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PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS

Problem #A) Given a 30 KVA, 60 Hz, 2400600 V transformer with the following winding and excitation impedances:

Windings:

RHV = 2.6 , XHV = 2.8 , RLV = 0.15 , XLV = 0.2

Excitation:

Rfe(HV) = 1600 , XM(HV) = 600

If the transformer is used to connect a 24000 volt source to a load of ZLoad = 20 , determine the actual

load voltage (in polar form) and the real power supplied to the load.

VLoad = __________590<-1______________volts

PLoad = ___________17444_______________watts

Problem #B) Given a 30 KVA, 60 Hz, 2400600 V transformer with the following winding and excitation impedances:

Windings:

RHV = 2.6 , XHV = 2.8 , RLV = 0.15 , XLV = 0.2

Excitation:

Rfe(HV) = 1600 , XM(HV) = 600

If the transformer is supplied by a 24000 volt source and a load of ZLoad = 15 is connected to the lowvoltage winding, determine the actual input current to the transformer (in polar form), as well as the

rated input current.

~

I input = ___________12.05-20.6 ___________A

I rated = _____________12.5________________A

Problem #C) Given a 20 KVA, 60 Hz, 2400600 V transformer with the following winding and excitation impedances:

Windings:

RHV = 4.0 , XHV = 5.6 , RLV = 0.25 , XLV = 0.35

Excitation:

Rfe(LV) = 225 , XM(LV) = 75

If the transformer is used to step-up the voltage from a 6000 volt source in order to provide the voltage to a

load whose impedance is ZLoad = 640-j160, determine the actual load voltage and the input current, both

in polar form.

~

V Load = _________2381-1.10 _________ V

~

I In = __________17.4-15.9 _________ A

Problem #D) Given a KVA, 60 Hz, 240V12V transformer with the following model parameters:

Windings:

RHS = 1.2 , XHS = 1.6 , RLS = 0.003 , XLS = 0.004

Excitation:

Rfe(HS) = 2000 , XM(HS) = 800

The transformer is being used to step-down the voltage of a high-voltage source to supply a much lower rated

voltage load having an impedance ZLoad = 0.5+j0.02 .

a) Calculate the actual voltage that will appear across the load and the input current for the transformer

assuming that the transformer is supplied at rated primary voltage.

b) Calculate the rated current for both the high-side and low-side windings.

~

I1 ____________1.35-15.7 ___________A

b) I HS (rated ) ____________2.08_______________A

I LS (rated ) ____________41.7_______________A

Problem #E) The following short-circuit test data was obtained for a 50 KVA, 2400600V, 60 Hz transformer:

VSC = 76.4 V, ISC = 20.8 A, PSC = 954 W

Determine the parameters Req and Xeq of the transformer model referred to the high voltage side.

ReqHS = ______2.2_______

XeqHS = ______2.94______

3 INDUCTION MACHINES

Problem #1) A 3, 60 Hz, design B, 100 hp, squirrel cage induction motor has a rated operating speed of 870

rpm. Determine the number of poles of the machine.

# poles = _____8_____ poles

Problem #2) Given a 4 pole, 50 hp, 1755 rpm, 460 V, 60 Hz, squirrel cage induction machine, determine the

rated Torque of the machine in lbft.

T = _______149.6_______lbft

Problem #3) A 1 hp, 48 pole, 50 Hz, induction motor is operating at a speed of 120 rpm. Determine the slip at

this speed.

s = ______4______%

Problem #4) Briefly describe the operational mechanism that causes an induction machine to develop no torque

when operating at its synchronous speed.

The rotor conductors are rotating at the same speed of the stator field no voltage is induced on the conductors.

Problem #5) Given a 3, 40-hp, 460-V, 4-pole, 60 Hz, Y-connected, squirrel-cage, induction machine with the

following characteristics:

RS = 0.1 , XS = 0.4 , RR = 0.15 , XR = 0.6 ,

Rfe = 102 , Xm = 7.7 , Pmechlosses = 1200 W.

If the machine is operating at rated voltage and a slip of 2%, determine the input current

magnitude and the power on the shaft of the machine.

|Iline| = ________53.73________A

Pshaft = _______33.87________hp

Problem #6) Given a 6 pole, 50 hp, 1155 rpm, 460 V, 60 Hz, squirrel cage induction machine, determine the

rated Torque of the machine in lb.-ft.

Trated = ______227.36______lbft

Problem #7) A 1 hp, 48 pole, 50 Hz, induction motor is operating at a slip of 3.2%. Determine the speed of the

machine.

nr = _______121_______rpm

Problem #8) Given a 3, 80-hp, 460-V, 4-pole, 60 Hz, Y-connected, squirrel-cage, induction machine with the

following characteristics:

RS = 0.2 , XS = 0.4 , RR = 0.2 , XR = 0.6 ,

Rfe = 102 , Xm = 7.7 .

If the machine is operating at 70% of rated load and a slip of 5%, determine the total mechanical

losses of the machine.

Pmechlosses = ______1361______W

Problem #9) A 3, 60Hz, 50 hp, squirrel cage induction motor has a rated operating speed of 1165 rpm.

Determine the number of poles of the machine.

# poles = ____6____ poles

Problem #10) Given a 3, 40-hp, 460-V, 4-pole, 60 Hz, Y-connected, squirrel-cage, induction machine with the

following characteristics:

RS = 0.15 , XS = 0.5 , RR = 0.15 , XR = 0.6 ,

Rfe = 102 , Xm = 7.7 .

