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2. Find Aut(Z).

Since Z = h1i, by property 4 of Theorem 6.2 we know that any automorphism of Z must map

1 to another generator of Z. Also, since automorphisms preserve the operation, we see that for

any automorphism , (k) = k(1) (as in example 13 in the text). Since the only generators of

Z are 1, 1, that gives us two possibilities for automorphisms in Aut(Z), namely f (x) = x and

g(x) = x.

The identity function f (x) = x is clearly an automorphism (and should have been proven to be

an isomorphism in problem 6 showing that isomorphism is an equivalence relation).

We now show that g(x) = x is an automorphism of Z. If x, y Z and g(x) = g(y) then

x = y and thus x = y so g is 1-1. If z Z then so is z and g(z) = (z) = z so g is

onto. If x, y Z then g(x + y) = (x + y) = x y = x + (y) = g(x) + g(y) so g is OP.

Therefore g is an automorphism of Z.

Since we have shown that these are the only two possibilities and that both actually are automorphisms, we see that Aut(Z) = {f, g} where f (x) = x and g(x) = x.

3. Let R+ be the group of positive real numbers under multiplication. Show that the mapping

(x) = x is an automorphism of R+ .

Let x, y R+ and suppose that (x) = (y). Then x = y and squaring both sides gives

z 2 R+ and (z 2 ) = z 2 = z (since z > 0) so is onto. If

of R+ .

11. If g and h are elements from a group, prove that g h = gh .

Recall that a is the inner automorphism of G induced by a, that is: a (x) = axa1 . To show

that the given functions are equal, I will show

that for any x G they have the same output

value. Let x G. Then g h (x) = g h (x) = g (hxh1 ) = g(hxh1 )g 1 = (gh)x(h1 g 1 ) =

(gh)x(gh)1 = gh (x). Since x was an arbitrary element of G, we see that g h = gh .

13. Prove the assertion in Example 12 that the inner automorphisms R0 , R90 , H , and D of D4

are distinct.

We need to show that for any pair of these functions, there is some element of D4 that gives

different outputs. First well compare R0 to all the others. Note that R0 (x) = R0 xR01 = x

since R0 is the identity. Since R0 (H) = H and R90 (H) = R90 HR270 = D0 R270 = V we see that

R0 6= R90 . Since R0 (R90 ) = R90 and H (R90 ) = HR90 H = DH = R270 we see that R0 6= H .

Also, since D (R90 ) = DR90 D = V D = R270 we see that R0 6= D . Thus R0 is distinct from

the other three inner automorphisms listed.

1

Now compare R90 to the remaining two automorphisms. Since R90 (R90 ) = R90 R90 R90

= R90

and H (R90 ) = HR90 H = DH = R270 and D (R90 ) = DR90 D = V D = R270 we see that

R90 6= H and R90 6= D .

It remains to show that H 6= D . Since H (H) = HHH 1 = H and D (H) = DHD = R270 D =

V we see that H 6= D .

Therefore, the four inner automorphisms R0 , R90 , H , and D of D4 are distinct.

Note that there are probably lots of other choices that we could have used to see that these

functions are distinct, but we just needed one.

14. Find Aut(Z6 ).

Similar to problem 2, since Z6 is cyclic, we can only send a generator to another generator, and

then we need to check if those functions give automorphisms. Recall from an earlier chapter that

the generators for Z6 will be those numbers relatively prime to 6, namely 1 and 5.

Consider f (x) = 1 x = x. This is the identity function which we already know is always an

automorphism.

Now consider g(x) = 5x. If x, y Z6 and g(x) = g(y) then 5x 5y mod 6. Then 5(5x) 5(5y)

or 25x 25y which implies that x y mod 6 since 25 1. Thus g is 1-1. Let z Z6 . Then 5z

mod 6 Z6 and g(5z) 25z z mod 6 so g is onto. If x, y Z6 then g(x + y) 5(x + y)

5x + 5y g(x) + g(y) so g is OP. Thus g(x) = 5x is an automorphism.

Therefore Aut(Z6 ) = {f, g} where f (x) = x and g(x) = 5x.

