavesimilarshape.Theycanbegrouped
intodesignfamiliesandadesigncanbecreatedbysimplymodifyinganexisting
componentdesignfromthesamefamily.
2. InManufacturing:ForthispurposeGTgivesagreatimportancethansimplya
design philosophy. Parts that are not similar in shape may still need similar
manufacturing processes. Parts of this type are called production family. (All
partsmayneedsameoperationlikedrilling,millingthreadcuttingetc.)
3. Process Planning: Process planning work can be facilitated as similar
processesareneededforallcomponentsofaparticularfamily.
Thishelpsproductionplanningandcontrolmucheasierbecauseonlysimilarparts
are considered for each cell. Such a celloriented layout is called a group
technologylayoutorcellularlayout.
10. WhatisFMS?
FMS is a manufacturing system based on multioperation machine tools,
incorporating(automaticparthandlingandstorgr).
11.WhatisProcessplanning?
Processplanningconsistsofpreparingasetofinstructionsthatdescribehowto
fabricateapartorbuildanassemblywhichwillsatisfyengineeringdesignspecifications.
Processplanningisthesystematicdetermationofthemethodsbywhichproductistobe
manufactured,economicallyandcompetitively.
12.WhataretheresultsofProcessPlanning?

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Routingswhichspecifyoperations,operationsequences,workcenters,standards,
toolingandfixtures.Thisroutingbecomesamajorinputtothemanufacturingresource
planningsystemtodefineoperationsforproductionactivitycontrolpurposeanddefine
requiredresourcesforcapacityrequirementsplanningpurposes.
*Processplanswhichtypicallyprovidemoredetailed,stepbystepwork
instructionsincludingdimensionsrelatedtoindividualoperations,machiningparameters,
setupinstructions,andqualityassurancecheckpoints.
*Fabricationandassemblydrawingstosupportmanufacture(asopposed
toengineeringdrawingstodefinethepart).
13.WhatarethestepsinvolvedinProcessplanning?
Steps involved in Process Planning

i)

Preliminary analysis and Product design evaluation

2)

Selection of manufacturing process

3) Selection of Machine Tool


4) Selection of Tooling and Process parameters
5)

Final operation sequence selection

14. Whatarethefactorsshouldbeconsideredinselectionoftooling?
1Thetypeandamountofthematerialtobecut
2Thesurfacefinishrequired
Therigidityandshapeofthepart

1Thecapacityandconditionoftheavailableequipment
2 The required production volume (high volume jobs usually permit optimum
speedsandfeedswhilelotjobsmayuselowerspeedstoachievecompletionof
thelotwithoutregrindingofthecuttingtool)
3Thesucceedingoperationssuchasfinishgrindingandhoning
4 Therecommendationsgivenintablesshouldbeconsideredonlyasastartingpoint.A
detailedanalysisisfurtherrequiredineachindividualcasetoarriveatthe

mostfeasiblesolution. ..

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15. Whataretheprinciplesshouldadherewhiledeterminingtheefficientsequence?
1 Thefirstoperationinthesequenceshouldbeoneinwhichthelargestlayerof
metalisremoved.
2Finishingoperationsshouldbeperformedattheendoftheoperationsequence.
*Surfaceswhosemachiningdocsnotgreatlyaffecttherigidityoftheworkshould
bemachinedearlierinthesequence,and
*Thesequenceofmachiningoperationsshouldbecoordinatedwithheal
treatingoperations,itanyintheprocessormanufacture.
16.Whatarctheprerequisitesforprocessplanning?

Theotherprerequisitesforprocess
planningare:*Partlist
"Annualdemand/batchsize
1*Accuracyandsurfacefinishrequirement
2* Equipmentdetails
3*Dataoncuttingfluids,tools,jigsandfixtures,gauges.
4* Standardavailablestocksizes.
5* Machiningdata,dataonhandlingandsetup.
17.WhataretheapproachestheCAPPwillrecognize?
TwoapproachestoCAPParetraditionallyrecognized:thevariantapproachandthe
generativeapproach.ManyCAPPsystemscombinebothapproaches.
18. WhyCAPPsystemsarecalledasvariantsystem?
Themainreasonsprobablyare:
1. The investment is less and the development time is shorter. Especially for
mediumsizedcompanieswhichwanttoestablishtheirownresearchgroups.

