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ThS PHNG DUY QUANG (ch bin)

BI GING N THI CAO HC


Mn: TON KINH T

H NI, 2011
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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Phn 1. Ton c s ng dng trong kinh t


TON CAO CP 1
Chuyn 1. Ma trn v nh thc
1. Ma trn v cc php ton
2. nh thc ca ma trn vung cp n
3. Ma trn nghch o
4. Hng ca ma trn
Chuyn 2. H phng trnh tuyn tnh v ng dng
1. Khi nim h phng trnh tuyn tnh
2. Phng php gii h phng trnh
TON CAO CP 2
Chuyn 3. Gii hn, lin tc, vi tch phn hm mt bin s
1. Gii hn ca dy s
2. Gii hn ca hm s
3. Hm s lin tc
4 o hm, vi phn v ng dng
5. Tch phn hm mt bin s
Chuyn 4. Php tnh vi phn hm nhiu bin s v ng dng
1. Gii hn v lin tc
2. o hm ring v vi phn ca hm nhiu bin
3 Cc tr hm nhiu bin
Chuyn 5. Tng hp cc dng Ton cao cp ng dng trong phn tch kinh t

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Alpha C. Chiang, Fundamental Methods of Mathematical Economics, McGRAW-HILL
Book Copany, 1984.
2. L nh Thy (ch bin), Ton cao cp cho cc nh kinh t, NXB Thng k, 2004.
3. Bi tp Ton cao cp cho cc nh kinh t, NXB HKTQD, 2008
4. Nguyn Huy Hong, Ton cao cp T1, T2. NXB Gio dc Vit Nam, 2010.
5. Nguyn Huy Hong,Hng dn gii bi tp Ton cao cp cho cc nh kinh t T1, T2.
NXB Gio dc Vit Nam, 2010.
6. Ng Vn Th, Nguyn Quang Dong, M hnh ton kinh t, NXB Thng k, 2005.

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

TON CAO CP 1
Chuyn 1. MA TRN V NH THC
1. MA TRN
1. Cc khi nim
Cho m, n l cc s nguyn dng
nh ngha 1. Ma trn l mt bng s xp theo dng v theo ct. Mt ma trn c m
dng v n ct c gi l ma trn cp m n. Khi cho mt ma trn ta vit bng s bn
trong du ngoc trn hoc ngoc vung. Ma trn cp m n c dng tng qut nh sau:
a 11

a 21
...

a
m1

a 12
a 22
...
a m2

... a 1n

... a 2 n
hoc
... ...

... a mn

a 11
a
21
...

a m1

a 12
a 22
...
a m2

... a 1n
... a 2 n
... ...

... a mn

Vit tt l A = (aij)n xn hoc A = [aij]n xn


2 5 7
. A l mt ma trn cp 2 x 3 vi
6 7 1

V d 1. Cho ma trn A =

a11 = 2 ; a12 = 5 ; a13 = - 7 ; a21 = 6 ; a22 = 7 ; a23 = 1


nh ngha 2.
Hai ma trn c coi l bng nhau khi v ch khi chng cng cp v cc phn t
v tr tng ng ca chng i mt bng nhau.
Ma trn chuyn v ca A l AT : AT = [aji]n xn
Ma trn i ca ma trn A l ma trn: -A = [- aij]n x n
1 3
V d 2. Cho ma trn A = 4 1 . Xc nh AT, - A
2 0
1 3
4 2
1
Ta c A =
; A = 4 1

3 1 0
2 0
T

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Ma trn khng cp m x n l ma trn m mi phn t u bng 0 : = [0]m x n


Khi n = 1 ngi ta gi ma trn A l ma trn ct, cn khi m = 1 ngi ta gi ma trn
A l ma trn dng.
Ma trn vung cp n l ma trn c s dng v s ct bng nhau v bng n. Mt ma
trn c s dng v s ct cng bng n c gi l ma trn vung cp n. Khi cc phn
t a11, a22, , ann gi l cc phn t thuc ng cho chnh, cn cc phn t an1, a n 12 ,
, a1n gi l cc phn t thuc ng cho ph.
Ma trn tam gic l ma trn vung khi c cc phn t nm v mt pha ca ng
cho chnh bng 0.
+) Ma trn A = [aij]n x n c gi l ma trn tam gic trn nu aij = 0 vi i > j:
a 11
0

A = ...

0
0

a 12
a 22
...
0
0

... a 1n 1
... a 2 n 1
...
...
... a n 1 n 1
...
0

a 1n
a 2 n
...

a n 1 n
a nn

+) Ma trn A = [aij]n x n c gi l ma trn tam gic di nu aij = 0 vi i < j:


a 11
a
21
A = ...

a n 11
a n1

0
a 22
...
a n 1 2
a n2

...
0
...
0
...
...
... a n 1 n 1
...

a n n 1

0
0
...

0
a nn

V d 4. Cho mt v d v ma trn vung cp 3, ma trn tam gic trn, tam gic di cp


3.
Gii:
1 2 5
1 2 5
1 0 0

A = 2 1 4 ; B = 0 1 4 ; C = 2 1 0
1 1
0 0 6
1 1 6
6

Ma trn cho l ma trn vung cp n m c tt c cc phn t nm ngoi ng


cho chnh u bng 0
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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Ma trn cho c tt c cc phn t thuc ng cho chnh bng 1 c gi l ma


trn n v :
1
0

E = ...

0
0

0 ... 0
1 ... 0
... ... ...
0 ... 1
0 ... 0

0
0
...

0
1

Tp cc ma trn cp m x n trn trng s thc R, k hiu: Matm x n(R)


Tp cc ma trn vung cp n trn trng s thc R, k hiu: Mat n(R)
6
2
2 5 7

7
V d 5. Cho ma trn A =
v B = 5
6
7
1

7 m 2

a) Tm AT v A
b) Tm m AT = B
Gii:
2 6
2 5 7
a) Ta c A = 5 7 v A =

6 7 1
7 1
T

6
2 6 2

b) A = B 5 7 = 5
7 m 2 = 1 m = 1
7 1 7 m 2
T

2. Php ton trn ma trn


a) Php cng hai ma trn v php nhn ma trn vi 1 s
nh ngha 3. Cho hai ma trn cng cp m n: A = [a ij ]mn ; B = [b ij ]mn
Tng ca hai ma trn A v B l mt ma trn cp m n, k hiu A + B v c xc nh
nh sau: A + B = [a ij + b ii ]mn
Tch ca ma trn A vi mt s l mt ma trn cp m n, k hiu A v c xc
nh nh sau:
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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

A = .a ij

m n

Hiu ca A tr B: A B = A + (-B)
T nh ngha ta suy ra cc tnh cht c bn ca php ton tuyn tnh
Tnh cht 1. Cho A, B, C l cc ma trn bt k cp m n, ; l cc s bt k ta lun
c:
1) A + B = B + A
2) (A + B) +C = A + (B + C)
3) A + 0 = A
4) A + (-A) = 0
5) 1.A = A
6) (A + B) = A + B
7) ( + )A = A + A
8) ( )A = ( B)
1 2 4
2 1 2
;B =

. Khi
0 1 1
2 1 3

V d 6. Cho cc ma trn A =

1 2 4
2 1 2 4 7 14
+ ( 3).
2A 3B = 2.

0 1 1
2 1 3 6 1 11
1 3

V d 7. Cho ma trn B =
. Tm ma trn C sao cho 3B 2(B + C) = 2E
5 3
Gii:
1
2

1 1 3 1 0 1 / 2 3 / 2

=
2 5 3 0 1 5 / 2 1 / 2

Phng trnh cho C = B E = .


b) Php nhn ma trn vi ma trn
Cho hai ma trn :

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

a 11
a
A = 21
...

a m1

a 12
a 22
...
a m2

b11
b
21
B=
...

b n1

... a 1n
... a 2 n
;
... ...

... a mn

b12
b 22
...
b n2

... b1p
... b 2 p
... ...

... b np

Trong , ma trn A c s ct bng s dng ca ma trn B.


nh ngha 4.
Tch ca ma trn A vi ma trn B l mt ma trn cp m p, k hiu l AB v c xc
c11
c
nh nh sau: AB = 21
...

c m1

c12
c 22
...
c m2

... c1n
... c 2 n
... ...

... c mn
n

trong c ij = a i1b1 j + a i 2 b 2 j + ... + a in b nj = a ik b kj ; (i = 1,2,..., m; j = 1,2,..., p )


k =1

Ch 1.
Tch AB tn ti khi v ch khi s ct ca ma trn ng trc bng s dng ca ma
trn ng sau.
C ca ma trn AB: Ma trn AB c s dng bng s dng ca ma trn ng trc
v s ct bng s ct ca ma trn ng sau.
Cc phn t ca AB c tnh theo quy tc: Phn t cij l tch v hng ca dng
th i ca ma trn ng trc v ct th j ca ma trn ng sau.
1 2
0 1 4
v B =

. Tnh A.B v B.A


3 1
1 3 2

V d 8. Cho hai ma trn A =


Gii :

1 2 0 1 4 1.0 + 2.1 1.1 + 2.3 1.4 + 2.2 2 7 8


.
=
=

3 1 1 3 2 3.0 + 1.1 3.1 + 1.3 3.4 + 1.2 1 6 14

Ta c A.B =

Nhng s ct ca B khc s dng ca A nn khng tn ti tch BA.

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

1 2 3 1
2 1 0
V d 9. Cho ma trn A =
; B = 2 1 1 0 . Tnh A.B, BA

3 2 0
3 0 2 1

Gii:
1 2 3 1
7 1
2 1 0
3 5
.2 1 1 0 =
Ta c A.B =

3 2 0 3 0 2 1 1 8 7 3

Cn B.A khng tn ti
Cc tnh cht c bn ca php nhn ma trn
Tnh cht 2. Gi s php nhn cc ma trn di y u thc hin c.
1) (AB)C = A(BC)
2) A(B+C) = AB+AC; (B+C)D =BD +CD
3) (AB) = ( A)B = A( B)
4) AE = A;

EB =B

c bit , vi ma trn vung A: AE = EA = A


T

5) ( AB ) = BT A T
Ch 2. Php nhn ma trn khng c tnh cht giao hon. Nu A.B = th cha chc
A = hoc B = .

0 1
0 0
;B =

.
0 0
1 0

V d 10. Cho cc ma trn A =

1 0
0 0
; B.A =

v AB BA
0 0
0 1

Khi A.B =

1 0
0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
, ta c A.B =
;B=

.
=

0 0
0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0

V d 11. Cho A =

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

c) Lu tha ca ma trn vung: Cho A l ma trn vung cp n. Ta xc nh


A0 = E; An = An -1. A ( n l s nguyn dng)
a b
. Chng minh rng, ma trn A tho mn phng trnh
c d

V d 12. Cho A =

X 2 (a + d ) X + (ad bc) =

Gii:
a b a b
a b
1 0
.
(a + d ).
+ (ad bc).

c d c d
c d
0 1

Ta c A 2 (a + d )A + (ad bc)E =

0 0 0
a 2 + bc (a + d )b a (a + d ) b(a + d ) ad bc

+
=
= . (pcm)

2
ad bc 0 0
(a + d )c bc + d c(a + d ) d(a + d ) 0

1 1
2
3
n
. Tnh A , A , ..., A (n l s t nhin)
0
1

V d 13. Cho ma trn A =


Gii:
1 1 1 1

1 2

1 2 1 1

1 3

; A3 =
Ta c A 2 =
=

=
; .... ; tng t ta c th d
0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 0 1
1 n

on A n =
. D dng chng minh c bng quy np cng thc An.

0 1
nh ngha 5. Php bin i s cp trn ma trn A = [aij]m x n l cc php bin i c
dng
i) i ch 2 dng (ct) cho nhau: d i d j (c i c j )
ii) nhn mt dng (ct) vi mt s khc 0: kd i (kc i )
iii) nhn mt dng (ct) vi mt s ri cng vo dng (ct) khc: hd i + d j (hc i + c j )
1 2 4 6
V d 15. Cho ma trn A = 2 1 2 5 . Thc hin cc php bin i s cp sau: (1)
1 1 2 4

nhn dng 2 vi 2
(2) hon v dng 1 cho dng 2
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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

(3) nhn dng 2 vi 2 cng vo dng 3


nh ngha 6. Ma trn dng bc thang l ma trn c tnh cht
i) Cc dng khc khng (tc l c mt phn t khc 0) nu c th lun trn cc dng
bng khng (tc l hng c tt c cc phn t bng 0).
ii) hai dng khc 0 k nhau th phn t khc 0 u tin dng di bao gi cng bn
phi ct cha phn t khc 0 u tin dng trn.
V d 15. Cc ma trn sau l ma trn dng bc thang
1
0
A=
0

8
1 1

0 1
1 1 3 5
; B=
0 0
0 0 2 5

0 0 0 0
0 0

3 4

7
1 1 2
2 8 1
; C = 0 2 1
2 1 1
0 0 0

0 0 1

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

2. NH THC CA MA TRN VUNG


1. Khi nim nh thc
a 11
a
Cho ma trn A = 21
...

a n1

a 12
a 22
...
a n2

... a 1n
... a 2 n
. Xt phn t aij ca A, b i dng i v ct j ca A
... ...

... a nn

ta c ma trn vung cp n -1, k hiu Mij: gi l ma trn con con ng vi phn t aij.
a 11
V d 1. A = a 21
a 31

a 12
a 22
a 32

a 13
a 23 . Tm cc ma trn con ng vi cc phn t ca A
a 33

a 11
a
nh ngha 1. Cho mt ma trn A vung cp n: A = 21
...

a n1

a 12
a 22
...
a n2

... a 1n
... a 2 n
.
... ...

... a nn

nh thc ca A, k hiu det(A) hoc A c nh ngha nh sau:


* nh thc cp 1: A = [a11] th det(A) = a11
a 11
a 21

a 12
a
th det(A ) = 11

a 21
a 22

* nh thc cp 2: A =

V d 2. Tnh nh thc

2 14

x2
V d 3. Gii phng trnh:
9

a 12
= a 11a 22 a 12 a 21
a 22

= 1.14 6.2 = 2

25
=0
4

Gii: Tnh nh thc ta c: VT = 4x2 25.9

PT x 2 =

25.9
15
x=
4
2

* nh thc cp 3:

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

a 11
det A = a 21
a 31

a 12
a 22
a 32

a 13
a 23 = a 11 .a 22 .a 33 + a 12 .a 23 .a 31 + a 13 .a 21 .a 32 a 13 .a 22 .a 31 a 12 .a 21 .a 33 a 11 .a 23 .a 32
a 33

Quy tc Sariut: nh thc cp 3 c 6 s hng, m mi s hng l tch ca 3 phn t m

mi dng, mi ct ch c mt i biu duy nht.


* Cc s hng mang du cng: cc s hng m cc phn t nm trn ng cho chnh
hoc cc phn t nm trn cc nh ca tam gic c 3 nh c mt cnh song song vi
ng cho chnh.

* Cc s hng mang du tr: cc s hng m cc phn t nm trn ng cho ph hoc


cc phn t nm trn cc nh ca tam gic c 3 nh c mt cnh song song vi ng
cho ph. nh quy tc tnh nh thc cp 3, ngi ta thng dng quy tc Sarrus
sau:

D u +

Du -

T quy tc Sarrus trn, chng ta cn mt quy tc khc tnh nhanh nh thc cp


3: ghp thm ct th nht v ct th hai vo bn phi nh thc hoc ghp thm dng th
nht v dng th hai xung bn di nh thc ri nhn cc phn t trn cc ng cho
nh quy tc th hin trn hnh:
a1
a2
a3

b1
b2
b3

D u -

c1
c2
c3

a1
a2
a3

b1
b2
b3

Du +

a1
a2
a3

b1
b2
b3

c1
c2
c3

a1
a2

b1
b2

c1 Du +
c2

D u -

1 2 3
V d 4.Tnh nh thc 3 = 2 0 1
2 2 1

Gii: Ta c 3 = 1.0.1 + 2.(-2).1 + 3.2.(-2) 3.0.2 1.(-2).2) 1.1.(-2) = -10

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

x2

V d 5. Gii phng trnh 1


4

x 1
1 1=0
2 1

Gii:
x2

x 1

x = 1
1 1 = x 2 3x + 2 = 0
x = 2
2 1

Ta c 1
4

nh thc cp n (n 3 ):
n

det(A) =

ij

(1) i+ j det(M ij ) (vi i bt k)

j=1

hoc det(A) =

ij

(1) i + j det(M ij ) (vi j bt k)

i =1

2011

V d 6. Gii phng trnh :

Gii : t 4 =

0 0

x 1

2009

1 1

2008

2 1

2010 x

2011 0
2010 x 2

0 0
x 1

2009

1 1

2008

2 1

c 4 = 2011.(1)

1+1

=0

. S dng cng thc khai trin nh thc theo dng 1 ta

x2

x 1

1
4

1 1 = 2011.( x 2 3x + 2) .
2 1

x = 1
PT x 2 3x + 2 = 0
x = 2
2. Tnh cht ca nh thc

A =[aij]n x n vi n = det(A )
Dng i ca nh thc c gi l tng ca 2 dng nu:

(a

i1

a i2 ....a ij ....a in ) = ( bi1 bi2 ....bij ....bin ) + ( ci1 ci 2 ....cij ....cin ) ;a ij = bij + cij (j = 1, n)

Dng i l t hp hp tuyn tnh ca cc dng khc nu


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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

k =1
k

k =1
k i

a ij = k a kj (j = 1, n ) . K hiu d i = k d k ; dk = (ak1 ak2 ... akn)

Tnh cht 1. (Tnh cht chuyn v)


nh thc ca ma trn vung bng nh thc ca ma trn chuyn v ca n: det(AT)

= det(A)
a b
. CMR det(AT) =det(A)

c d

V d 1. Cho A =
Bn c t gii

Ch 1. T tnh cht chuyn v, mi tnh cht ca nh thc ng cho dng th cng


ng cho ct v ngc li. Do , trong cc tnh cht ca nh thc, ch pht biu cho cc

dng, cc tnh cht vn gi nguyn gi tr khi thay ch "dng" bng ch "ct".