If the machine is operating at rated voltage and a speed of 1728 rpm, determine the torque

developed by the machine and the input impedance of the machine.

TD = ______189.0______lbft

Zin = ____2.475+j1.97____

Problem #11) Which Induction machine circuit-model parameters are determined from the Blocked Rotor

Test? (Be specific Do not assume that any other tests are also being performed on the machine.)

Req and Xeq

Problem #12) A -hp, 4-pole, 60-Hz, 1740-rpm induction motor is 74% efficient at rated load.

Determine the electrical input power under rated conditions.

For motor :

Pshaft

Pout

Pin

Pelec

Pelec

Pshaft

hp 746 (W hp )

0.74

504

Pin = _____504_____W

Problem #14) A 3, 60Hz, design B, 15-hp, squirrel cage induction motor has a rated speed of 700 rpm.

Determine the number of poles of the machine.

# poles = ____10____ poles

Problem #15) A 4 pole, 230V, 60Hz, induction motor is operating with a slip of 4%. Determine the speed.

nr = _____1728_____rpm

Problem #16) Given a 3, 40-hp, 460-V, 8-pole, 60 Hz, Y-connected, squirrel-cage, induction machine with the

following characteristics:

Rs = 0.15 ,

Xs = 0.5 ,

Rr = 0.2 ,

Xr = 0.5 ,

Rfe = 102 ,

Xm = 7.7 .

If the machine is operating at rated voltage and a speed of 885 rpm, determine the torque

developed by the machine.

Note: TD = Tmech

TD = _____133.64_____lbft

Problem #17) Given a 3, 50-hp, 460V, 6-pole, 1142 rpm, 60Hz, squirrel-cage, induction machine:

Determine the rated torque of the machine.

Trated = ____229.95____lb-ft

Problem #19) A 12 pole, 50 Hz, induction motor is operating at a slip of 2%. Determine the machines speed.

nr = _______490_________rpm

Problem #20) Given a 3, 40-hp, 460-V, 8-pole, 60 Hz, Y-connected, squirrel-cage, induction machine with the

following characteristics:

Rs = 0.2 , Xs = 0.5 , Rr = 0.16 , Xr = 0.6 ,

Rfe = 100 , Xm = 8 .

If the machine is operating at rated voltage and a speed of 880 rpm, determine the magnitude of

the line current and the developed (mechanical) torque for the machine.

Iline = _________53.87____________A

Tmech = ________212.93_________lbft

Problem #22) Define the term synchronous speed with respect to induction machines.

i the rotational speed of the stator field, or

ii the speed at which the machine develops no torque

Problem #21) For each of the following statements, specify whether they are TRUE or FALSE.

___True___ A 3- induction machine produces no mechanical power at start-up.

___False___ The breakdown torque for a 3 induction machine is the maximum load torque that the machine

is able to break-free and accelerate at start-up.

___True___ The no-load test for a 3 induction machine allows for solution of the excitation impedances in

the equivalent circuit model.

___True___ The rated speed of a 3 induction machine is the speed the machine should run under full-rated

conditions.

___True___ A 3, squirrel-cage, induction machine requires no external electrical connection to the rotor.

___True___ A 4-pole, 3 induction machine will have a higher synchronous speed when supplied by a 60Hz

source compared to when being supplied by a 50Hz source.

___True___ A 3 induction machine produces no torque and no mechanical power at synchronous speed.

___True___ The direction of rotation for a 3 induction machine depends on the phase sequence of the

source.

___False___ At synchronous speed, a 3 induction machine will draw no line current (Iline = 0A).

___False___ The frequency of the rotor voltages in a 3 induction machine will increase as the machine

accelerates from start-up to synchronous speed.

___False___ A 3 induction machine functions as a generator when running backwards.

___True___ The rated speed of a 3 induction machine is the speed the machine should run under full-rated

conditions.

___False___ Increasing the rotor-circuit resistance of a 3, wound-rotor induction machine will increase the

speed at which maximum torque occurs.

___False___ When supplied at rated voltage, a 3 induction machine develops rated torque at its synchronous

speed.

___False___ The no-load speed of an ideal 3 induction motor can be increased by increasing the

magnitude of its supply voltage.

___FALSE__ The excitation current in a transformer is the current required to create the full-load magnetic field

in the magnetic core.

___TRUE___ The magnetization current in a transformer is the current required to create the no-load magnetic

field in a lossless magnetic core.

___FALSE__ The turns ratio of a transformer is specified by the ratio of the rated high-side voltage compared to

the rated low-side voltage.

___TRUE___ The turns ratio of a transformer is specified by the ratio of the rated primary voltage compared to

(divided by) the rated secondary voltage.

___FALSE__ Eddy currents are circulating currents in the transformer core resulting from the time-varying

current flowing in the load.

___FALSE__ Eddy currents are circulating currents in the transformer core resulting from the circular magnetic

field in the magnetic core.

___FALSE__ At no-load, a non-ideal (actual) transformer will draw no primary current.

___TRUE___ If the primary voltage is held constant, the secondary voltage on an actual transformer will

typically decrease as the resistance of a purely resistive load is decreased (thus drawing more

current).

___TRUE___ Given a transformer containing a center-tapped winding, if the center-tapped winding is utilized as

the secondary winding of the transformer, of the secondary winding voltage will appear

between the center tap terminal and either of that windings other two terminals.

___TRUE___ The Open-Circuit Test for a transformer is used to determine the excitation impedances (Rfe & Xm)

in the transformer model.

___FALSE__ The Short-Circuit Test for a transformer is typically performed at rated primary voltage.

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