2. Thedevelopmentcostsandhardwarecostsarelower.Especiallyforsome
smallcompanieswheretheproductsdonotvarymuchandwhostillhave
processplanners.

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19.GivethemaincomponentofgenerativeCAPPsystems.
CAPPsystemcontainsoftwomaincomponents.
1) Manufacturingdatabase(partdescription,machinetoollibraryetc..)
2) Decisionlogic(torepresenttheprocessplanner)
20. WhatarcthebenefitsofCAPPovermanualprocess?
1. Processrationalization:Computerautomatedpreparationofoperation
routings ismoreli ke lyto beconsistent, logical, andoptimal thanitsmanual
counterpart.Theprocessplanswillbeconsistentbecausethesamecomputersoftware
isbeingusedbyallplanners.
2. increasedproductivityofprocessplanners: Withcomputeraidedprocess planning,
there is reduced clerical effort, fewer errors arc made and the planners have
immediate access to the process planning database. These benefits translate into
higherproductivityoftheprocessplanners.
3. Reducedturnaroundtime: WorkingwiththeCAPPsystem,theprocessplanneris
able to prepare a route sheet for a new part in less time compared to manual
preparation.Thisleadstoanoverallreductioninmanufacturingleadtime.
4. Improvedlegibility: Thecomputerprepareddocumentisneater andeasier toread
than manually written route sheets. CAPP systems employ standard text, which
facilitatesinterpretationoftheprocessplaninthefactory.
5. Incorporationofotherapplicationprograms: Theprocessplanningsystemcanbe
designedtooperateinconjunctionwithothersoftwarepackagestoautomatemanyof
thetimeconsumingmanufacturingsupportfunctions.

Chapter3
1.GivesthemajorobjectivesofaProductionManagementSystems(PMS).
The two major objectives of a production management system (PMS) are
planning and controlling of the manufacturing operations. The Planning Stage deals
initial Production planning, development of master schedule, capacity planning, and
MRP.
2.DefineSFC.
ShopFloorControl(SFC)isdefinedastheimportantmanufacturingactivitythat
will control flow of the product and materials on the factory flow involving the
quantities,typesofparts,scheduledates,prioritiesandthestatusofjobsandorders.
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3.WhataretheprimaryfunctionofSFC?
FunctionsofSFCsystem
Prioritycontrolandassignmentofshoporders
MaintaininformationonworkinprocessforMRP
Monitorshoporderstatusinformation
Provideproductionoutputdataforcapacitycontrolpurposes
4. WhatarethephasesofSFC?
Thethreephasesormodulesare:
1.OrderRelease

2.OrderScheduling3.OrderProgress

5.WhatisthepurposeofFDS?
ThepurposeoftheFactoryDataCollection(FDS)systeminshopfloorcontrolis
toprovidebasicdataformonitoringorderprogress.InacomputerizedSFCsystemthese
dataaresubmittedtotheorderprogressmoduleforanalysisandgenerationofworkorder
statusreportsandexceptionreports.
6.WhatisanAutomaticDataCapture(ADC)method?
AutomaticIdentificationmethodsisalsoknownasAutomaticDataCapture
(ADC)itisreferstothetechnologiesthatprovidesdirectentryofdataintothecomputer
orothercontrolsystemswithoutusingakeyboards.Thesetechnologiesrequirenohuman
involvementinthedatacaptureandentryprocess.
7.WhatarethetechnologiesusedinADC?
1.Optical