Tnh cht 2. (Tnh phn xng).
i ch hai dng cho nhau v gi nguyn v tr cc dng cn li th nh thc i du.
V d 2. Xt

a b
c d

c d
a b

Bn c t gii
H qu 1. Mt nh thc c hai dng ging nhau th bng khng.
Chng minh

Gi nh thc c hai hng nh nhau l n . i ch hai hng ta c, theo tnh cht 2


ta c
n = - n 2 n = 0 n = 0

Tnh cht 3. (Tnh thun nht). Nu nhn cc phn t mt dng no vi cng mt s

k th c nh thc mi bng k ln nh thc c


a 11

a 12

...

a 1n

a 11

a 12

... a 1n

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

ka i1
...

ka i 2
...

a n1

a n2

... ka in = k. a i1 a i 2
... ...
... ...
a n1 a n 2
... a nn

...

... a in
... ...
... a nn

nh l ny c th pht biu: Nu mt nh thc c mt dng c nhn t chung th a

nhn t chung ra ngoi du nh thc


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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

H qu 2. Mt nh thc c hai dng t l vi nhau th bng khng.


Chng minh: Tht vy, nu a h s t l ra ngoi du nh thc th c mt nh thc

c hai dng ging nhau nn n bng khng.


12

V d 2.19. Chng minh nh thc sau chia ht cho 17: 4 =

17 68 35 204
2

11

Gii:
12

Ta c 4 =

17.1 17.(4) 17.2 17.(12)


2

11

12 2

12

11

= 17.

= 17.D .

V D l nh thc to bi cc s nguyn nn D cng l s nguyn. Do 4 M17


Tnh cht 3. (Tnh cng tnh). Nu nh thc c mt dng l tng hai dng th nh thc

bng tng ca hai nh thc.


a11
L
bi1 + ci1
L
a n1

a12
L

L
L

a1n
L

a11
L

a12
L

L a1n
L L

a11
L

a12
L

L a1n
L L

bi 2 + ci2 L bin + cin = bi1 bi2 L bin + ci1 ci2 L cin


L
L
L
L L L L L L L L
an2
L
a nn
a n1 a n 2 L a nn a n1 a n 2 L a nn

H qu 3. Nu nh thc c mt dng l t hp tuyn tnh ca cc dng khc th nh

thc y bng khng.


l h qu ca tnh cht cng tnh v tnh thun nht.
H qu 4. Nu cng vo mt dng mt t hp tuyn tnh ca cc dng khc th nh thc

khng i.
T cc tnh cht ca nh thc, ta thng s dng cc php bin i s cp trn ma trn
trong qu trnh tnh nh thc cp n:

* i ch 2 dng (ct) cho nhau: d i d j (c i c j ) , php bin i ny nh thc i du


* Nhn mt dng (ct) vi mt s khc 0: kd i (kc i ) , php bin i ny nh thc tng ln
k ln.

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

* Nhn mt dng (ct) vi mt s cng vo dng (ct) khc: hd i + d j (hc i + c j ) , php bin
i ny khng lm thay i gi tr ca nh thc.

a
b
c
V d 4. Tnh nh thc 3 =
a'
b'
c'
ax + a ' y bx + b' y cx + c' y

Gii:

Nhn dng 1 vi (-x), dng 2 vi (-y) cng vo dng 3 ta c: 3

xd1 yd 2 + d 3

a b c
a ' b ' c' = 0
0

a2
(a + 1) 2
V d 5. Tnh nh thc 4 =
( a + 2) 2
(a + 3) 2

b2
(b + 1) 2
( b + 2) 2
(b + 3) 2

c2
(c + 1) 2
( c + 2) 2
(c + 3) 2

d2
(d + 1) 2
( d + 2) 2
(d + 3) 2

Gii:

Nhn dng 1 vi (-1), ri cng ln lt vo dng 2, dng 3, dng 4 c:


a2

b2

c2

d2

d1 + d i

2a + 1

2b + 1

2c + 1

2d + 1

i = 2 , 3, 4

4a + 4 4 b + 4 4c + 4 4d + 4

4 =

6a + 9 6 b + 9 6c + 9 6d + 9

Sau nhn dng 2 vi (- 2) cng vo dng 3, nhn dng 2 vi (-3) cng vo dng 4
c:
a2
b2
c2
d2
2d 2 +d 3
2a + 1 2 b + 1 2c + 1 2d + 1
4 =
= 0 (v c 2 dng t l nhau)
3 d 2 + d 4
2
2
2
2
6
6
6
6

V d 6. Tnh nh thc 4 =

c
a+b
2

a
b+c
2

b
1
c+a
1
2

Gii:
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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

a + b + c +1
a + b + c +1
Cng cc ct vo ct 1 ta c: 4 = a + b + c + 1

b
c
a
b+c
a + b + c +1
2

c
a
b
c+a
2

1
1
1
1

t nhn t chung ca ct 1 ra ngoi:


1
1
4 = (a + b + c + 1). 1

b
c
a
b+c
1
2

c
a
b
c+a
2

1
1
1=0
1

3.Cc phng php tnh nh thc

Cho nh thc cp n:
a 11
...
n = a i1
...
a n1

... a 1 j
... ...
... a ij
... ...
... a nj

... a 1n
... ...
... a in
... ...
... a nm

a) S dng nh ngha bng cng thc khai trin:

Phn b i s ca aij
Xa i dng th i v ct th j (dng v ct cha phn t aij ) ca A ta c mt ma
trn con (n - 1), k hiu l M ij . nh thc ca M ij c gi l nh thc con cp n -1
tng ng vi phn t aij ca A v A ij = (1) i+ j det(M ij ) c gi l phn b i s ca
phn t aij ca nh thc d. Cho nh thc cp n l n . Khi n c th tnh theo hai
cch sau:
i) Cng thc khai trin theo dng th i :
n

j=1

j=1

n = a ij (1) i + j . det(M ij ) = a ij A ij (1)

ii) Cng thc khai trin theo ct th j:

18
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

i =1

i =1

n = a ij (1) i + j . det(M ij ) = a ij A ij (2)

H qu. i vi nh thc cp n l n , ta c

i)

ij

j=1

ii)

khi i = k
A kj = n
(3)
0 khi i k

ij

i =1

khi j = k
(4)
A ik = n
0 khi j k

Nhn xt: Mc ch ca cng thc (1) hoc (2) l chuyn vic tnh nh thc cp n v

tnh nh thc cp n -1, ri t cp n -1 chuyn v cp n -2, , cho n nh thc cp 3, 2.


Khi p dng cng thc (1) hoc (2), ta nn chn dng hoc ct c cha nhiu phn t 0
nht khai trin. Nu khng c dng hoc ct nh vy ta bin i nh thc a v nh
thc mi bng nh thc ban u nhng c dng hoc ct nh vy.
2 1 1
V d 1. Tnh nh thc a) 3 = 3 1 2
4 5 0

1 2 1
b) 3 = 3 1 2
1 2 4

Gii: a) Khai trin nh thc theo dng 3 ta c:


3 = 4.(1) 3+1 .

1 2

+ 5.(1) 3+ 2 .

2 1
3 2

+ 0 = 12 5 = 7

b) Khai trin nh thc theo ct 1 ta c:


3 = 1.(1)1+1 .

1 2
2 4

+ 3.(1) 2+1 .

V d 2. Tnh nh thc a) 4 =

2 1
2

+ (1)(1) 3+1 .

4 1 3

2 1
1

= 0 30 5 = 35

1 0 0

b) 4 =

0 1 0 3
0 0 1

2 3 4

11

Gii:

a) Nhn ct 1 vi (-1) cng vo ct 2, nhn ct 1 vi (-5) cng vo ct 4; ri khai trin


nh thc theo ct 1, ta c
19
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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

c1 + c 2

5 c1 + c 4

6 1 13

1+1

= 1.(1) . 6 1 13 = 6 1 13
8

14

14

14

Cng dng 1 vo dng 2, nhn dng 1 vi (-2) cng vo dng 2, ri khai trin nh thc
theo ct 2 ta c:
4 1
8
2 5
4 = 2 0 5 = 1.(1)1+ 2 .
= 20
2 d1 + d 3
16 30
16 0 30
d1 + d 2

b) Nhn ct (-2) vi ct 1 ri cng vi ct 4


1 0 0
4 =

0 1 0 5
0 0 1

2 3 4

Khai trin nh thc theo dng 1 ta c


1 0 0
4 =

0 1 0 5
0 0 1

2 3 4

1 0 5
1+1

= 1.(1) . 0 1
3 4

1 0 5

4 =0 1

3 4

Nhn ct 1 vi 5 cng vo ct 3, khai trin nh thc theo dng 1 ta c


1 0 0
1 4
4 = 0 1 4 = 1.(1)1+1 .
= 24 16 = 8
4 24
3 4 24

V d 3. Tnh nh thc ca ma trn tam gic trn v tam gic di


a 11
0
a) n = ...
0
0

a 12
a 22
...
0
0

... a 1n 1
... a 2 n 1
...
...
... a n 1 n 1
...
0

a 1n
a 2n
...
a n 1 n
a nn

a 11
a 21
b) n = ...
a n 11
a n1

Gii:
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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

0
a 22
...
a n 1 2
a n2

...
0
...
0
...
...
... a n 1 n 1

0
0
...
0

...

a nn

a n n 1

Ta ch cn xt a) Ln lt khai trin nh thc theo ct 1 :


a 11
0
n = ...
0
0

a 12
a 22
...
0
0

... a 1n 1
... a 2 n 1
...
...
... a n 1 n 1
...
0

a 1n
a 22
a 2n
...
... = a 11 .(1)1+1 .
0
a n 1 n
0
a nn

a 11
a 21
Tng t, ta c n = ...
a n 11
a n1

... a 2 n 1
...
...
... a n 1n 1
...
0

a 2n
...
= ... = a 11 .a 22 ...a nn
a n 1 n
a nn

0
a 22
...
a n 1 2

...
0
...
0
...
...
... a n 1 n 1

0
0
... = a 11a 22 ...a nn
0

a n2

...

a nn

a n n 1

b) Phng php bin i v dng tam gic:

Dng cc tnh cht ca nh thc bin i nh thc a nh thc v nh thc ca


ma trn tam gic trn hoc di, sau p dng cng thc:
a 11
0
...
0

a 12
a 22
...
0

... a 1n
... a 2 n
= a 11 .a 22 .a 33 ...a nn hoc
... ...
... a nn

a 11
a 21
...
a n1

0
a 22
...
a n2

... 0
... 0
= a 11a 22 ...a nn
... ...
... a nn

V d 1. Tnh cc nh thc
1
a1
1 a 1 + b1

5 b) 4 = 1
1
5

a) 5 = 1 2

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 0

a1
a1
a1

a2
a2

a3
a3

a4
a4

a 2 + b2
a2
a2

a3
a 3 + b3
a3

a4
a4
a 4 + b4

Bn c t gii

21
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

V d 2. Tnh nh thc

a) 6 =

0 1

1 1

1 0

x x

1 x

x x

1 x

x x

1 x

0 x

1 x

b) 6 =

Gii: a)

Nu x = 0, khai trin nh thc theo dng 1, suy ra 6 = 0


Nu x 0, nhn ct 1, dng 1 vi x, ri cng cc dng vo dng 1v t nhn t
chung (n -1) ra ngoi ta c:
0 x
x
6 =

0 x

0 x

0 x

0 x

1 x
.
x2 x
x

0 x

0 x

5 x
.
x2 x
x

0 x

0 x

Nhn dng 1 vi (-1) ri cng vo cc dng khc ta c:


x

0 x
6 =

5 0
.
x2 0
0

5
.x ( x ) 5 = 5x 3
x2

b) Cng cc ct vo ct 1, ri t nhn t chung ra ngoi du nh thc ta c

6 =

a + 5x

x ... x

x ... x

a + 5x

x ... x

x ... x

a + 5x

...

... x

... ... ... ... ...

= [a + 5x ].

... x

... ... ... ... ... ...

a + 5x

x ... a

x ... a

a + 5x

x ... x

x ... x

22
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Nhn dng 1 vi (-1) v cng vo cc dng 2, dng 3, , dng n ta c

n = [a + 5x ].

...

ax

...

a x ...

...

...

...

...

...

...

... a x

...

= [a + 5x ].(a x ) 6

0
ax

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

3. MA TRN NGHCH O CA MA TRN VUNG

Trong phn ny chng ta xem xt khi nim ma trn nghch o ca ma trn vung
cp n, iu kin tn ti v cch tm ma trn nghch o
1. nh thc ca tch hai ma trn vung

Cho hai ma trn vung cp n : A = [aij]n x n; B = [bij]n x n


nh l 1. nh thc ca tch hai ma trn vung bng tch cc nh thc ca ma trn

thnh phn: det(AB)= det(A)det(B)


V d 1. Cho A, B l ma trn vung cp 3 c det(A) = 2, det(B) = -2. Tnh det(AB),

det(A2B); det(2AB).
Bn c t gii
2. nh ngha ma trn nghch o
nh ngha 1. Cho A l ma trn vung cp n v E l ma trn n v cp n. Nu c ma

trn vung B cp n sao cho


A.B = B.A = E
th ta ni ma trn A l kh nghch v B c gi l ma trn nghch o ca ma trn A
(hay A c ma trn nghch o l B), v k hiu A-1 = B.
1 0

1
V d 2. a) Ma trn A =
l kh nghch v c ma trn nghch o l A = 0 1 .
0
4

1 0 1
.
0 4 0

V ta c

0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1 =
1 .
=
.
0
0 4 0 1

4
4
0 0

b) Ma trn =
khng kh nghch v mi ma trn vung B cp 2 u c
0 0
.B = B. = E .

S duy nht ca ma trn nghch o


nh l 2. Ma trn nghch o A-1 ca ma trn vung A nu tn ti th duy nht
3. S tn ti ca ma trn nghch o
nh l 3. Ma trn vung A kh nghch khi v ch khi det(A) 0.

24
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

A11
A
1
1
-1
v A =
.A =
. 12
det(A)
det(A) M

A1n

A 21 L A n1
A 22 L A n 2
M O M

A 2n L A nn

1 2 1
1 3

V d 3. Tm A ca A =
; B = 0 1 4
2
6

0 0 1
-1

Bn c t gii

T khi nim v iu kin kh nghch ca ma trn, ta c mt s tnh cht sau:


nh l 4. Gi s A, B l cc ma trn vung cp n.

i) Nu A kh nghch th A-1, AT, kA (k 0), Am (m nguyn dng) cng kh nghch v


(A-1)-1 = A ; (AT)-1 = (A-1)T ; (kA) 1 =

1 1
m -1
-1 m
A ; (A ) = (A )
k

ii) Nu A, B kh nghch th AB cng kh nghch v (AB)-1 = B-1A-1


iii) Nu A kh nghch th cc phng trnh A.X = C, X.A = C c nghim duy nht
A.X = C X = A 1C
XA = C X = C.A 1

1 3

2 6

V d 4. Tm (A2)-1 vi A =
Bn c t gii

4. Mt s phng php tm ma trn nghch o


a) Phng php nh thc

Da vo nh l 2.12, ta c cc bc tm ma trn nghch o ca ma trn A = [aij]nn nh


sau:
Bc 1: Tnh det(A)

Nu det(A) = 0 th A khng kh nghch.