22. Let be an automorphism of a group G. Prove that H = {x G | (x) = x} is a subgroup of G.

We will use the 2 Step Subgroup Test. Since for any automorphism we have (e) = e, we see

that e H so H 6= . Let a, b H. Then (a) = a and (b) = b by definition of H. Then

1

(ab) = (a)(b) = ab so ab H. If a H so that (a) = a, then (a1 ) = (a)

= a1 so

a1 H. Thus by the 2 Step Subgroup Test we see that H is a subgroup of G.

26. Prove that the mapping from U (16) to itself given by x 7 x3 is an automorphism. What about

x 7 x5 and x 7 x7 ? Generalize.

Recall that U (16) = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15}. We will make a table of values for the function

f (x) = x3 in U (16).

x x3

1 1

3 11

5 13

7 7

9 9

11 3

13 5

15 15

It is clear from this table that f (x) = x3 is a bijection, that is, both 1-1 and onto. We can

show OP by recalling how modular arithmetic works: f (xy) (xy)3 x3 y 3 f (x)f (y). Thus

For x5 and x7 we can also make tables:

x x7

x x5

1 1

1 1

3 11

3 3

5 5

5 13

7 7

7 7

9 9

9 9

11 3

11 11

13 13

13 5

15 15

15 15

It is clear that both of these are also automorphisms of U (16) since x5 = x is the identity function, and x7 = x3 which we just showed is an automorphism.

Generalize: It seems that any odd power of x, x2k+1 , will always be an automorphism of U (16).

We can prove this by noting the table of values for x4 :

x x4

1 1

3 1

5 1

7 1

9 1

11 1

13 1

15 1

Since x4 = 1 in U (16), we see that x4k+1 = (x4 )k x1 = x and x4k+3 = (x4 )k x3 = x3 which we

already mentioned are automorphisms. Since any odd number is of the form 4k + 1 or 4k + 3,

we see that x2k+1 for any k N is an automorphism of U (16) (note however that we have only

discussed two distinct functions, even if the formula is different).

You can also note that any even power of x will not be an automorphism since (1)2k = 1 and

(15)2k = (1)2k = 1 in U (16).

35. Show that the mapping (a + bi) = a bi is an automorphism of the group of complex numbers

under addition (C). Show that preserves multiplication as well that is, (xy) = (x)(y) for

all x and y in C.

Let a + bi, c + di C. If (a + bi) = (c + di) then a bi = c di and by the properties of

complex numbers that means that a = c and b = d which means b = d. Thus a + bi = c + di

and is 1-1.

Let a + bi C. Then a bi C and (a bi) = a (b)i = a + bi so is onto.

Let a + bi, c + di C. Then (a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i = (a + c) (b + d)i =

a + c bi di = (a bi) + (c di) = (a + bi) + (c + di). So is operation preserving (OP).

Therefore is an automorphism of C.

OP for multiplication: Let

a

+

bi,

c

+

di

C.

Then

(a

+

bi)(c

+

di)

= (ac + adi + bci bd) =

(ac bd) + (ad + bc)i = (ac bd) (ad + bc)i. At this point it will be easier to show that we

get the same value if we consider (a + bi)(c + di) = (a bi)(c di) = ac adi bci bd =

(ac bd) (ad + bc)i. Thus preserves multiplication as well.

55. Suppose that is an automorphism of D4 such that (R90 ) = R270 and (V ) = V . Determine

(D) and (H).

Since R90 V = D we have (D) = (R90 V ) = (R90 )(V ) = R270 V = D0 .

Since R90 D = H we have (H) = (R90 D) = (R90 )(D) = R270 D0 = H.

56. In Aut(Z9 ), let i denote the automorphism that sends 1 to i where gcd(i, 9) = 1. Write 5 and

8 as permutations of {0, 1, . . . , 8} in disjoint cycle form.

Recall that since Z9 = h1i, we have i (k) = ki (1) = ki. We will make a table of values for each

function, then convert to disjoint cycle form.

x

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

5 (x) = 5x

0

5

1

6

2

7

3

8

4

So 5 = (1 5 7 8 4 2)(3 6).

x 8 (x) = 8x = x = 9 x

0

0

8

1

2

7

3

6

4

5

5

4

6

3

7

2

8

1

So 8 = (1 8)(2 7)(3 6)(4 5).

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