2.Magnetictype

4.Smartcard 5.Touchtechniques

3.Electromagnetictype
6.Biometric

8.WhatBarcodeconsists?
Thebarcodeconsistsofathickandnarrowcolouredbarsseparatesthickand
narrowspacesseparatingthebars.Thepatternofbarsandspacesiscotorepresent
alphanumericcharacters.
9.WhatarethetypesofBarcode?
Barcodesdivideintotwobasictypes:
1) Linear,inwhichtheencodeddataarereadusingalinearsweepofthescan
2) Twodimensional,inwhichtheencodeddatamustbereadinbothdirections
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10.WhatisDAS?
Adataacquisitionssystem(DAS)isacomputersystemusedtoautomaticallycol
datafromaprocessorpieceofequipment.Theyeitherperformananalysisdataor
transmitthedatatoanothercomputerforprocessingandanalysis.
11.ListouttheapplicationofADCtechnology.
ThefollowingarethemostcommonapplicationofADCtechnologies.
1) Partsreceiving

2) Shipping

3) Orderpicking

4) Finishedgoodsstorage

5) Manufacturingprocessing

6) Workinprocessstorage

7) Assembly

8) Sortation

12.WhatarethetypesofSFC?
ThetypesofSFCdatathatwouldbecollectedtheFDCsysteminclude
1 Labourtimeturnedinagainstajob
2 Countonscrappedpartsorneedingrework.
3 Piececounts
4 Machinebreakdowns.
5 Completionofoperationsintheroutingsequence.
13. DefineFMS.
AFlexibleManufacturingSystem(FMS)isanindividualmachineorgroupofmachines
servedbyanautomatedmaterialshandlingsystemthatiscomputercontrolledandhasa
toolhandlingcapability.

14.

WhatarctheObjectivesofFMS?
1 Toprovideflexiblemanufacturingfacilityforpanfamilycomponents.
2 Toprovidethebenefitsofgroupingtheoperationinsinglelocation.
3 Toprovidetheflexibilityinproducingsmallandmediumparts.
4 Tomaximizetheutilizationoffacilities.
5 Tohaveagoodmanagementcontrol.

15. WhatarethecomponentsofFMS?
flexibleManufacturingSystems(FMS)consistsofthefollowingfourcomponents.

1. Processingstationsorworkstations
2. Materialhandlingandstorage

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3. Computercontrolsystem
4. humanlabour
16.

WhataretheFMSlayoutconfigurations?FMSscan
bedividedintofivecategories

1) Inlinelayout
2) Looplayout
3) Ladderlayout
4)Openfie1d1ayout
5) Robotcenteredcell.
17.

WhatarcthefunctionsofcomputersinFMS?
Thefunctionsofcomputersin
FMS1.Workstationcontrol

2. Distributionofcontrolinstructionstoworkstations
3. Productioncontrol
4. Trafficcontrol
5.Shuttlecontrol
6. Workpiecemonitoring
7. Tool control
8. Performancemonitoringandreporting
9. Diagnosis
18. ListtheapplicationsofFMSs.
ApplicationsofFMSinstallationsareinthefollowingareas.

1 Machining
2 Assembly
3 Sheetmetalpressworking
4 Forging
5 Plasticinjectionmolding
6 Welding
7 Textilemachinerymanufacture

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1 Semiconductorcomponentmanufacture
19.

GivethebenefitsofFMSs.
ThebenefitsthatcanbeexpectedfromanFMSinclude

1 Increasedmachineutilization
2 Fewermachinesrequired
3 Reductioninfactoryfloorspacerequired
Greaterresponsivenesstochange
2Reducedinventoryrequirements
31owermanufacturingleadtimes
4 Reduceddirectlabourrequirementsandhigherlaborproductivity
5Opportunityforunattendedproduction
20.