Nu det(A) 0 th A c ma trn nghch o.
Bc 2: Tm ma trn ph hp ca A:

25
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

A11
A
12
A=
M

A1n

A 21
A 22
M
A 2n

L A n1
L A n 2
O M

L A nn

trong Aij l phn b i s ca a ij .


Bc 3: Tnh B =

1
A . Khi , ma trn B chnh l ma trn nghch o ca ma trn
det(A)

A, tc l
A-1 = B
V d 1. Tm ma trn nghch o ca ma trn
1 2 3
b) A = 2 5 3
1 0 8

1 2
a) A =

3 4
Gii.

a)
Bc 1: Ta c det(A) = 1.4 2.3 = -2 0 .

Nn ma trn A kh nghch v A 1 =

1
.A
det(A )

Bc 2: Ta lp ma trn ph hp A ca ma trn A. Ta c

A11 = (-1)1+ 1.4 = 4; A12 = (- 1)1+ 2. 3 = - 3; A21 = (- 1)2 + 1.2 = - 2; A22 =(- 1)2 + 2.1 = 1
4 2

3 1

Nn A =

Bc 3. Tnh ma trn nghch o A 1 =


2

Vy A 1 = 3
2

1
1 4 2 2
.A =
.
= 3
det(A)
2 3 1
2

1
1
2

b)
Bc 1. Ta c det(A) = -1 0 nn A kh nghch v A 1 =
Bc 2. Ta lp ma trn ph hp A ca ma trn A. Ta c

26
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

1
.A
det(A )

1
1
2

A 11 = ( 1)1+1 .

5 3
0 8

A 21 = ( 1) 2+1 .
A 31 = ( 1) 3+1 .

2 3
0 8
2 3
5 3

= 40; A 12 = ( 1)1+ 2 .

2 3
1 8

= 16; A 22 = ( 1) 2+ 2 .
= 9; A 32 = ( 1) 3+ 2 .

= 13; A 22 = ( 1) 2+ 2 .

1 3
1 8

1 3
2 3

= 5; A 23 = ( 1) 2+ 3 .

= 3; A 33 = ( 1) 3+ 3 .

2 5
1 0

1 2
1 0

1 2
2 5

= 5

=2

=1

40 16 9
Nn A = 13 5
3
5
2
1

Bc 3. Tnh ma trn nghch o A

V y A

40 16 9
1
=
A = 13 5 3
det(A)
5
2 1

40 16 9
= 13 5 3
5
2 1

V d 2. Gii phng trnh ma trn sau


1 2
3 5 1
a)
.X =

3 4
5 9 2

1 2 3
1 0

b) 2 5 3.X = 0 1
1 0 8
1 1

Gii:
1 2
kh nghch nn phng trnh c nghim duy nht
3 4

a) Ma trn A =

1
1 2 3 5 1 2
X=
.
= 3
3 4 5 9 2 2

1 3 5 1 1 1 0
1.
5
=
5 9 2 2 3

2
2

1 2 3
b) Ma trn A = 2 5 3 kh nghch nn phng trnh c nghim duy nht
1 0 8
1

1 2 3 1 0 40 16 9 1 0 49 25
X = 2 5 3 . 0 1 = 13 5 3. 0 1 = 16 8
1 0 8 1 1 5
2 1 1 1 6
3

27
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

b) Phng php kh Gause-Jordan (Phng php bin i s cp)

Thc t ta s p dng ng thi cc php bin i s cp v dng a A v E v


a E v ma trn A-1. T , ta c quy tc tm ma trn nghch o bng php bin i s

cp (phng php Gauss Jordan):


Bc 1: Vit ma trn n v E cng cp vi ma trn A bn cnh pha phi ma trn A
c ma trn mi k hiu (A|E)
Bc 2: Dng cc php bin i s cp trn dng i vi ma trn mi ny a dn

khi ma trn A v ma trn n v E, cn khi ma trn E thnh ma trn B, tc l (A|E)


(E|B). Khi , B chnh l ma trn nghch o ca A.
1 2 3
V d 1. Tm ma trn nghch o ca ma trn: A = 2 5 3
1 0 8

Gii
1 2 3 1 0 0

Bc 1: Lp ma trn (A|E) = 2 5 3 0 1 0
1 0 8 0 0 1

Bc 2: Bin i s cp
1 2 3 1 0 0
1 2
1 2 3 1 0 0
3 1 0 0

2 d1 + d 2
2d 2 + d3

2 5 3 0 1 0 d
0 1 3 2 1 0 0 1 3 2 1 0
1 +d3
1 0 8 0 0 1
0 2 5 1 0 1
0 0 1 5 2 1
1 2 0 14 6
1 0 0 40 16 9
3

2d 2 + d1

0 1 0 13 5 3 0 1 0 13 5 3 .
3d 3 + d1
3d 3 + d 2
0 0 1 5
2 1
2 1
0 0 1 5
d3

V y A

40 16 9
= 13 5 3
5
2 1

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

4. HNG CA MA TRN
1. Khi nim

Cho ma trn A = [a ij ]m x n ;1 k min{m, n} . Trc ht, ta nhc li khi nim nh thc con
cp k ca ma trn A.Ly ra k dng v k ct khc nhau . nh thc ca ma trn cp k c
cc phn t thuc giao im ca k dng v k ct c gi l nh thc con cp k ca
A , k hiu:
D ij11 ji22......ijkk (1 i1 < i 2 < ... < i k n;1 j1 < j 2 < ... < jk n )

trong i1, i2 , , ik l ch s ca cc dng v j1, j2, , jk l ch s ca cc ct ly ra.


1 1 3 4
V d 1. Cho ma trn A = 2 3 6 8 .
3 2 9 12

Cc nh thc con cp 1 ca A chnh l cc phn t ca A.


Cc nh thc con cp 2 ca A , chng hn to bi cc dng 1, 2 v ct 1, 3 l
D13
12 =

1 3
2 6

= 0 ; to bi dng 2, 3 v ct 2, 4 l D 24
23 =

2 12

= 20 , ...

Cc nh thc con cp 3, chng hn to bi cc dng 1, 2, 3 v ct 1, 3, 4 l

134
123

1 3 4
1 1 4
134
= 2 6 8 = 0 ; to bi dng 1, 2, 3 v ct 1, 2, 4 l D123 = 2 3 8 = 0 ; ...
3 9 12
3 2 12

nh l 1. Trong ma trn A, nu mi nh thc con cp k ca A bng 0 th mi nh thc

con cp cao hn k cng bng 0.


nh ngha 1. Cho ma trn A cp m x n: A =[aij]m x n . Cp cao nht ca cc nh

thc con khc 0 ca ma trn A c gi l hng ca ma trn A, k hiu r(A) (rank(A)).


Nu r(A) = r th cc nh thc con cp r khc 0 ca A c gi l nh thc con c s
ca A.
Quy c: r({}) = 0
Ch 1. T nh ngha, ta suy ra cc tnh cht n gin sau
29
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

i) 0 r (A ) min{m, n}
ii) r(A) = r(AT)
iii) Nu A l ma trn vung cp n th
* r(A) = n A 0 hay A khng suy bin
* r(A) < n A = 0 hay A suy bin
1 1 3 4
V d 2. Tm hng ca ma trn A = 2 3 6 8
3 2 9 12

Gii:

Ta c nh thc con cp 2: D 24
23 =

2 12

= 20 0 nn r(A) 2.

Xt cc nh thc con cp 3: c tt c C 34 = 4 nh thc con cp 3 ca A

123
123

1 1 3
1 3 4
134
= 2 3 6 = 0 ; D123 = 2 6 8 = 0 ;
3 2 9
3 9 12

124
123

1 1 4
1 3 4
234
= 2 3 8 = 0 ; D123 = 3 6 8 = 0
3 2 12
2 9 12

Hay mi nh thc con cp 3 ca A bng 0. Do r(A) = 2.


a 11
0

...

V d 3. Tm hng ca ma trn sau: A = 0


0

...
0

a 12

... a 1r

a 1r +1

a 22

... a 2 r

a 2 r +1

...

...

... a rr

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

vi a11a22 arr 0.
Gii:
30
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

...
a r r +1

... a 1n
... a 2 n
... ...

... a r n
... 0

... ...
... 0

12...r
Ta c nh thc con cp r : D12
...r

a 11
0
=
...
0

a 12
a 22
...
0

... a 1r
... a 2 r
= a 11a 22 ...a rr 0 v mi nh thc
... ...
... a rr

cp cao hn r u cha t nht mt dng ton s khng nn nh thc bng 0. Do vy,


r(A) = r.
T v d ny ta c kt qu sau:
nh l 2

(i) Cc php bin i s cp khng lm thay i hng ca ma trn


ii) Hng ca ma trn dng bc thang bng s dng khc khng ca ma trn
nh l 3

(i) Nu A v B l hai ma trn cng cp m n bt k, ta lun c:


r ( A + B) r ( A) + r ( B)

(ii) Vi A v B l hai ma trn bt k sao cho AB tn ti, ta lun c:


r ( AB) r ( A) v r ( AB) r ( B) hay r ( AB) min {r(A), r(B) }

(iii) Nu A l ma trn cp m x n, B l ma trn vung cp n x p th


r(A) + r(B) r(AB) + n
H qu : Nu A, B l cc ma trn vung cp n th ta c
r ( A ) + r ( B) n + r ( AB)

2. Cc phng php tm hng ca ma trn


a) Phng php nh thc

Trc ht, ta chng minh kt qu:


nh l 4. Cho ma trn A = [aij]m x n c mt nh thc con cp r khc 0 l Dr. Nu mi
nh thc con cp r + 1 cha Dr u bng 0 th hng ca A bng r.
T nh l ny, ta c phng php tm hng ca ma trn nh sau:
Bc 1: Tm mt nh thc con cp Dk khc 0 cp k ( 0 < k < min{m, n}).
31
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Bc 2: Ta tnh cc nh thc cp k + 1 cha Dk (nu c).


Trng hp 1: Nu cc nh thc cp k + 1 u bng 0 th ta kt lun r(A) = k.
Trng hp 2: Nu c mt nh thc cp k + 1 khc 0 th ta li tnh cc nh thc cp
k + 2 cha nh thc cp k + 1 khc 0 ny (nu c).

Qu trnh c tip tc nh vy ta tm c hng ca A .


1 1 3 4
V d 1. Tm hng ca ma trn A = 2 3 6 8
3 2 9 12

Gii:

Ta c nh thc con cp 2: D12


12 =

1 1
2

= 5 0 nn r(A) 2.

12
Xt cc nh thc con cp 3 cha D12
12 : c 2 nh thc con cp 3 ca A cha D 12

123
123

1 1 3
1 1 4
124
= 2 3 6 = 0 ; ; D123 = 2 3 8 = 0 .
3 2 9
3 2 12

Nh vy, mi nh thc con cp 3 cha D12


12 u bng 0 nn r(A) = 2.
a) Phng php bin i s cp

T nh l trn, ta c phng php bin i s cp tm hng ca A:


Bc 1: S dng cc php bin i s cp a ma trn A v dng bc thang B.
Bc 2: m s dng khc khng ca B, s l hng ca A.
1 3 4 2
V d 2. Tm hng ca ma trn sau: A = 2 1 1 4
1 2 1 2

Gii:

Dng php bin i s cp a ma trn A v dng bc thang

32
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

1 3 4 2 2 d + d 1 3 4 2 1 d 2 1 3 4 2
7
1
2
A = 2
1 1 4 0 7 7 0 0 7 7 0 = B
d1 + d 2
5d 2 +d 3
1 2 1 2
0 5 5 0
0 0
0 0

B l ma trn dng bc thang c 2 dng khc 0 nn r(A) = r(B) = 2


V d 3. Tm m ma trn sau c hng b nht
1 1 2 3
A = 1 1 3 1
1 1 7 m

Gii: Ta bin i a ma trn A v dng bc thang

Ly dng 1 cng vo dng 2, dng 1 nhn vi (- 1) cng vo dng 3, ta c:


3
1 1 2

0 0 5
2
d1 + d 3
0 0 5 m 3
d1 + d 2

Nhn dng 2 vi (- 1) cng vo dng 3 ta thu c ma trn dng bc thang:


3
1 1 2

0 0 5
2
d1 + d 3
0 0 0 m 5
d1 + d 2

T ma trn dng bc thang, ta c r(A) nh nht bng 2 khi m 5 = 0 m = 5


1 2
V d 4. Tm hng ca ma trn

0
3

1 2
l ma trn vung cp 2 nn An cng l ma trn vung cp 2. Theo

0 3

Gii : Ta c A =

nh l nhn nh thc ta c det(An) = [det(A)]n = 3n 0. Nn r(An) = 2

33
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Chuyn 2. H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH V NG DNG


1. KHI NIM V H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH
1. Cc khi nim
nh ngha 1. H phng trnh tuyn tnh gm m phng trnh n n l h c dng
a11x1 + a12 x 2 + ... + a1n x n = b1
a x + a x + ... + a x
= b2
21 1
22 2
2n n

..................................................
a m1x1 + a m2 x 2 + ... + a mn x n = b m

(I)

trong aij (i = 1, m; j = 1, n) , bi (i = 1, m) l cc s thc cho trc; x1, x2, , xn l n n s


cn tm; cc bi (i = 1, m) c gi l cc h s t do.
Nu h (I) c s phng trnh bng s n (m = n) th h (I) c gi l h vung.
Nu b1 = b2 = = bm = 0 th h (I) c gi l h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun
nht.
Nghim ca h (I) l mt b n s (c1, c2, , cn) sao cho khi thay th
x1 = c1, x2 = c2, , xn = cn vo (I) th ta c m ng nht thc. C th vit nghim di
c1
c
cc dng sau: (c1, c2, , cn) hoc 2 .
...

c n

Gii h (I) l ta i tm tt c cc nghim ca h (I).


Ta gi ma trn
a11 a12 ... a1n
a a
... a 2n
A = 21 22
...

a m1 a m2 ... a mn

l ma trn cc h s ca h (I).
Ma trn

34
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

a 11
a
21
%
A =
...

a m1

a 12
a 22
...
a m2

... a 1n
... a 2 n
... ...
... a mn

: b1
: b 2
...

: bm

c gi l ma trn b sung ca h (I).


nh ngha 2. Hai h phng trnh c gi l tng ng nu chng c cng tp

nghim. Cc php bin i ca h phng trnh m khng lm thay i tp nghim ca


h c gi l php bin i tng ng ca h phng trnh.
Trong qu trnh gii h phng trnh, chng ta thng dng cc php bin i sau :
- i ch hai phng trnh ca h cho nhau
- Nhn hai v ca mt phng trnh vi mt s khc 0
- Nhn hai v ca mt phng trnh vi mt s tu ri cng vo phng trnh khc v
theo v.
Ch 1. Cc php bin i tng ng ca h phng trnh trn chnh l cc php bin
i s cp v dng i vi ma trn b sung ca h .
2. Dng ma trn, dng vc t ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh
t
x1
x
X = 2 : ma trn ct n,
...

x n

b1
b
B = 2 : ma trn ct h s t do
...

bm

Khi h phng trnh tuyn tnh (I) c biu din di dng ma trn
A.X = B

(II)

a1j
a
2j
t C j = ; j = 1,.., n l cc ct ca ma trn A. Khi h (I) c vit di dng
...

a nj

x1C1 + x2C2 + +xnCn = B

(III)

Nh vy, mt h phng trnh tuyn tnh c th vit tng ng di dng ma trn hoc
dng vc t.
35
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

V d 1. Cho h phng trnh tuyn tnh 3 phng trnh 4 n


x 1 2x 2 + x 3 x 4 = 1

2 x 1 + x 2 + 2 x 3 + x 4 = 2
x x + 3x x = 3
2
3
4
1
x1
1
x
2

H c cc n l x1, x2, x3, x4 nn ma trn n s l X =


; ma trn v phi l B = 2 .
x 3
3

x 4
1 2 1 1
1

Ma trn h s ca h l A = 2 1 2 1 ; cc vct ct ca A l C1 = 2 ;
1 1 3 1
1
2
1
1
1 2 1 1 :1
~

C 2 = 1 ; C 3 = 2 ; C 4 = 1 ; ma trn b sung ca h : A = 2
1 2 1 : 2
1
3
1
1 1 3 1 : 1

Khi h c dng ma trn v dng vc t tng ng l


A. X = B ; x1C1 + x2C2 + x3C3 = B
3. H c dng tam gic, h c dng bc thang
nh ngha 3. H n phng trnh, n n c dng
a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + ... + a 1n x n = b1

a 22 x 2 + ... + a 2 n x n = b 2

vi a11a22ann 0

...

a nn x n = b n

c gi l h c dng tam gic

Ma trn h s A ca h chnh l ma trn dng tam gic trn. D thy rng h ny c


nghim duy nht. H ny gii bng cch gii t phng trnh th n tm n xn, ri gii
phng trnh th n -1 tm n xn-1, , qu trnh c tip tc cho n khi tm c n
x1. Cch gii ny gi l gii ngc t di ln trn tm nghim ca h phng trnh.
x 1 2x 2 + x 3 = 1

x 2 2x 3 = 2
V d 2. Gii h sau :

x 3 = 1

Gii: T phng trnh th 3 ta c x3 = -1 ; thay vo phng trnh th 2 ta c x2 = 2 + 2x3

= 0 ; thay x2, x3 vo phng trnh th nht ta c : x1 = 1 + 2x2 x3


36
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

1
Vy h c nghim duy nht : X = 0
2

nh ngha 4. H r phng trnh, n n s (r < n) c dng


a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + ... + a 1r x r + ... + a 1n x n = b1

a 22 x 2 + ... + a 2 r x r + ... + a 2 n x n = b 2

vi a11a22... arr 0

....

a rr x r + .... + a rn x n = b r

c gi l h dng bc thang

Ma trn b sung ca h khi s c bc thang


a 11
0

~ ...
A=0

...
0

a 12

... a 1r

...

a 22

... a 2 r

...