ListanytwoadvantagesanddisadvantagesofFMSimplementation.
Advantages

1 Faster,lowercostchangesfromoneparttoanotherwhichwillimprovecapitalutilization.
21owerdirectlaborcost,duetothereductioninnumberofworkers.
Disadvantages
1 Substantialpreplanningactivity.
2Expensive,costingmillionsofdollars.
21. HowdoesFMSclassifiedbasedonlevelofflexibility?
FMSclassifiedbasedonlevelofflexibilityas,

1Productionflexibility
2Machineflexibility
3 Mix flexibility
4Productflexibility
22. HowdoesFMSclassifiedbasedonnumberofmachines?
1SingleMachineCell(SMC)
2 FlexibleManufacturingCell(FMC)
3FlexibleManufacturingSystem(FMS)
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Unit:4
1.Whichisidealstateincomputerbasedmanufacturingapplications?
ComputerIntegratedManufacturing(CIM)isanidealstateinwhichcomputerbased
manufacturingapplicationscommunicateinformationtocoordinatedesign,planning
andmanufacturingprocesses.
2.DrawsimpleERdiagram.

4.WriteaboutCIMOSA.
CIMOSAdefinesamodelbasedenterpriseengineeringmethodwhichcategorizes
manufacturingoperationsintoGenericandSpecific(PartialandParticular)functions.

5. HowCIMOSAseparatesfunctions?
1 TheCIMOSAModelingFrameworkinwhichspecificandGeneric
functionsareclearlyseparated.
2

TheCIMOSAIntegratingInfrastructuresupportingexecutionof

Genericfunctionsandlinkingspecificfunctions.Itiseffectivelythe
communicationsystemwhichinterconnectsallofthefunctionsintheCIM
system.

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6.ExplainaboutMRR
Thematerialrequirementsplanning(MRP) functiontakescurrentinventorylevelsforall
components needed for the final products (a plant might have 20000 part numbers and
perhaps100finalproductsforwhichmasterscheduleshavebeendetermined)aswellasthe
componentsbillsofmaterialsandleadtimeinformation(obtainedfromdesignandprocess
planning] and evolves component master schedules for all components needed by the
demandrequirementsagreedupon.MRPdoesnottakeintoaccountwhethermanufacturing
hassufficientcapacitytohandlethejobreleases,andsocapacityplanningevaluatesshop
loadingintermsoftherequirementsandfeedsbacktothemasterscheduleforcorrective
actionifproblemsoccur.AfurtherfunctionofMRPbasedonsuchanalysisisdetermining
whethercomponentsshouldbeproducedinhouseorsubcontractedtooutsidevendors.

7.WhatistheroleofprocessplanninginCIMarchitecture?
Theprocessplanningfunctioncanensuretheprofitabilityornonprofitabilityofa
partbeingmanufacturedbecauseofthemyriadwaysinwhichapartcanbeproduced.
8.Whatisdispatching?
Dispatching is the function of releasing all required items needed to perform an
operationonapartsothatpartproductionmaybeaccomplishedatthetimeplanned
bytheschedulingfunction.
9.Whataboutshopfloorinformation?
Shopfloorinformation systemis responsible forgetting the requiredinformation
downtotheprocessingequipmentlocalcontrollersandsequencingcontrollersas
well as capturing realtime status data from the equipment and parts so that the
feedbackloopscaneffectcorrectionsornormalcontinuationofoperationasrequired.
10.ExplainPDM.

controlaccesstoandmanage

(PDM)
or
Product
thetoolstoItdoesthisbymaintainingData
Information
Management(PDM)
Management
(PIM)
ProductDataManagementsystemsprovide

all product definition date.


information(metadata)about
product information. Product
systems, when tightly
integratedwithotherproduct
comcom

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developmenttoolsdoesthistransparentlyandwithminimaladditionaleffortonthepart

oftheuser.

Unit:5
1. Whatarethetwotypesofchannel?
Twobasicchanneltypesareusedindatacommunications.Theyare
i)Analogtype

ii)Digitaltype

2. Listthecharacteristicsofchannel.
Thechannelcharacteristicsare

i)Electronicnoise

ii)Signalattenuation

iii)Analogchannelcapacity iv)Digitalchannelcapacity
3.

Whatischannelbandwidth?
Ananalogsignalcanvaryfromaminimumtomaximumfrequency.Thedi(Terence
betweenthelowestandthehighestfrequencyofasingleanalogisthebandwidthofthat
signal.Themathematicalformulaforfrequencyis,
Velocity
Frequency=

Wavelength

4.

Whataretwotypesoftransmissionmode?
Therearethreetransmissionmodesavailable.Theyarc
i)Simplex ii)Halfduplex iii)Duplex.
Theycanbeappliedtobothanaloganddigitalchannels.

5. Whatismodulation?
Theprocessofvaryingamplitudeorfrequencyorphaseofthecarriersignalinaccordance
withtheinstantaneousvalueoftheinformationsignalisknownasmodulation.

6. Whatisdemodulation?
1' heprocessofseparatingtheoriginalinformationsignalfromthemodulatedcarrier
signalisknownasdemodulation.Itistheinverseprocessofmodulation.
7. WhatarethereasonsforusingLAN?
1. LANallowsfordecentralizationofvariousdataprocessingfunctions.
2LANallowsdepartmentstosharehardware.

3. LANallowsfortheelectronictransferoftext.
4. LANallowsforcommunicationbetweenorganizations.
5. LANallowsinformationtobeshared.
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8. WhatarethefeaturesofLAN?
i)Compatibility ii)ProtectedModeOperation
iii)Internetworking

iv)GrowthPathandModularity

v)SystemReliability
9. Definetopologyandexplainitsclassification.
Thepatternofinterconnectionofnodesinanetworkiscalledtopology.Topcigycanalso
bedefinedasthegeometricarrangementofworkstationsandthelinksamongthem.

ThetypesofLANtopologyare
i)Bustopology

ii)Ringtopolgy

iii)Startopology

iv)Meshtopology

10. WhataretheAdvantagesofLAN?
1 LANissuitedtoanytypeofapplication.
2 Itprovidesdataintegrity.
3 Anynumberofuserscanbeaccommodated.
4ALANcanfitanysiterequirements.
5 Itisflexibleandgrowthoriented.
6 LANprovidesacosteffectivemultiusercomputerenvironment.
7 Datatransferratesareabove10Mbps.
8Itallowssharingofmasscentralstorageandprinters.
9Itallowsfile/recordlocking.
11.

DefineOSI.

Opensystemsinterconnection(OSI)referencemodelisaninternationalstandards
organization(ISO)standardthatspecifiestheconceptualstructureofsystemsthat
aretocommunicatewitheachother.
12.

ListoutthelayersofOSImodel.
Seven layers in
OSI model

i) Physical layer
II) Data link layer
Hi) Network layer
iv) Transport layer
v) Session layer
vi) Presentation layer
vii) Application layer

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13.

Whatisthefunctionsofphysicallayers?

Thephysicallayerconsistsofthehardwarethatdrivesthenetworkandcircuits.
14.

Whatisthefunctionofdatalinklayer?

Thedatalinklayerhandlesthetaskoftransferringinformationacrossthephysical
linkbysendingblocksofdata.
15.

Whatisthefunctiontransportlayer?

Thetransportlayerprovidestransparenttransferofpackets(data)toandfromthe
sessionlayerwithoutdisruption.
16.

WhatistheroleofapplicationinOSImodel?

Theapplicationlayerprovidestheuserinterfacetothenetworkingsystem.
17.

Whatisgateway?