...
0

... ...
... a rr

...
...

...

... ...

...

... 0

...

a 1n : b1
a 2 n : b 2
...
a rm : b r

...

0 : 0

Vi h c dng bc thang, t phng trnh th r, ta tnh xr thng qua cc n xr+1, xr+2, ... ,
xn. Ri thay vo phng trnh th r -1 tnh xr 1 theo cc n xr+1, xr+2, ... , xn qu trnh
trn c tip tc cho n x2, x1.
x 1 + 2x 2 x 3 + 2x 4 = 1

V d 3. Gii h phng trnh


x 2 + 2x 3 x 4 = 2

x 3 2 x 4 = 1

Gii: T phng trnh th 3, ta c x3 = 2x4 1, thay vo phng trnh 2 ta c

x2 = - 2(2x4 -1) + x4 + 2 = -3x4 + 4


Cui cng, thay vo phng trnh th nht thu c
x1 = -2x2 + x3 2x4 + 1 = - 2(-3x4 + 4) + 2x4 1 2x4 + 1 = 6x4 8
Vy h c nghim X = (6k 8; - 3k + 4; 2k -1); k tu .

37
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

2. PHNG PHP GII H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH


1. iu kin tn ti nghim
nh l 1. (nh l Kronecker-Capeli). H phng trnh tuyn tnh (I) c nghim khi v

ch khi r(A) = r( A% ).
V d 1. Tm m h sau c nghim
x 1 + 2x 2 x 3 + x 4 = 1
x + 3x 2 x x = 2
1
2
3
4

2 x 1 + 5 x 2 4 x 3 + 2 x 4 = 3
3x 1 + 8x 2 6 x 3 + x 4 = m

Gii Ta c ma trn b sung ca h l


1
1
~
A=
2

:!
3 2 1 : 2
5 4 2 :3

8 6 1 :m

Bin i s cp a ma trn b sung v dng bc thang


1
1
~
A=
2

:1
1
d1 + d 2

d
+
d
3 2 1 : 2 1 2 3 0

5 4 2 : 3 d 2 d3 + d 4 0

8 6 1 :m
0

2 1

:1
1 1 2 : 3
0 1 2
:4

0 0
0 : m 1
~
T y ta c h c nghim r (A ) = r (A) m 1 = 0 m = 1

2. iu kin duy nht nghim


nh l 2. H phng trnh tuyn tnh (I) c nghim duy nht khi v ch khi

r(A) = r( A% ) = s n (= n)
Chng minh

H c nghim duy nht tn ti duy nht cc s x1o, x2o, ... , xno sao cho
x1o C1 + x2oC2 + +xnoCn = B
~
r ({C1 , C 2 , ... , C n }) = n r (A ) = r (A ) = n (pcm)

V d 2. Tm m h sau c nghim duy nht


x 1 + x 2 + mx 3 = 1

x 1 + mx 2 + x 3 = m

2
mx 1 + x 2 + x 3 = m
38
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Gii: H c s phng trnh bng s n v bng 3 nn c nghim duy nht


r (A) = 3 A 0
1 1 m
Ta c A = 1 m 1 = (m + 2)(m 1) 2
m 1 1
m 1
m 2

Nn h c nghim duy nht

3. Phng php gii h phng trnh tuyn tnh


a) Phng php gii h Cramer
nh ngha 5. H Cramer l h n phng trnh tuyn tnh n n (h vung) c ma trn h

s A khng suy bin (det(A) 0).


nh l 3. H Cramer lun c nghim duy nht.
Cng thc nghim: xj =

j
A

(j = 1, n )

trong , j l ma trn nhn t A bng cch thay ct th j bi ct h s t do.


4 x 1 + 3x 2 2 x 3 = 7

=5
V d 3. Gii h sau x 1 + x 2
3x
+ x3 = 4
1

Gii
4 3 2
Ta c nh thc ca ma trn h s A l A = 1 1 0 = 7 0 nn h l h Cramer. Do
3 0 1

c nghim duy nht: x 1 =

; x1 = 2 ; x1 = 3
A
A
A

7 3 2
4 7 2
4 3 7
M 1 = 5 1 0 = 0; 2 = 1 5 0 = 35; 3 = 1 1 5 = 28
4 0 1
3 4 1
3 0 4

Vy h c nghim (x1= 0/7 =0; x2 = 35/7 = 5; x3 = 28/7 = 4)

39
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

V d 4. Tm iu kin h sau c nghim duy nht


mx 1 + x 2 + x 3 = 1

x 1 + mx 2 + x 3 = m

2
x 1 + x 2 + mx 3 = m

Gii

Nhn xt: Cc h trn l cc h c s phng trnh bng s n. Nn h c nghim duy


nht A 0
m 1 1
Ta c A = 1 m 1 = (m + 2)(m 1) 2
1 1 m
m 2
m 1

Nn h c nghim duy nht

b). Phng php gii h tng qut

Gi s ta gii h tng qut m phng trnh tuyn tnh, n n dng:


a11x1 + a12 x 2 + ... + a1n x n = b1
a x + a x + ... + a x
= b2
21 1
22 2
2n n

..................................................
a m1x1 + a m2 x 2 + ... + a mn x n = b m

Cch gii:

Tnh r(A), r( A% )
So snh r(A) vi r( A% ):
+ Nu r(A) r( A% ) th h (I) v nghim.
+ Nu r(A) = r( A% ) = s n (= n) th h (I) c nghim duy nht cho bi cng thc
Cramer
xj =

j
A

(j = 1, n )
+ Nu r(A) = r( A% ) = r < n th h (4.1) c v s nghim (hay cn gi l h v

nh):

Ch ra mt nh thc con c s ca ma trn A, gi s ta ch ra mt nh thc


con c s l Dr. Khi h phng trnh cho tng ng vi h gm r phng trnh
40
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

ca h cho m c h s ca cc n to nn Dr. r phng trnh ny c gi l cc


phng trnh c bn ca h (I). r n ca h (I) c h s to thnh r ct ca Dr c gi l
cc n c bn, (n r) n cn li c gi l cc n t do. Ta gii h gm r phng trnh
c bn v r n c bn bng cch chuyn (n r) n t do sang v phi v coi nh l cc
tham s, ta c h Cramer. Gii h Cramer , ta c cng thc biu din r n c bn
qua (n r) n t do.
c) Phng php Gauss

Ni dung ca php kh Gauss nh sau:


Ta s dng cc php bin i s cp v hng a ma trn b sung A% v dng
ma trn bc thang.
Khi h phng trnh cho tng vi h phng trnh mi c ma trn h s
b sung l ma trn bc thang va thu c. Sau ta gii h mi ny t phng trnh
cui cng, thay cc gi tr ca n va tm c vo phng trnh trn v c tip tc
gii cho n phng trnh u tin ta s thu c nghim ca h phng trnh cho.
2 x 1 + x 2 3x 3 + 4 x 4 = 1
x 3x + x x = 2

2
3
4
V d 5. Gii h 1

+
3
x
2
x
2
x
3x 4 = 1
2
3
1
x 1 + 4 x 2 4 x 3 + 5x 4 = 3

Gii

Trc ht, tm hng ca ma trn h s v ma trn b sung


Ta c
2 1 3 4

~ 1 3 1 1
A=
3 2 2 3

1 4 4 5

: 1
1 3 1 1 : 2
1 3 1 1 : 2

: 2 d1 d 2 2 1 3 4 : 1 2d1 + d 2 0 7 5 6 : 5

3 2 2 3 : 1 3dd+1 +dd 3 0 7 5 6 : 5
: 1

1 4

: 3
1 4 4 5 : 3
0 7 5 6 : 5

1 3 1 1 : 2
1 3 1 1 : 2

2 d1 + d 2 0
7 5 6 : 5 d 2 + d 3 0 7 5 6 : 5

3 d1 + d 3 0
d 2 + d 4 0

5
6
:
5
0
0
0 :0
d1 + d 4

0
0 :0
0 7 5 6 : 5
0 0
~
Khi r(A) = r( A ) = 2 < n = 4. Do h c v s nghim

x 1 3x 2 + x 3 x 4 = 2
7 x 2 5x 3 + 6 x 3 = 5

Khi h cho

41
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Chn 4 2 = 2 n t do l x3, x4 v x1, x2 khi l n c bn.


H tr thnh
1 + 8x 3 11x 4

x1 =

3
x
=

x
+
x

2
1

7
2
3
4

;x3, x4 R

7 x 2 = 5x 3 6 x 3 5
5
+
5
x

6
x
3
4

x =
2
7

1 + 8 11 5 + 5 6

;
; ; (; R )
7
7

Vy h c v s nghim X =

V d 6. Gii v bin lun h phng trnh sau


mx 1 + x 2 + mx 3 = 1

x 1 + mx 2 + mx 3 = 1
x + x + x =1
2
3
1

Gii
Nhn xt: y l h c 3 phng trnh, 3 n s c ma trn b sung l
m 1 1 : 1
~
A = 1 m m : 1
1 1 1 : 1

m 1 m
Ta c A = 1 m m = (m 1) 2
1 1 1

* Nu m 1 th A 0 nn h l h Cramer nn c nghim duy nht.


Mt khc ta li c
1 1 m
m 1 m
m 1 1
2
2
1 = 1 m m = (m 1) ; 2 = 1 1 m = (m 1) ; 3 = 1 m 1 = (m 1) 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1

Do , nghim ca h l x 1 = 1 = 1; x 2 = 2 = 1; x 1 = 3 = 1

* Nu m = 1 khi ma trn b sung c dng


1 1 1 : 1
1 1 1 : 1
~

A = 1 1 1 : 1 0 0 0 : 0
1 1 1 : 1
0 0 0 : 0
~
Suy ra r(A) = r (A ) = 1 < n = 3 nn h c v s nghim
42
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

H x1 + x2 + x3 = 1 x 3 = 1 x 1 x 2 ; x 1 , x 2 R
Vy h c nghim X = (1 ; ; ); , R
4. H phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht
nh ngha 6. H phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht l h phng trnh tuyn tnh c

cc h s t do bng khng, tc l h c dng


a11x1 + a12 x 2 + ... + a1n x n = 0
a x + a x + ... + a x = 0
21 1
22 2
2n n

..................................................
a m1x1 + a m2 x 2 + ... + a mn x n = 0

(IV)

Nhn xt.
+ H (IV) lun c nghim l x1 = x2 = = xn = 0. Nghim ny c gi l

nghim tm thng ca h (IV).


+ H (IV) c nghim duy nht ( l nghim tm thng) r(A) = n.
+ H (IV) c nghim khng tm thng r(A) < n.
+ H thun nht vung (h c s phng trnh bng s n) c nghim khng tm
thng khi v ch khi det(A) = 0.
V d 1. Gii v bin lun h phng trnh sau
3x + y + 10z = 0

2x + ay + 5z = 0
x + 4y + 7z = 0

Gii
y l h thun nht vung. Ta c
3

10

det(A) = 2

5 = 11(a + 1)
7

+ Vi a -1, det(A) 0 nn h cho ch c nghim tm thung x = y = z = 0.


+ Vi a = -1, h cho tr thnh
3x + y + 10z = 0

2x - y + 5z = 0
x + 4y + 7z = 0

43
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

1
= - 5 0 nn h cho tng ng vi h
2 -1

3x + y + 10z = 0
3x + y = -10z

2x - y + 5z = 0
2x - y = -5z

5x = -15z x = -3z y = 2x + 5z = - z

Vy, vi a = -1, h cho c v s nghim l


x = -3t

y = -t ; t R
z = t

V d 2. Tm m h sau c nghim khng tm thng v tm cc nghim


=0
(2 m) x 1 + x 2

x 1 mx 2 +
x3 = 0

x 1 + 3x 2 + (1 m) x 3 = 0

Gii
Cch 1. Dng phng php Gauss

Ta c, ma trn h s l
0
3 1 m
3
1 m
2 m 1
1
1

A = 1 m
1 1 m
1 0 m + 3
2m

1
2 m 1
0 3m 5 m 2 + 3m 2
3 1 m
0

* Nu m + 3 = 0 m = 3 , ta c
1 3 1 m
1 3 1 m

A 0 0 1 0 4 2 r (A) = 3
0 4 2
0 0 1

nn h ch c nghim tm thng
* Nu m 3 ta c

1 3
1

3
1 m

2m
0 1
A 0
1

3 m

0 3m 5 m + 3m 2
0 0

1 m
2m
3 m
m 3 3m 2
3 m

m = 2

h c nghim tm thng th m3 3m2 4 = 0


r (A) = 2 .
m = 1
44
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Khi , h c nghim tm thng


1 3 1
+) Nu m = 2 th A 0 1 0
0 0 0
x1 =
x1 + 3x 2 x 3 = 0

x 2 = 0;
Khi h
x2
=0

x =
3

1 3 1

3
+) Nu m = - 1 th A 0 1

0 0 04

x1 = 4

x + 3x 2 x 3 = 0
3
1

x 2 =
;
Khi h
3
4
x 2 + x3 = 0

4
x 3 =

Cch 2.

V h c s phng trnh bng s n nn ta tnh nh thc ma trn h s A.


2m 1
0
A = 1 m
1 = (m 2) 2 (m + 1)
1
3 1 m
m 2
th h c nghim tm thng duy nht
m 1

* N u A 0

m = 2
. Khi h c nghim khng tm thng v s dng phng
m = 1

* N u A = 0

php Gauss ta tm c nghim ca h .


V d 3. Tm nghim tng qut ca h sau
x 1 + 2 x 2 + 3x 3 + x 4 = 0
2 x + 3x x + 2 x = 0
1
2
3
4

3
x

x
+
4
x

x
1
2
3
4 = 0

x 1 2 x 2 3x 3 x 4 = 0

Gii
Ta c ma trn h s cc n
45
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

3
1
3
1
1 2
1 2
1
2

7
5
4 d1 + d 2 0
3 1 2 2d1 + d 2 0

A=

3 1 4 1 d3+dd1 + d3 0 7 5 4
0
1
4

0
0
0
1 2 3 1
0
0

2 3 1
7 5 4
0 0 0

0 0 0

Suy ra r(A) = 2 < n = 4 nn h c v s nghim. Chn x3, x4 lm n t do v x1, x2 l n


c bn. Khi , h tr thnh
11
3

x = 2 x 2 + 3x 3 + x 4 = x 3 + x 4
x 1 + 2 x 2 + 3x 3 + x 4 = 0
1
7
7

(x3, x4 tu )

7
x
5
x
4
x
0

5
4
+
+
=
2
3
4

x =
x3 x4
2
7
7

3 5
4
11

Vy nghim tng qut ca h + ;


; ; ; , R .
7 7
7
7

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

TON CAO CP 2
Chuyn 3. GII HN, LIN TC VI PHN, TCH PHN HM 1 BIN
1. GII HN HM S
I. Cc khi nim c bn v hm mt bin s
1) nh ngha:
nh x f : X R

x a y = f (x ) vi X R, X c gi l hm s.
* Ta gi X l tp xc nh ca hm f (x ) , k hiu D(f); f(X) l tp gi tr ca hm f, k
hiu R(f); x D(f) gi l bin c lp.
V d 1: Hm y = 4 x 2 c D f = [-2, 2 ], R f = [ 0, 4 ] .
* Hm chn : Gi s X R , X nhn gc O lm tm i xng. Hm s f (x ) c gi l

chn nu f ( x ) = f (x ) x X , l hm l nu f ( x ) = f (x ) x X .
* Ch : th hm s chn nhn trc tung lm trc i xng. th hm s l nhn gc
ta O lm tm i xng.
* Hm l : Hm s f (x ) c gi l hm s tun hon nu T > 0 sao cho

f( x + T ) = f( x ), x D f
S T nh nht sao cho c ng thc trn c gi l chu k ca hm s f (x ) .
V d 2: Cc hm s y = sinx, y = cosx l tun hon vi chu k 2 ; cc hm s y = tgx, y
= cotgx l tun hon vi chu k .
Hm n iu: Hm y = f (x ) c gi l tng (tng ngt) trn khong I Df nu x1,

x2 I, x1 < x2 th f(x1) f(x2) (f(x1) < f(x2)); gim (gim ngt) trn I nu x1, x2 I th
(x1) f(x2) (f(x1) > f(x2)).
Hm s tng hoc gim trn I c gi l hm n iu trn I.
Hm b chn: Cho hm s f(x) xc nh trn X. Hm s f(x) c gi l b chn trn
nu M : f( x ) M x X ; b chn di nu M : f( x ) M x X ; b chn
nu M : f( x ) M , x X .
2) Hm s hp:
nh ngha.
Cho X, Y, Z R, cho hm s f : X Y, g: Y Z. Khi , hm s h: X Z c nh

ngha bi h(x):= g(f(x)), x X c gi l hm s hp ca hm s f v g. K hiu l:


g[ f( x )] hay ( g o f )( x ), x X .

V d 3. Xt cc hm s f( x ) = 2x + 1, g( x ) = x 2 + 4. Khi :

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g[ f( x )] = f 2( x ) + 4 = ( 2x + 1) 2 + 4
f [g( x )] = 2g( x ) + 1 = 2( x 2 + 4 ) + 1

3) Hm s ngc:
* nh ngha. Cho hai tp X, Y R; cho hm s
f: X Y
x a y = f(x)
Nu tn ti hm s g: Y X tho mn:
+ (g o f)(x) = 1X

+ (f o g)(y) = 1Y
th g(x) c gi l hm s ngc ca hm s f(x).
K hiu: g = f-1
* Ch :
1. f: X Y l song nh g = f-1: Y X. Tc f c hm s ngc khi v ch khi f
l song nh.
2. Nu hm s y = f(x) n iu nghim ngt th n c hm ngc
3. D f 1 = Rf , R f 1 = Df .
4. th ca hm ngc y = f-1(x) i xng vi th hm s y = f(x) qua ng
phn gic ca gc th nht.
V d 4. Tm hm ngc ca hm y =

Gii. Ta c Df = [0, + ), Rf = [0, + ). Hm y =

x l hm tng nghim ngt trn Df

nn n c hm ngc. Rt x theo y, ta c: x = y , y 0 , i vai tr ca x v y ta c:


4

hm y = 4 x c hm ngc l y = x4, x 0.
4) Cc hm s thng gp:
. Cc hm s s cp c bn
* Hm s lu tha y = x, l mt s thc cho trc
D f = R; R f = R
* Hm s m: y = ax (a>0, a 1)
D f = R; R f = R *+

* Hm s logarit: y = logax ( a > 0 v a 1 )


D f = R *+ ; R f = R

* Cc hm s lng gic:
+) Hm f(x) = sinx
D f = R; R f = [ 1,1]

+) Hm y = cosx
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D f = R; R f = [ 1,1]

+) Hm y = tgx

D f = x R / x + k, k Z , R f = R
2

+) Hm y = cotgx
D f = {x R / x k, k Z} , R f = R

* Cc hm s lng gic ngc:



2

+) Hm y = arcsinx l hm ngc ca hm s y = sinx trn ,

c
2

- Min xc nh Dy = [-1, 1]

2

- Min gi tr Ry = ,

.
2

+) Hm y = arccosx l hm ngc ca hm s y = cosx trn [ 0, ] c


- Min xc nh Dy = [-1, 1]
- Min gi tr Ry = [ 0, ] .

2

+) Hm y = arctgx l hm ngc ca hm s y = tgx trong ,

c
2

- Min xc nh Dy = R

2

- Min gi tr Ry = ,

.+) Hm y = arccotgx l hm ngc ca hm s y = cotgx trong ( 0, ) c


- Min xc nh Dy = R
- Min gi tr Ry = ( 0, ) .
* Hm s s cp:
Ta gi cc hm s s cp l nhng hm s c to thnh bi mt s hu hn cc
php ton s hc v php ton hp trn cc hm s s cp c bn, v cc hng s.
5) Mt s hm s kinh t thng gp trong kinh t
* Hm cung v hm cu:

Cc nh kinh t s dng khi nim hm cung v hm cu biu din s ph thuc


ca lng cung v lng cu ca mt loi hng ha vo gi ca hng ha . Hm cung
v hm cu c dng:
Hm cung: QS = S(p)
Hm cu: QD = D(p)

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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Trong p l gi hng ha; QS l lng cung: tc l lng hng ha ngi bn bng


lng bn mi mc gi; QD l lng cu: tc l lng hng ha ngi mua bng lng
mua mi mc gi.
Khi xem xt m hnh hm cung, hm cu ni trn ta gi thit rng cc yu t khc
khng i.
Hm sn xut ngn hn

Cc nh kinh t hc s dng khi nim hm sn xut m t s ph thuc ca


sn lng hng ha (tng s lng sn phm hin vt) ca mt nh sn xut vo cc yu
t u vo, gi l yu t sn xut.
Khi phn tch sn xut, ta thng quan tm n hai yu t sn xut quan trng l
vn v lao ng c k hiu tng ng l K v L.
V d: Hm sn xut dng Cobb Douglas vi hai yu t vn (K) v lao ng

(L): Q = aK L
Hm doanh thu, hm chi ph v hm li nhun

Hm doanh thu l hm s biu din s ph thuc ca tng doanh thu (TR) vo sn


lng (Q): TR = TR(Q).
Hm chi ph l hm s biu din s ph thuc ca tng chi ph sn xut (TC) vo
sn lng (Q): TC = TC(Q).
Hm li nhun l hm s biu din s ph thuc ca tng li nhun ( ) vo sn
lng (Q): = (Q) . Hm li nhun c th xc nh bi = TR (Q) TC(Q) .
II. Gii hn ca dy s
1. nh ngha. Ta ni rng dy s {xn} c gii hn l a (hu hn ) nu vi mi s > 0
nh tu , tn ti mt s t nhin n 0 sao cho x n a < , vi mi n n 0

K hiu: lim x n = a hoc x n a khi n +


n

Nu dy {xn} c gii hn l a (hu hn) th ta ni dy ny hi t v a . Ngc li, nu


dy {xn} khng c gii hn, ta ni dy ny phn k.
V d 1: Xt dy s x n = c, n . Ta c > 0, x n c = c c = 0 < n
Vy theo nh ngha lim c = c .
n +

1
V d 2: lim k = 0 (k > 0 ) v lim q n = 0 khi q < 1
n + n
n +

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Ch :
+) lim x n = + A > 0, n 0 N sao cho x n > A n n 0
n

+) lim x n = + A > 0, n 0 N , sao cho x n < A n n 0 .


n

+ khi A > 0
khi A < 0

V d 3: Cho k > 0 ta c lim A n k =


n

2. Tnh cht:
Tnh cht 1. Nu dy s {xn} c gii hn th gii hn l duy nht.
Tnh cht 2. Mi dy s hi t th u b chn.
Tnh cht 3. Nu cc dy s x n v y n hi t v x n y n n th lim xn lim yn
n

Tnh cht 4 (Nguyn l kp). Nu xn zn yn, n N v lim x n = lim y n = A th


n

lim z n = A .
n

Tnh cht 5. Nu lim x n = a th lim xn = a


n

Tnh cht 6. Nu lim x n = 0 th lim x n = 0.


n

Tnh cht 7. Gi s cc dy {xn }, {yn } hi t v lim xn = x , lim yn = y. Khi


n

i) lim (xn + yn) = x + y


n

ii) lim (xn yn) = xy


n

iii) lim
n

xn x
= , nu yn 0, n, y 0
yn y

Tnh cht 8. Nu dy {xn} tng v b chn trn th hi t.


Tnh cht 9. Nu dy {xn} gim v b chn di th hi t.

3. S e: e = lim 1 + .
n
n
Ngi ta chng minh c rng s e l mt s v t v e = 2,71828....
4. Tiu chun Cauchy.
nh l: iu kin cn v dy {xn} hi t l vi > 0, n0N* sao cho n
n0, k N* th x n + k x n < .

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2. GII HN HM S
1. nh ngha:
nh ngha 1.
Cho hm s f(x) xc nh trong khong (a, b). Ta ni rng f(x) c gi hn l A (hu hn)
khi x x0, nu vi mi dy {xn} trong (a,b)\{x0} m x n x 0 khi n th dy gi tr

tng ng {f(xn)} hi t n A.K hiu:


lim f(x) = A hay f(x) A khi x x0.
x x 0

nh ngha 2.
Cho hm s f(x) xc nh trong khong (a, b). Ta ni rng f(x) c gi hn l A (hu hn)
khi x x0, nu vi bt k > 0, tn ti s > 0 sao cho vi mi x (a, b) tho mn 0 <
|x x0| < th
|f(x) A| < ..
Ch : nh ngha 1 tng ng vi nh ngha 2
2. Tnh cht
Cho hm s f(x) xc nh trn tp D
Tnh cht 1. Gii hn ca hm s f(x) khi x x0 nu c l duy nht.
Tnh cht 2. Gi s tn ti lim f(x) = A, lim g(x) = B. Khi
x x 0

x x 0

i) lim [f (x ) g(x )] = A B
x a

ii) lim [f (x ).g(x )] = A .B


x a

f (x )
A
= , (B 0).
B
x a g(x )

iii) lim

Tnh cht 3 Nu hm s s cp f(x) xc nh ti x 0 th lim f (x ) = f (x 0 ) .


x x 0

Tnh cht 4 (Nguyn l kp):


Nu g(x) f(x) h(x), x ( x 0 ; x 0 + ) vi > 0 v lim g(x) = lim h(x) = A
xx0

xx0

th lim f(x) = A.
x x0

Tnh cht 5. Nu f(x) g(x), x ( x 0 ; x 0 + ) , v i > 0 no v


lim f (x) = A, lim g(x) = B th A B

x x0

x x0

g( x )

Tnh cht 6. Nu lim f (x) = A > 0 v lim g(x) = B th lim [ f (x)]


x x0

x x0

x x0

3. Gii hn mt pha
Khi nim x x0 cn c xt trong hai trng hp:
Th1. x x0, x > x0: tc l x dn n x0 t bn phi ( x x0+).
Th2. x x0, x < x0: tc l x dn n x0 t bn tri (x x0- ).
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= AB .

Gii hn ca hm s f(x) khi x x0+ v khi x x0- c gi tng ng l gii


hn bn phi v gii hn bn tri ca hm s ti im x0:
Gii hn bn phi: lim f(x) = lim f(x);
x x0
x > x0

x x0+

Gii hn bn tri: lim f(x) = lim f(x).


x x0
x < x0

x x0

nh l. iu kin cn v lim f(x) = A l: lim f(x) = lim f(x) = A.


x x0

V d 1. Cho hm s f(x) =

x x0+

x x0

x
. Khi lim f(x) = -1, lim+ f(x) = 1, nn hm s ny
x 0
x 0
x

khng c gii hn khi x 0


4. Mt s gii hn c bn:

sinx
=1
x 0 x

lim

lim (1 +
x

1 x
) = e;
x

lim (1 +

x +

1 x
) = e;
x

lim (1 +

1 x
) =e
x

5. V cng b v v cng ln:


a) nh ngha. Hm s f(x) c gi l
i) v cng b (VCB) khi x x0 nu lim f(x) = 0.
x x0

ii) v cng ln (vit tt l VCL) khi x x0 nu lim f(x) = .


x x0

V d 2. Theo cc cng thc gii hn ca cc hm s cp c bn, ta c:


Cc hm s xk (k > 0), sinx, tgx l cc VCB khi x 0

Hm s tgx l VCL khi x


2
b) So snh cc VCB
f (x)
=k
x a g(x)

Cho f(x), g(x) l cc VCB khi x a. Gi s lim

i) Nu k = 0 th f(x) c gi l VCB bc cao hn so vi g(x) khi x a. K hiu


f(x) = 0(g(x)),
ii) Nu k 0 v hu hn th f(x) v g(x) c gi l nhng VCB cng bc khi x a. K
hiu f = 0*(g) khi x a.
c bit, khi k = 1, th f(x) v g(x) c gi l nhng VCB tng ng khi x
a v vit: f(x) g(x), x a.
Nhn xt: Nu p > q > 0 th x p = 0(x q ) .
Nu f (x ) = 0 [h(x )] , g(x ) = 0 [h(x )] v a l hng s th
i) a. f (x ) = 0 [h(x )]
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ii) f (x ) g(x ) = 0 [h(x )]


iii) f (x ).g(x ) = 0 [h(x )]
V d 3 : Vi k>0, khi x 0 ta c: a1x k +1 + a2x k +2 + a 3x k + 3 + ... + a p x k + p = 0(x k )
V d 4: Cc hm sinx v x l hai VCB tng ng khi x 0 v

lim

x 0

sinx
= 1.
x

V d 5: Cc hm tg2x v sinx l hai VCB cng bc khi x 0, v

lim

x 0

tg2x
tg 2 x x
= lim
.
.2 = 2
sinx x 0 2 x s inx

c) nh l:
nh l 1. Hm s f(x) c gii hn l L khi x a khi v ch khi f (x ) = L + (x ) , vi

mi (x ) l hm v cng b khi x a.
nh l 2. Gi s khi x x0, ta c cc cp VCB tng ng:
(x) 1(x), (x) 1(x)

Khi , nu lim

1( x )
( x)
( x )
tn ti (hu hn hoc v hn) th lim 1
= lim
x

x
x

x
0
0
1( x )
1( x )
( x )

.V d 6. Tnh

lim

x x 0

x 0

x + 2x 2
sinx + tg3x

Gii. V x + 2x2 x, x 0 v sin2x + tg5 x sin2x, x 0. p dng nh l trn, ta c

lim

x 0

2x
x + 2x 2
=
lim
= 2.
x 0 sin2x
sin2x + tg5x

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3. HM S LIN TC
1. nh ngha
nh ngha 1. Cho hm s f(x) xc nh trn tp hp Df, Ta ni hm s f(x)
-Lin tc ti im x0Df nu: lim f(x) = f(x0).
x x0

- Lin tc phi ti x0 nu f(x0+)= lim + f(x) = .f(x0)


x x0

- Lin tc tri ti x0 nu f(x0 ) = lim f(x) = f(x0)


x x0

Hm s khng lin tc ti x 0 th ta ni hm s gin on ti x 0 .


2x + 1 khi x < 0
2
x + a khi x 0

VD 1: Xt tnh lin tc ca hm s f( x ) =

Hm s lin tc ti mi im thuc khong ( ; 0 ) v ( 0; + )


Ti x = 0 : f( 0) = a

lim f( x ) = lim( x 2 + a ) = a

x 0+

x 0

lim f( x ) = lim( 2x + 1) = 1

x 0

x 0

Vy nu a = 1 th hm s lin tc ti mi im thuc R ,
Nu a 1 th hm s lin tc ti mi im thuc R \ {0} .
nh ngha 3. Ta ni hm s f( x ) lin tc trong khong ( a;b) nu n lin tc ti mi
im thuc khong ( a;b) .
nh ngha 4. Ta ni hm s f( x ) lin tc trong khong [a;b] nu n lin tc ti mi
im thuc khong ( a;b) v lin tc tri ti a , lin tc phi ti b .
Ch : Cc hm s s cp lin tc ti mi im thuc min xc nh ca n
2. Cc php ton s cp i vi hm s lin tc
a. nh l 1: Nu cc hm s f( x ); g( x ) lin tc ti x 0 th:

i) f( x ) + g( x ); f( x ) g( x ); f( x ).g( x ) cng lin tc ti x 0 .


ii)

f( x )
lin tc ti x 0 nu g ( x 0 ) 0 .
g( x )

b.nh l 2: Nu hm s g( x ) lin tc ti x 0 v hm s f( u ) lin tc ti u 0 = g( x 0 ) th

hm s f( g( x )) lin tc ti x 0 .
3. Cc tnh cht c bn ca hm s lin tc
a) nh l (Vyestrat)
Nu hm s f( x ) lin tc trn on [a;b] th c GTNN v GTLN trn on [a;b] .
b) nh l (Gi tr trung gian)
Nu hm s f( x ) lin tc trn on [a;b] v f( a ) f( b) th n nhn mi gi tr trung

gian gia f( a ) v f( b) . Tc l vi mi s m nm gia f( a ) v f( b) lun tn ti


c (a;b ) f( c) = m.
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f(a)

H qu: Nu Nu hm s f( x ) lin tc trn on [a;b] v f( a ).f( b) < 0 th tn ti


c (a;b ) f( c) = o. Tc l phng trnh f( x ) = o c t nht mt nghim thuc (a;b ) .