A gateway device is a specialpurpose computer, a workstation with associated


software,orasoftwaremodulethatrunsasataskinamainframe.Itisessentiallya
protocol converter that facilitates the connection of two dissimilar network
architectures.Gatewaysareintegrationtoolstopermitendtoendcommunications.
18. ListtheapplicationprotocolsofTCP/IP.
Anumberofapplicationprotocolsanduserapplicationshavebeendevelopedbased
onTCP/IP.TheseincludeTelnet,FTP,NetworkFileSystem(NFS),SimpleMail
TransferProtocol(SMTP),andSimplifiedNetworkManagementProtocol(SNMP).
19. Howdatasareclassifiedinengineering/manufacturingenvironment?
Dataencounteredinanmanufacturingenvironmentcanbeclassifiedinto4basictypes

1) Resource data, which describes the resources involved in production, such as


machinesandtools.
2) Productdata,whichconsistsofgraphic,textandnumericdata.
3) Operationaldata,whichdescribestheeventsofproduction,suchasschedulesand
lotsizes.
4) Productiondata,whichdescribeshowthepartsaretobemanufactured.
20. Whatisdatabase?
Adatabaseisacollectionoffilesasanorganizedassemblyofinformationthatusers
canaccessforvariouspurposes;thatis,adding,deleting,ormodifyingdata.
21.Whatisdatamodel?
Adatamodelisalogicalrepresentationofacollectionofdataelements.Datamodels
arethebasicbuildingblocksfordesigningalldatabases.

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22WhatisDBMS?
DBMSstandsforDatabasemanagementsystem.Aprogramwhichletsyoumanage
informationindatabases.Theprogramweusetoorganizeourdataandtheactual
datastructurewecreatewiththat
program.23.WhatisPrimarykey?
Akeyisusedtorepresentuniquevalueinatable.Forexample,instudenttableevery
studenthasuniqueidentificationsuchasID.

24.Whatisforeignkey?
Akeyusedinonetabletorepresentthevalueofaprimarykeyinarelatedtable.
Whileprimarykeysmustcontainuniquevalues,foreignkeysmayhaveduplicates.
Forinstance,ifweusestudentIDastheprimarykeyinaStudentstable(eachstudent
hasauniqueID),wecouldusestudentIDasaforeignkey.
25.Whatisnormalization?
Theprocessofstructuringdatatominimizeduplicationandinconsistencies.Theprocess
usually involves breaking down a single table into two or more tables and defining
relationshipsbetweenthosetables.Normalizationisusuallydoneinstages,witheachstage
applyingmorerigorousrulestothetypesofinformationwhichcanbestoredinatable.

27.

Mentionthedifferentlevelsofdatamodeling.
TheDatastructuresarecreatedwithinadatabase.Theextentoftherelationships
amongthem,plays animportantroleindeterminingtheeffectiveness ofDBMS.
Therefore the database design becomes a crucial activity in the database
environment.ThetaskofDatabasedesignismadesimplerwhendatamodelsare
used.Modelsare''Simplifiedabstractionsofrealworldeventsorconditions".
Forexample,suchabstractionswillenableustoexplorethecharacteristicsofentities
andtherelationshipsthatcanbecreatedamongsuchentities.Ifthemodelsarenot
logicallysound,thedatabasedesignsderivedfromthemwillnotdeliverthedatabase
system'spromiseofeffectiveinformationdrawnfromanefficientdatabase.

28.

WhatisNetworkDataModel?
Anetworkdatamodelissimplyagraphwhereinnodesrepresentuniquerecords,and
linksbetweennodesrepresentassociationbetweenthecorrespondingrecords.

29.WhatisHierarchicalDataModel?
Thehierarchicaldatamodelissimilartothenetworkdatamodelexceptthatthe
relationshipsamongtherecordsarerepresentedintheformoftreestructure.
30.WhatisDataAssociations?
Alinkdescribesanassociationbetweentworecords.Thefollowingarethedifferent
typesofdataassociationsusedinDBMSinmanufacturingscenario.
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1. Onetooneassociation
2. Onetomanyassociation
3. Manytomanyassociation
31. ListouttheDatabaseoperators.
Tomanipulatedatainarelationaldatabase,threebasicoperationscanbeapplied
tothetables.Theseare:
1 Selection,
2 Projection
3 Join.

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