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4 O HM, VI PHN V NG DNG


I. o hm v vi phn cp 1:
1. Khi nim
a. o hm ti mt im
nh ngha 1:
Cho hm y = f(x) xc nh trn khong (a, b) v x0 l im c nh thuc khong (a,
f (x) f (x o )
b). Nu tn ti gii hn hu hn Lim
th gii hn gi l o hm ca hm
xx
x xo
0

s y=f(x) ti im x0.
K hiu: f ( x 0 ) hoc y ( x 0 )
nh ngha 2 : Hm s f(x) c gi l hm kh vi ti im x 0 nu tn ti s thc k sao

cho
f( x ) f( x 0 ) = k. x + 0( x ) .

Khi biu thc k. x c gi l vi phn ca hm s ti x 0 ,


K hiu l df( x 0 ) , tc l: df( x 0 ) = k. x
Ch :

Nu tn ti gii hn lim

x x 0 +

f( x ) f( x 0 )
th n c gi l o hm phi ti x 0 k hiu
x x0

l: f +( x 0 ) .
f( x )
x x 0
x

Nu tn ti gii hn lim

f( x 0 )
th n c gi l o hm tri ti x 0 k hiu
x0

l: f ( x 0 ) .
c. o hm trn mt min
nh ngha: Nu hm s y = f( x ) c o hm ti mi im thuc min X, th quy tc

cho tng ng mi gi tr x X , mt gi tr xc nh f ( x ) , cho ta mt hm s


y = f ( x ) xc nh trn X. Ta gi hm s ny l o hm ca hm s y = f( x ) trn

min X.
V d 1: o hm ca hm s y = x 2 l hm s y = 2x.
o hm ca hm s y = sin x l hm s y = cos x.
2. Tnh cht
nh l 1. Nu hm s y = f( x ) c o hm ti x 0 th n lin tc ti im .
nh l2. o hm f ( x 0 ) l h s gc ca tip tuyn ca ng cong (C): y = f(x) ti
im M( x 0 ; y 0 ) . V nh vy n cng l s o dc ca ng cong (C) ti im
M( x 0 ; y 0 ) .

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3. o hm v vi phn ca cc hm s cp c bn: Gio trnh


4. Cc quy tc tnh o hm v vi phn
a) nh l 1. Nu u = u(x), v = v(x) c o hm ti im x0 th ti im :

( u v) = u v

d ( u v ) = du dv

(ku) = k u

d(ku) = kdu

( uv) = u v + u v

d(uv) = vdu + udv

'

u uv - uv
(v 0)
=
v2
v

d(

u
vdu - udv
) =
(v 0)
v
v2

V d 2: Tnh o hm cc hm s sau:
y = 2x 4 + 3x 2 4x + 5
y = x 3 ln x
ln x
x4
x sin x + cos x
y =
x cos x sin x
y =

b) o hm ca hm s hp
nh l: Nu hm s u = g( x ) c o hm ti x 0 , hm s y = f( u ) c o hm ti
u 0 = g( x 0 ) th hm s y = f( g( x )) c o hm ti x 0 v v c tnh tho cng thc:
y ( x ) = f ( u 0 ).u ( x 0 )

hay c th vit ngn gn l: y x = fu . u x


V d 3: Tnh o hm ca y = cos4x
Hm s y = cos4x l hm hp ca hai hm c bn y = u4 v u = cosx.

Theo nh l trn ta c y = ( u4 ) ( cosx) = 4u3. (-sinx) = -4cos3x.sinx


V d 4: esin x = esin x .(sin x ) = esin x .cos x

5. Tnh bt bin ca biu thc vi phn


Vi phn cp 1 bt bin qua php i bin
II. o hm v vi phn cp cao
1) nh ngha
+) Nu hm s y = f(x) c o hm ti mi im thuc khong X th o hm y =
f(x) l mt hm ca i s x, xc nh trn khong X, do ta c th ly o hm ca
hm s y = f(x). o hm ca f(x) nu tn ti c gi l o hm cp hai ca f(x), k

hiu l y, hoc

d2y
d 2 f ( x)
,
ho

c
f(x),
ho

c
.
dx 2
dx 2

58
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Tng qut, o hm ca o hm cp (n 1) ca y = f(x) c gi l o hm cp


n ca hm s . K hiu: y(n), hoc

dny
d n f ( x)
, hoc
, hoc f(n)(x).
n
n
dx
dx

Nh vy: y(n) = f(n)(x) = [f(n 1) (x)]


V d 5. Tnh o hm cp n ca hm s y = sinx

)
2

y = -sin = sin(x + 2. )
2

Gi s, y(n 1) = sin(x + (n -1) ). Ta tnh y(n)


2

) = sin(x + n
)
y(n) = cos(x + (n -1) ) = sin(x + (n -1) +
2
2 2
2

Gii. Ta c y = cosx = cos(x + 1.

+) Vi phn cp hai ca hm s y = f(x) l vi phn ca vi phn ( cp 1) ca hm , tc l


d2y = d(dy)
Tng qut, vi phn cp n ca hm s y = f(x) l vi phn ca vi phn cp n 1 ca
hm , tc l
dny = d(dn 1y)
Ch .
* Trong cng thc vi phn dy = ydx, o hm y ph thuc vo x, cn
dx = x l s gia bt k ca bin c lp x, khng ph thuc x. Do , khi ly vi phn
theo x th dx c xem nh l hng s. Ta c
d2y = d(dy) = d(ydx) = dxdy = dx(ydx) = ydx2, dx2 = (dx)2
d3y = d(d2y) = d(ydx2) = dx2d(y) = dx2(ydx) = ydx3, dx3 = (dx)3
Bng phng php quy np, ta c th chng minh cng thc tnh vi phn cp n
ca hm s y = f(x): dny = y(n)(dx)n = y(n)dxn
*
Biu thc vi phn cp cao khng c tnh cht bt bin nh biu thc vi phn cp
1.
V d 6. Cho hm s y = x2
Nu x l bin c lp th d2y = 2dx2
Nu x = t2, th y = t4 . Khi d2y = 12t2dt2
Nu thay dx = 2tdt vo biu thc d2y = 2dx2, ta c d2y = 2(2tdt)2 = 8t2(dt)2 = 8t2dt2
12t2dt2
2) Cc quy tc tnh o hm v vi phn cp cao
a. Quy tc tnh o hm
* (u v)(n) = u(n) v(n)
* (ku)(n) = ku(n)
59
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

(uv)(n) =

k=0

Cknu( k) v(n - k) (Cng thc Leibnitz)

b. Quy tc tnh vi phn


* dn(u v) = dnu dnv
* dn(ku) = kdnu

* dn(uv) =

k=0

Ckndn - k udk v (Cng thc Leibnitz)

* o hm cp cao ca mt s hm thng gp:


1) ( x ) ( n ) = ( 1)...( n + 1)x -n .
2) ( e ax ) ( n ) = a ne ax .
( n - 1) !
.
xn

= bn sin( bx + n ).
2

n
= b cos( bx + n ) .
2

3) (ln x )( n ) = (-1) n -1
4) (sin bx ) ( n )
5) (cos bx ) ( n )

III. ng dng ca php tnh vi phn


Quy tc Lpitan:
nh l: Gi s cc hm s f(x) v g(x) tho mn cc iu kin sau:
f ( x)
0

c dng v nh
hoc
( lim f(x) = lim g(x) =0 hoc
xx0
0
xx0
x x0 g ( x )

i) Gii hn lim

lim f(x)= lim g(x)= );

xx0

xx0

f ( x )
(hu hn hay v hn).
x x 0 g ( x )

ii) Tn ti gii hn lim

f( x )
f ( x )
= lim
x x 0 g( x )
x x 0 g ( x )

Khi :

lim

2x - x2
x 2 x - 2

V d 1. Tnh A = lim

0
Gii. Gii hn ny c dng . p dng Quy tc Lpitan ta c:
0

(2
A = lim
x2

(x

- x2

) = lim 2

- 2 )

x2

ln 2 - 2 x
= 4 ln 2 4
1

ex
x + x

V d 2: Tnh B = lim

60
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni


Gii hn ny c dng . p dng quy tc Lpitan ta c:

(e x )

B = lim

x + x

V d 3: Tnh C = lim

= lim e x = +
x +

tgx x
x3

x 0

0
Gii hn ny c dng . p dng Quy tc Lpitan ta c:
0

1
2
C = lim cos x
x 0
3x 2

1
= lim

sin 2 x

1
2

x 0 3 cos x

1
3

Ch .
a) Ta c th p dng quy tc Lpitan nhiu ln, tc l:
Nu mt ln cn no ca im a, cc hm s f(x) v g(x) c o hm n cp n

f (x)
f '(x)
f ''(x)
f ( ) (x)
0
v cc gii hn lim
, lim
, lim
,..., lim ( n 1)
c dng v nh
( hoc
x a g
x a g(x)
x a g '(x) x a g ''(x)
0
(x)
n 1

f (n) (x )
). Khi , nu tn ti gii hn lim (n)
= A th ta cng c
x a g ( x )

f (x)
=A
x a g( x )

lim

ex - e-x 2x
x 0
x - sinx

V d 4. Tnh lim

Gii. Xt f(x) = ex e-x 2x, g(x) = x sinx. Ta c


f(x) = ex + e-x 2, g(x) = 1- cosx
f(x) = ex e-x, g(x) = sinx
f(x) = ex + e-x, g(x) = cosx

ex + e-x - 2
f(x)
f (x)
f (x)
ex - e-x
, lim
= lim
, lim
= lim
x 0 1 - cosx
x 0 g(x)
x 0
x 0 g(x) x 0 g(x)
s inx

Ta thy lim

c dng

ex + e-x
f (x)
f(x)
f (x)
0
, lim
= lim
= 2. Vy lim
= lim
= 2.
x 0 g(x)
x 0 g(x)
0 x 0 g(x) x 0 cosx
b) Quy tc Lpitan vn ng nu cc gii hn c xt trong cc nh l trn l gii hn
mt pha v trng hp khi x , hoc x .
V d 5. Tnh lim+ xlnx
x 0

61
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Gii. Ta c xlnx =

ln x
1
x

Ta thy khi x 0 th lnx - . p dng quy tc Lpitan, ta c:

lim+ xlnx = lim+

x 0

x 0

ln x
= lim+ (-x) = 0.
1
x 0
x

f ( x )
khng tn ti th cha th kt lun g v s tn ta ca gii hn
x x 0 g ( x )

c) Trng hp lim
f ( x)
.
x x0 g ( x )
lim

sin x + x

x

x +

V d 6: Xt gii hn lim

Ta thy

(sin x + x )
( x )

= (cos x + 1) khng c gii hn khi x + .

sin x + x
sin x
= lim
+ 1 = 1
x

x +
x + x

Trong khi lim

d) Ngoi vic dng quy tc Lpitan kh cc dng v nh

0
v
, quy tc Lpitan

cn c dng kh cc dng v nh khc nh - , 0, , 00, 1, 0 bng cch


chuyn v hai dng v nh trn.
1
1
(c dng v nh - )
x - 1
x 1 ln x

V d 7. Tnh lim
Gii. Ta c

1
1 1
1
x
1
ln
x

x
= lim
lim
= lim
x
- 1
ln
x
x
1
(
x
1
)ln
x
x 1 ln x +
x 1
x 1

1
1
x - 1
= lim
= .
x 1 x ln x + x - 1
x 1 ln x + 1 + 1
2

= lim

V d 8. Tnh

ln x
lim - arctgx
(c dng v nh 00)
x + 2

Gii. t y = - arctgx ln x , ta c
2

ln( arctgx)

lny = ln y = 2
(c dng v nh )
ln x

62
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Theo quy tc Lpitan, ta c

lim ln y = lim

x +

x +

1 - x2
x
2

1
+
x
- arctgx
(1 + x)2
1 + x2
2
= lim
= lim
1
1
x +
+ arctgx x +
2
x
1 + x2
.

1 - x2
= 1 .
x + 1 + x 2

= lim

T suy ra lim y = e-1 =


x +

1
e

( )

V d 9. Tnh lim(cos x ) cot g x (dng 1 .


x 0

Gii. Trong trng hp ny:


2

y = (cosx)cotg x
lny = cotg2x.ln(cosx)
Ta c
2

0
ln(cosx)
tgx
(dng ) = lim
2
1
0
x 0 tg x
x0
2tgx.
cos 2 x

lim (ln y ) = lim cotg x.ln(cosx) = lim

x 0

x0

cos 2 x
1
= lim
=
2
2
x0

V d 10. Tnh lim

x +

1
x x (dng

0 )

Gii. Ta c:

y=

1
xx

lim

lny =

x +

1
xx

1
ln x

1
lnx lim (lny) = lim
(dng ) = lim
= 0.
x+
x+ x
x + x
x

= lim y = e0 = 1.
x+

V d 11. Tnh lim xlnx ( > 0) (dng 0. ).


x 0+

Gii. Ta c
1
x
ln x
x
lim+ x lnx = lim+
= lim+
=
lim
= 0.
1
x 0 x
x 0
x 0+
x 0
1
x
x 2

63
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

5. TCH PHN HM MT BIN S


I. Tch phn bt nh:
1. Khi nim nguyn hm
* nh ngha:
Hm s F(x) c gi l nguyn hm ca hm s f(x) trn mt khong (a, b) nu:
F(x) = f(x), hay dF(x) = f(x)dx, x (a, b)
V d 1. Hm s sinx l nguyn hm ca hm s cosx trn R, v (sinx) = cosx , vi mi
s thc x.
nh l:
Nu F(x) l mt nguyn hm ca f(x) trn khong (a, b) th:
i) F(x) + C, vi C l mt hng s bt k, cng l nguyn hm ca hm s f(x).
ii) Ngc li, mi nguyn hm ca hm s f(x) u biu din c di dng F(x) +
C, vi C l mt hng s.
2. Tch phn bt nh
a) nh ngha:
Tch phn bt nh ca hm s f(x) l biu thc nguyn hm tng qut F(x) + C, trong
F(x) l mt nguyn hm ca hm s f(x) v C l hng s bt k.
K hiu:

f ( x)dx = F ( x) + C
V d 2: sin xdx = cos x + C
b)Tnh cht:

'

( f (x)dx ) = f (x) hay d ( f (x)dx ) = f (x)dx ;

* F '( x)dx = F ( x) + C hay dF ( x) = F ( x) + C ;

[f (x) g(x)]dx = f (x)dx g(x)dx


kf (x)dx = k f (x)dx, k l hng s.

c) Cng thc tch phn c bn:

1) kdx = kx + C
x + 1

+ C , khi -1
2) x dx = + 1
ln | x | + C , khi = -1.

ax
3) a dx =
+ C (a > 0, a 1)
lna
x

c bit ex dx = e x + C
64
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

4) sin xdx = -cosx + C


5) cos xdx = sinx + C
dx

6)

cos2 x

7)

sin 2 x

8)

1 + x2

9)

dx

dx

= tgx + C
= -cotgx + C
= arctgx + C = -arccotgx + C

dx
1 x2

10) tgxdx =

= arcsinx + C = - arccosx + C

d ( cos x )

= ln | cos x | + C
cos x
d sin x
= ln|sinx| + C
11) cot gxdx =
sin x

3. Cc phng php tnh tch phn


a) Phng php bin i: bin i, nhn lin hp
b) Phng php i bin: Hai dng i bin s
b) Phng php tch phn tng phn:
Cng thc tch phn tng phn: Cho u(x) v v(x) l cc hm s c o hm lin tc.
Khi , ta c

udv = uv vdu
Cc dng tch phn tng phn
d) p dng: S dng cc phng php trn, ta c th d dng tnh c cc tch phn
c bn sau:
dx

V d 3.

a2 + x 2

V d 4.

a2 - x2

dx

=
=

1
x
arctg + C , (i bin x = atgt).
a
a
1
a+x
+ C.
ln
2a
a-x

II. Tch phn cc hm thng dng


1. Tch phn ca cc phn thc hu t
nh ngha. Mt phn thc hu t l mt hm s c dng:

R(x) =

b + b1x + ... + b m x m
P( x)
= 0
Q ( x)
a0 + a1 x + ... + a n x n

vi ai, bi R v an, bn 0.
- Nu m < n th R(x) c gi l phn thc thc s.
- Nu m n th R(x) c gi l phn thc khng thc s.
65
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Nu R(x) khng l phn thc thc s th bng cch chia t cho mu ca R(x) th
bao gi ta cng c th biu din R(x) di dng:
R(x) = f(x) + R1(x)
trong f(x) l mt a thc, cn R1(x) l mt phn thc thc s.
a) Tch phn cc phn thc n gin:

dx

1
ln|ax + b| + C , a 0
a
dx
1
1
Dng 2: I =
=
.
+ C ( a 0 , k = 2, 3, )
k
a(1 - k) (ax + b)k - 1
(ax + b)
Dng 1: I =

ax + b

Dng 3: I =

dx
1
x -a
=
ln
+ C (a > 0)
2
-a
2a x + a

dx
1
x
=
arctg
+ C (a > 0)
x 2 + a2 a
a
dt

k 2
, nu = b2 - 4ac 0
2

1
t -
Dng 5: I = 2
dx =
ax + bx + c
2 du 2 , nu = b2 - 4ac < 0
u +
Dng 4: I =

V d 1. Tnh I =
Dng 6: I =

x 2 - 5x + 6 dx

mx + n
d(ax 2 + bx + c)
dx
dx
=
k
ax 2 + bx + c
ax 2 + bx + c + ax 2 + bx + c

(m, a 0)

2x - 3
dx
+x+1
1
Dng 7: In =
dx , (n = 2, 3, ), vi a 0, = b 2 4ac < 0
2
n
(ax + bx + c)

V d 2. Tnh I =

Ta c: ax2 + bx + c =

1
[(4a 2 x2 + 2.b. 2ax + b 2 ) + (4ac - b 2 )]
4a

1
[(2ax + b)2 + (4ac - b 2 )]
4a
1
=
[(2ax + b)2 + 2 ]) (vi =
4a

t t = 2ax + b dt = 2adx ax2 + bx + c =

4ac - b2 )
1 2
(t + 2 )
4a

Khi
66
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

In =

(ax 2 + bx + c)n dx

Ta tnh tch phn In =

= 22n - 1 a n - 1

dt

(t 2 + 2 )n

dt

(t 2 + 2 )n

1
2nt

dt
u = 2
du = - 2
2 n
t
(t + )
(t + 2 ) n + 1
dv = dt
v = t

t
t2
t
t 2 + 2 - 2
+ 2n 2
+ 2n 2
In = 2
dt = 2
dt
(t + 2 ) n
(t + 2 ) n + 1
(t + 2 ) n
(t + 2 ) n + 1
=

t
dt
dt
2
+
2n
2n

(t 2 + 2 ) n
(t 2 + 2 ) n
(t 2 + 2 ) n + 1

t
+ 2nI n - 2n2I n + 1
2
2 n
(t + )

In + 1 =

t
1
1
+
(2n 1)In
2
2
2 n
2n (t + )
2n 2

T h thc cui cng ny ta thy mun tnh c In + 1 phi tnh c In mun


tnh c In phi bit In 1 , v.v qu trnh dn n I1:
I1 = 2

dt
2
t
= arctg + C
2
+

T , ta s tnh c I.

Dng 8: I =

Mx + N

(ax 2 + bx + c)n dx , (n = 2, 3, ), vi a , M 0, b

4ac < 0.

Ta c

d(ax 2 + bx + c)
1
I = k
+
dx
2
n
2
(ax + bx + c)
(ax + bx + c)n
b) Tch phn ca phn thc thc s bt k:
Tnh cht. Mi a thc bc n:
Q(x) = anxn + an - 1xn - 1 + + a1x + a0; an 0
u c th phn tch thnh tch cc tha s l nh thc bc nht v tam thc bc hai khng
c nghim thc, trong c nhng tha s trng nhau:
Q(x) = (x a1)s 1 (x a2)s 2 (b1x2 + c 1 x + d 1 )r 1 (b k x2 + c k x + d k )r k
trong a1, a2, , b1, , bk, c1, , ck, d1, ..., dk R; c 1 2 4b1d 1 < 0, ,
c k 2 4bkd k < 0 v s1 + s2 + + 2(r1 + r2 + + rk) = n.
67
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Khi , phn thc thc s tng ng P(x) c th phn tch thnh tng cc phn
Q(x)

thc ti gin:
A s1 - 1
P(x)
A
A1
B
B1
+
+ ... +
+
+
=
s1
s1 - 1
s2
Q(x)
(x - a1) (x - a2 )
(x - a1)
(x - a1)
(x - a2 )s2
Bs 2

+ ... +
+
+

-1

(x - a2 )

+ ... +

M r1 - 1x + N r1 - 1
b1x + c1x + d1
Prk

- 1x
2

+ Qrk

Mx + N
M 1x + N1
+
+ ...
r1
2
(b1x + c1x + d1)
(b1x + c1x + d1)r1 - 1
2

Px + Q
Px
1 + Q1
+
rk
2
(bk x + ck x + dk )
(bk x + ck x + dk )rk

+ ... +

-1

-1

+ ...

-1

bk x + ck x + dk

trong A, A1, , A s1 - 1 , B, B1, , B s2 - 1 , , M, N, M1, N1, , M r1 - 1 , N r1


P1, Q1, , P rk

- 1,

Q rk

-1

- 1,

, P, Q,

l cc hng s c xc nh theo phng php h s bt nh.

V d 3.

x 3 - 3x 2 + x + 6
a) Tnh I =
dx
x 3 - 5x + 6x
x3
b) Tnh I = 2
dx
x - 2x + 1
2. Tch phn cc biu thc cha cn thc:
a) Cc dng c bn:
Dng 1.

Dng 2.

dx
2

x + b

= ln|x + x 2 + b | + C (t t = x +

x 2 + bdx =

x2 + b )

x 2
b
x + b + ln | x + x 2 + b| + C (s dng tptp bng cch
2
2

u = x 2 + b
)
dv = dx

Dng 3.

Dng 4.

dx
2

a -x

= arcsin

a2 - x 2 dx =

x
2

x
+ C.
a

a2 - x 2 +

a1

ax + b b1
b) Dng R x,
,
cx + d

a2
x

arcsin + C (i bin x = asint, t ).


2
a
2
2
a2
b b2

ax +

, ...,
cx + d

ak
b bk

ax +

cx + d

68
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

vi ai, bi (i = 1, k ) l cc s nguyn.

ax + b
, v i m = BSCNN bi , i = 1, k
cx + d

t tm =

V d 1. Tnh
a) I =

b) I =
c) I =

d)

dx
3

x + 1( (x + 1)

dx

x 1+ x

x
2

x - x

c) Dng

, t t =

x +1

2x + 1

, t t6=x

dx , t t12 = x

du

k
2 u2
dx
=
du
ax 2 + bx + c
2
t +

V d 2: Tnh
d) Dng

+ 1)

dx
, t t =
2x + 1

2x

dx
x 2 + 2x + 10

Mx + N
2

dx = k

ax + bx + c
( 2x 3) dx
V d 3: Tnh
x 2 + 2x + 10
e) Dng R(x,

d ( ax 2 + bx + c )
2

ax + bx + c

+ l

dx
2

ax + bx + c

ax 2 + bx + c)dx

S dng php th Euler:

+) Nu a > 0, t

ax 2 + bx + c = t - x a hoc t + x a

+) Nu c > 0, t

ax 2 + bx + c = tx +

c hoc tx -

+) Nu tam thc ax 2 + bx + c c hai nghim phn bit x1, x2. Khi


ax 2 + bx + c = a(x x1)(x x2)
th ta t

ax 2 + bx + c = t(x x1).

V d 4. Tnh tch phn I =

x 2 + 2x + 2dx

69
ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

x 2 + 2x + 2 = t x x2 + 2x + 2 = (t x)2

Gii. t

t2 - 2
(t 2 + 2t + 2)
dx =
dt
2(t + 1)
2(t + 1)2

x=

Khi :
I=

t 2 - 2 (t 2 + 2t + 2)
1 (t 4 +4)
x + 2x + 2dx = [t ]
dt =
dt
4 (t + 1)3
2(t + 1) 2(t + 1)2
2

S dng ng nht thc:


t4 + 4 = [(t + 1) - 1]4 + 4 = (t + 1)4 4(t + 1)3 + 6(t + 1)2 4(t + 1) + 5
Ta tnh c I
f) Dng R(x,

a2 + x 2 )dx , vi a > 0

atgt, - < t <

t x =
2
2

acotgt, 0 < t <


1 + x 2 dx

V d 5. Tnh I =

g) Dng R(x,

a2 - x 2 )dx , vi a > 0.

asint, - t

t x =
2
2

acost, 0 t
x3

V d 6. Tnh I =

h) Dng R(x,

x 2 - a2 )dx

1 x2

dx

sin t , t 0,

t x =
a

, t 0,

cost

k) Dng R x,

a+ x
c R x,
dx ho
a- x

a- a
a+ x

dx

t x = acos2t.
.
m) Dng R(x,

(x - a)(b - x) )dx

t x = a + (b a)sin2t.

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V d 7. Tnh I =

dx
.
(x - a)(b - x)

dx
(x + a)(x + b)

n) Dng

x + a + x + b , nu x + a > 0 v x + b > 0

t x =

-x - a + -x - b, nu x + a < 0 v x + b < 0.

3. Tch phn ca mt s biu thc lng gic


a) Xt tch phn I = R(s inx, cosx)dx
+) Phng php chung:

x
2

t t = tg ( - < x < ) x = 2arctgt, dx =

2dt
1 + t2

Sau , ta c th p dng cc cng thc

2t
1 - t2
2t
sinx =
, cosx =
, tgx =
2
2
1+t
1+t
1 - t2
V d 1.

dx

a) Tnh I =

1 + sinx + cosx

b) Tnh I =

3cosx - 5

dx

+) Mt s trng hp c bit:
- Nu R(-sinx, cosx) = -R(sinx, cosx) th t t = cosx
-Nu R(sinx, -cosx) = -R(sinx, cosx) th t t = sinx
-Nu R(-sinx, -cosx) = R(sinx, cosx) th t t = tgx
V d 2: Tnh

a) I = sin 4 x.cos3xdx
b) I =

sin

dx
(t t = tgx)
x + 2s inx.cosx-cos2 x

b) Cc tch phn dng: sin ax.cosbxdx, cosax.cosbxdx, sinax.sinbxdx

D dng tnh c cc tch phn bng cch bin i tch thnh tng:

1
(sin(a + b)x + sin(a - b)x)
2
1
cosax.cosbx = (cos(a + b)x + cos(a - b)x)
2
1
sinax.sinbx = (cos(a - b)x - cos(a + b)x)
2
sinax.cosbx =

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V d 3. Tnh sin 2xcos5xdx .


c) Dng sin m xcosn xdx ; m, n N, m, n chn v m2 + n2 0.

Ta s dng cc cng thc h bc:


1 - cos2x
2
1 + cos2x
cos2x =
.
2

sin2x =

V d 4. Tnh I = sin 2 x.cos4xdx


III. Tch phn xc nh
b

I = f( x )dx

1. nh ngha

Khi , f(x) c gi l kh tch trn [a, b] v vit f K[a, b].


* Ch : Tch phn xc nh ca mt hm s f(x) kh tch trn [a, b] l mt s xc nh
(trong khi tch phn bt nh ca f(x) l hm s ca bin s x). Do , tch phn xc nh
khng ph thuc vo bin s di du tch phn (ta c th dng ch s bt k thay cho
b

x): f ( x)dx =
a

f (u )du = f(t)dt = ...

*nh l tn ti tch phn xc nh.


Nu f(x) lin tc trn on [a;b ] th f kh tch trn [a;b ]
2. Cc tnh cht c bn ca tch phn xc nh:
TC1: Nu hm s f(x) kh tch trn on [a, b] th
b

f (x)dx = - f (x)dx
TC2: Nu f(x) kh tch trn on cha c ba im a, b, c th
b

f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx


TC3: Nu cc hm s f(x), g(x) kh tch trn on [a, b] th
b

[f ( x) + g(x)]dx = f(x)dx +
a

g(x)dx ,

Nu hm s f(x) kh tch trn on [a, b] th


b

kf (x)dx = k f (x)dx
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TC4: Cho f, g kh tch trn [a, b], nu f(x) g(x), x [a, b] th


b

f (x)dx

g(x)dx.

TC5: (nh l v gi tr trung bnh) Nu f(x) lin tc trn [a;b ] , th c (a, b) :


b

f (x)dx = f(c)(b - a)

3. Cch tnh tch phn xc nh


a) Mi lin h gia tch phn xc nh v nguyn hm
Cho f(x) lin tc trn [a, b] x [a, b], f(t) cng kh tch trn [a, x]
x

(x) = f(t)dt, x [a, b]


a

Vi mi x X, tch phn (x) l mt s xc nh, do (x) l mt hm s ca


cn trn x. Ta gi hm s ny l hm cn trn.
nh l 1. (nh l v o hm ca hm cn trn)
Nu f lin tc trn khong X v a X th ti mi im x X ta c:
'

(x) = f(t)dt = f(x).


a

'

b) Cng thc Newton-Leibnitz


nh l 2. Nu hm f(x) lin tc trn [a, b] v F(x) l mt nguyn hm ca f(x) trong
on , th
b

f (x)dx
a

= F(x) a = F(b) F(a)

Mt s tnh cht
Chng minh rng
TC1: Nu f kh tch trn [-a, a] v l hm s chn th:

f (x)dx = 2 f (x)dx

Nu f kh tch trn [-a, a] v l hm s l th:

f (x)dx = 0
a

TC2: Nu f l hm lin tc trn R v tun hon vi chu k l T th


a +T

f(x)dx = f(x)dx
0

TC3: Nu f kh tch trn [-, ] v l hm chn th


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f (x)
a x + 1 dx = 0 f(x)dx , a > 0.

TC4: Nu f [0, 1] f (s inx)dx = f(cosx)dx .


TC5: Nu f kh tch trn [a, b] v f(a + b x) = f(x) th
TC6: Nu f kh tch trn [a, b] v f(a + b x) = -f(x)
b

f (x)dx = 0.
a

TC7: Nu f kh tch trn [0, 2a] vi a > 0


2a

f (x)dx = [f(x) + f(2a - x)]dx .

4. Cc phng php c bn tnh tch phn xc nh


a) Phng php bin i
b) Phng php i bin s
b

Tnh f (x)dx , vi f(x) lin tc trn [a, b]


a

Dng 1. i bin x = (t), vi gi thit:


* (t) c o hm lin tc trn [ , ]

* [ , ] [a, b]
* ( ) = a, ( ) = b
b

Khi f (x)dx = f[ (t)] ' (t)dt


a

V d 1. Tnh x 2 a 2 - x 2 dx
0

Gii. t x = asint dx = acostdt


Vi x = 0 t = 0
Vi x = a t =
a

a 2 - x 2 dx = (a 2 sin 2 t)(acost)(acostdt) = a4 sin2tcos2tdt

4 2
a

4 2
a

a
1
a 4
=
sin 2tdt =
(1 - cos4t)dt = 8 (t - 4 sin 4t) = 16
4 0
8 0
0
2

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Dng 2. i bin t = (x), vi gi thit

* (x) n iu nghim ng
t v c o hm lin tc trn [a, b]
* f(x)dx tr thnh g(t)dt, trong g(t) l mt hm s lin tc trong [ (a), (b) ]
b

(b)

(a)

hoc [ (b), (a) ] th f (x)dx =


1

g(t)dt

dx

x 2 - 2xcos + 1 ( 0 < < )

V d 2. Tnh I =

dx
x 2 - 2xcos + 1 =
1

Gii.

dx

(x - cos)2 + sin2

t t = x - cos dt = dx,
Vi x = -1 t = -1 - cos, x = 1 t = 1- cos
1 - cos

V y I =

1 - cos

dt
t 2 + sin2
1 - cos

1
t
1
1 - cos
1 + cos
=
=
(arctg
+ arctg
)
arctg
sin
sin 1 - cos
sin
sin
sin
V

1 - cos
=
sin

2
2c
os
2 = tg , 1 + cos =
2 = cotg
2
2
sin
sin
sin

1

I=
( +
- )=
sin 2 2 2
2sin

2sin 2

c) Phng php tch phn tng phn:


Cho u(x), v(x) l cc hm s c o hm lin tc trn [a, b]. Khi , ta c
b

udv
a
3

V d 3. Tnh I = arcsin
0

b
uv a

- vdu
a

x
dx
1+x

x
1
, dv = dx du =
dx, v = x
1+x
2 x (1 + x)

Gii. t u = arcsin

p dng cng thc tch phn tng phn, ta c


I = xarcsin

x
1+x

xdx
2(1 + x) x =
0

( x )2 d x
1 + ( x )2
0

= -

d x +
0

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d x
x )2

1 + (
0

= -

x + arctg x

= -

3+

4
=
- 3
3
3

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Chuyn 4. PHP TNH VI PHN HM NHIU BIN S V NG DNG


1. GII HN HM NHIU BIN S
I. Cc khi nim
1 nh ngha:
nh ngha 1: Xt khng gian Euclide n chiu

Rn = {M = (x1, x2, ..., xn)|xi R, i = 1, n }


Ly M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ), M = (x1, x2, ..., xn), N(y1, y2, ..., yn) Rn, D Rn
n

Khong cch gia hai im M v N: d(M, N) =

(x

- yi )2

i =1

Cho dy im {Mk (x 1k , x k2 , ..., x kn )} D. Ta ni dy im {Mk} dn ti M0 khi k

, nu lim d(M k , M 0 ) = 0
k

K hiu: lim M k = M0, hay Mk M0, k


k

Ta c
Mk M0 d(Mk, M0) =

(x
i =1

k
i

- x 0i )2 0 x i x i , i = 1,n .

Hnh cu tm M0, bn knh r (r > 0) trong Rn, k hiu l S(M0, r):


S(M0, r) = {M Rn: d(M0, M) < r}
S(M0, r) cn c gi l r_ln cn ca im M0.
Mi tp trong Rn cha mt r_ln cn no ca im M0 c gi l mt ln cn
ca im M0.
M0 c gi l im bin ca D nu mi ln cn ca im M0 va cha nhng
im thuc D v va cha nhng im khng thuc D.
Ch . im bin ca tp D c th thuc D, cng c th khng thuc D.
Tp hp tt c nhng im bin ca D c gi l bin ca n.
Tp D Rn c gi l tp ng nu n cha mi im bin ca n.
im M D c gi l im trong ca D nu r > 0, S(M, r) D.

Tp hp D c gi l m nu mi im ca n u l im trong.
nh ngha 2. Cho D Rn, nh x f : D R
xc nh bi M = (x1, x2, ..., xn) D a f(M) = f(x1, x2, ..., xn)
c gi l hm s ca n bin s xc nh trn D.
+) D c gi l min xc nh ca hm s f
+) x1, x2, ..., xn c gi l cc bin s c lp.
+) f (D) = { R| (x1, x 2 , ..., x n ) D : f(x1, x 2 , ..., x n ) = } c gi l min gi tr
ca f.
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V d 1. Hm s f(x, y, z) = 1 - (x 2 + y 2 + z2 ) c tp xc nh l:
D = { (x, y, z) R3 / 1 - ( x 2 + y 2 + z2 ) 0} = { (x, y, z) R3/ x 2 + y 2 + z2 1}

V d 2. Hm s

x sin y - ysinx
, nu x 2 + y 2 0
x2 + y2
f(x, y) =
0,
nu x 2 + y 2 = 0

c min xc nh l: D = R2.
2 Cc php ton
*Cc php ton s hc
Cho D1, D2 Rn, f: D1 R, g: D2 R. Ta nh ngha cc hm mi nh sau:
(f g)(M) = f(M) g(M), c min xc nh l D = D1 D2.
(f g)(M) = f(M).g(M), c min xc nh l D = D1 D2.
f (M) = f (M) , c min xc nh l D = {M D D | g(M) 0}
1
2
g
g(M)

* Hm hp
Cho hm s f(u1, u2, ..., um) l hm m bin vi min xc nh l D Rm v
u1 = u1(x1, x2, ..., xn), u2 = u2(x1, x2, ..., xn), ..., um = um(x1, x2, ..., xn) l cc hm n bin
vi min xc nh l X Rn sao cho vi mi (x1, x2, ..., xn) X th (u1, u2, ..., um) D.
Khi , ta c hm hp:
F(x1, x2, ..., xn) = f(u1(x1, x2, ..., xn), u2(x1, x2, ..., xn), ..., um(x1, x2, ..., xn))
Ch . Trong tnh ton, ngi ta khng phn bit f v F, tc l ta c th vit
f(x1, x2, ..., xn) = f(u1(x1, x2, ..., xn), u2(x1, x2, ..., xn), ..., um(x1, x2, ..., xn))
V d 3. f(u, v) = e u

- 2v2

, u = cosx, v =
2

f(x, y) = e cos x - 2(x

x 2 + y2

+ y2 )

II. Gii hn hm nhiu bin


1. Gii hn kp
Gi s hm s w = f(M) = f(x1, x2, , xn) xc nh trn tp D
*nh ngha . S A c gi l gii hn ca hm f(M) khi M dn n M0 nu > 0,
> 0 sao cho vi mi M D (c th tr im M0) v 0 < d(M0, M) < th
|f(M) A| <
K hiu:
lim1 f (x1 , x 2 , ..., x n ) = A hay lim f (M) = A
x1 x 0
x 2 x 02
...
x n x 0n

MM0

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* Tnh cht
Tnh cht 1. Gii hn ca hm nhiu bin nu c l duy nht.
Tnh cht 2. lim f (M) = A dy {Mk}, Mk D\{M0},
M M0

k
M0 f(Mk)
A.
Mk

f(M) = A
Tnh cht 3. Mlim
r > 0, M ( S(M 0 , r)
M

D ) \ {M 0 }

< A <

th < f(M) <


lim f(M) = A
Tnh cht 4. MM
0

r > 0, M ( S(M 0 , r) D ) \ {M 0}: a < f(M) < b

a<A<b

lim (f (M) g(M)) = A B


lim f (M) = A
M M 0
Tnh cht 5. MM0

[f(M).g(M)] = A.B
Mlim
g(M) = B
M 0
Mlim
M 0

f (M)
A

=
(g(M) 0, B 0)
Mlim
B
M0 g(M)

Tnh cht 6. (Nguyn l kp)


lim g(M) = lim h(M) = A
M M 0
M M 0
lim f(M) = A.

M M 0
r > 0, M S(M 0 , r) \ {M 0}: g(M) f(M) h(M)
3
3
V d 1. Tnh gii hn sau lim x + y
2
2
x 0
y 0

x +y

Gii. Min xc nh D = R2\{(0, 0)}.V


3
3
3
3
y3
x3
0 x2 + y2 2x 2 + 2 y 2 2 + 2 |x| + |y|
x
y
x +y
x +y
x +y

lim

(x,y)(0, 0)

(| x | + |y|) = 0

Do , theo Nguyn l kp, ta c:


V vy

lim

(x,y)(0, 0)

x 3 + y3
= 0.
x2 + y2

x 3 + y3 = 0.
lim
( x,y)(0, 0) x 2 + y 2

2
2
V d 2. Tnh lim x2 - y 2
x 0 x + y
y 0

Gii. Min xc nh D = R2\{(0, 0)}.

Xt hai dy im M k 1 , 2 v Mk 1 , 1 . Ta c

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k
Mk
(0, 0) v f(Mk) =

3 k 3

5
5
k

k
Mk
(0, 0) v f(Mk) = 0 0

x 2 - y2
.
x 0 x 2 + y 2
y 0

Theo tnh cht 2, suy ra khng tn ti lim

2. Gii hn lp
n gin, ta ch xt khi nim ny cho hm hai bin f(x, y).
Gi s hm f(x, y) xc nh trong hnh ch nht D = {(x, y): 0 < |x x0| < d1,
0 < |y y0| < d2}. C nh y bt k tho mn iu kin 0 < |y y0| < d2 th hm f(x, y) tr
thnh hm mt bin theo bin x, gi s tn ti gii hn
lim f(x, y) = (y)
x x 0

Tip theo, gi s lim (y) = b. Khi , ngi ta ni rng tn ti gii hn lp ca


y y0

hm f(x, y) ti im M0(x0, y0) v vit

lim lim f(x, y) = b.

y y0 x x 0

Tng t, ta cng c th nh ngha gii hn lp lim lim f(x, y).


x x 0 y y0

Ch . Cc gii hn lp lim lim f(x, y) v lim lim f(x, y) c th khng bng nhau.
y y0 x x 0

x x 0 y y0

V d 3. Xt V d 2 trn. Ta chng minh c hm s f(x, y) khng c gii hn kp


khi x 0, y 0. Nhng f(x, y) li c gii hn lp ti im (0, 0).
Ta c

x 2 - y2
(y) = lim f (x, y) = lim 2
= -1, y 0
x 0
x 0 x + y 2
lim lim f (x, y) = lim (y) = -1.
y 0 x 0

y 0

x 2 - y2
(x) = lim f (x, y) = lim 2
= 1, x 0
y0
y0 x + y 2
lim lim f (x, y) = lim (y) = 1.
x 0 y 0

x 0

Ch . Khi nim gii hn v hn ca hm nhiu bin s cng c nh ngha tng t


nh i vi hm s mt bin s.
III. Tnh lin tc
1) nh ngha
nh ngha 1. Cho hm s f(M) xc nh trong min D, M0 D. Ta ni rng, hm s
f(M) lin tc ti im M0 nu tn ti gii hn:

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lim f(M) = f(M0).

M M0

Khi , ta k hiu f C(M0).


nh ngha 2. Hm s f(M) c gi l lin tc trong min D nu n lin tc ti mi
im thuc D. K hiu: f C(D).
V d 1. Xt s lin tc trn min xc nh ca hm s

x 3 + y3
, nu x 2 + y2 0
2
2
f(x, y) = x + y
0,
nu x 2 + y 2 = 0

Gii.

+) Vi (x0, y0) (0, 0) bt k (x 02 + y 02 0), ta c

lim f (x, y) =

xx0
y y0

x 30 + y30
= f(x0, y0) hm s cho lin tc ti (x0, y0) (0, 0) bt k.
x 02 + y02

+) Vi (x0, y0) = (0, 0):V

x3
y3
x 3 + y3
x3
y3
+ 2

+ 2 |x| + |y|
2
x 2 + y2
x + y2
x + y2
x2
y
M

lim

(x,y)(0, 0)

Do

(| x | + |y|) = 0

x 3 + y3
= 0 = f(0, 0)
(x,y) (0, 0) x 2 + y 2
lim

Suy ra hm s cho lin tc ti im (0, 0).


Vy hm s cho lin tc trn R2.

s in(xy)
2
2
x 2 + y 2 , nu x + y 0
V d 2. f(x, y) =
0,
nu x 2 + y2 = 0

Gii.
+) Vi (x0, y0) (0, 0) bt k (x 02 + y 02 0), ta c

lim f (x, y) =

xx0
y y0

sin(x 0 y0 )
= f(x0, y0)
x 02 + y02

hm s cho lin tc ti (x0, y0) (0, 0) bt k.


+) Vi (x0, y0) = (0, 0): Ta xt hai dy im:

s in(x k ) 2 x k 0 1
{Mk(xk, yk)}, tho mn xk = yk 0, khi k f(Mk) =

2
2(x k ) 2

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s in2(y k ) 2 yk 0 2
{Mk(xk, yk)}, tho mn xk = 2yk 0, khi k f(Mk) =

.
5(y k ) 2
5
Vy, hm s cho khng c gii hn ti (0, 0), do n khng lin tc ti (0, 0).
2) Tnh cht
Hm s nhiu bin s lin tc cng c nhng tnh cht nh hm s mt bin s lin tc.
Chng hn:
Tnh cht 1. Nu cc hm s f ,g lin tc ti M 0 th cc hm s
f g, fg,

f
( g(M 0 ) 0) cng lin tc ti M 0
g

n (D bch
n nu r > 0, P Rn , : D S(P, r))
Tnh cht 2. D ng, bch
f C(D)

M D, R+ : |f(M)|

f (M), f(M 2 ) = max f (M)


M1 , M 2 D: f(M1 ) = min
D
D

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2. O HM V VI PHN RING CA HM NHIU BIN S


I. o hm ring v vi phn cp 1
1) nh ngha.
Cho hm s y = f(x1, x2, ..., xn) xc nh trong mt min D Rn

M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) D. Cho x 10 s gia x1, x 02 s gia x2 , , ..., x 0n s gia xn sao cho


im M(x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) D
* S gia ton phn ca hm f ti im M0:

f(M0) = f(M) f(M0) = f(x 10 + x1, x 02 + x2, ..., x 0n + xn ) f(x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n )


* S gia ring ca f theo bin xi ( i = 1, n ) ti im M0:

x i f(M0) = f(x 10 , x 02 , ...,x i01 , x i0 + xi , x i0+1 , ..., x 0n ) f(x 10 , x 02 , ...,x i01 , x i0 , x i0+1 , ..., x 0n )
* o hm ring theo bin xi ca f ti im M:

Ta ni hm s f c o hm ring theo bin xi ti im M0 nu lim

x i 0

(hu hn). K hiu: f 'x i (M0) hay

xi f (M 0 )
x i

f (M 0 )
.
x i

Nhn xt. o hm ring ca hm w = f(M) theo bin xi ti M0 chnh l o hm ca


hm mt bin xi khi ta coi cc bin cn li l hng s.
V d 1. Tm cc o hm ring ca hm s sau:
f(x, y) = yln(x2 y2)
Gii. Ta c

fx(x, y) =

2x
2xy
f (x, y)
=y 2
= 2
2
x -y
x - y2
x

2y 2
f (x, y)
2y
2
2
2
2
fy(x, y) =
= ln(x y ) + y 2
= ln(x y ) - 2
y
x - y2
x - y2
V d 2. Tnh o hm ring ca f(x, y) = x2 + y3 + 2xy 3y + 2
* Vi phn ton phn ca hm s f ti M0:
Hm s f kh vi ti M0 nu s gia ton phn ca n ti im M0 c th biu din
di dng

f(M0) = A1x1 + A2x2 + ... + Anxn + 0


trong

lim

x i 0,i =1,n

0
=

(x1 ) 2 + (x 2 ) 2 + ... + (x n ) 2

( x1 ) 2 + (x 2 ) 2 + ... + (x n ) 2
( x1 ) 2 + (x 2 ) 2 + ... + (x n ) 2

) = 0 , cc

thuc vo cc x1, x2, , xn.


K hiu: f C1(M0).
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Ai (i = 1,n ) khng ph

Khi , biu thc A1x1 + A2x2 + ... + Anxn c gi l vi phn ton phn ca
hm s f ti M0. K hiu l df(M0):
df(M0) = A1x1 + A2x2 + ... + Anxn.
2) Tnh cht
Tnh cht 1. (iu kin cn hm s f(M) kh vi ti im M0)
f C1(M0) f C(M0).
H qu. f C(M0) f C 1 (M0).

f C1(M 0 )

n
Tnh cht 2.
fx i (M0) = Ai (i = 1, n ).
df
(M
)
=
A

x
i i
0

i =1

f (M 0 )
H qu. Nu i0 {1, 2, , n} m
th hm s f khng kh vi ti M0.
x i0
Ch . i vi hm s nhiu bin s f(M), s tn ti cc o hm ring ti M0 cha
suy ra hm s kh vi ti im .

s in(xy)
2
2
x 2 + y 2 , nu x + y 0
V d 3. Xt hm s f(x, y) =
0,
nu x 2 + y 2 = 0

Ta c

sin(x.0)
-0
f (0 + x, 0) - f(0, 0) f (x, 0) - f(0, 0) ( x) 2 + 02
x 0
=
=
= 0
0
x
x
x
fx(0, 0) = 0
Tng t fy(0, 0) = 0
Nhng ta chng minh c hm s cho khng lin tc ti im (0, 0) nn n
khng kh vi ti im .
Tnh cht 3. (iu kin hm s f(M) kh vi ti im M0)
N u

th

f ' x1 , f ' x 2 , ..., f ' x n trong mt ln cn no ca im M 0 (x 0 , y0 )


'
f xi C(M 0 ) (i = 1, n)

f C1(M 0 )

df
(M
)
=
f ' x i (M 0 ).x i

i =1

Ch . Cng ging nh i vi hm mt bin s, nu cc xi l cc bin s c lp th dxi


= xi, do

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ThS Phng Duy Quang
Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

df (M 0 ) = f ' xi (M 0 ).dx i
i =1

II. o hm ring v vi phn cp cao


Cho hm s n bin s w = f(x1, x2, , xn)
*o hm ring cp cao
nh ngha: Cc o hm fx i (i = 1, n ) c gi l nhng o hmg ring cp mt.

Cc o hm ring y li l nhng hm ca n bin x1, x2, , xn, chng c th c o hm


ring. Cc o hm ring ca cc o hm ring cp mt nu tn ti c gi l c gi
l o hm ring cp hai ca hm f(x1, x2, , xn) v c k hiu nh sau:

2f (x1, x 2 , ..., x n )
= fx i2 (x1, x2, , xn) = f x x (x1, x2, , xn)
2
i i
x i
f (x1 , x 2 , ..., x n )
2f (x1, x 2 , ..., x n )
=

(i = 1, n )=
x i
x i
x i x j

= f xi x j (x1, x2, , xn)=

f (x1 , x 2 , ..., x n )

x j
x i

(i j) (gi l o hm ring hn hp cp 2)
Tng t nh vy, ta c th nh ngha cc o hm ring cp n 3.
V d 1. Cho hm s f(x, y) = x2y3 + x4. Ta c:
fx(x, y) = 2xy3 + 4x3, fy(x, y) = 3x2y2
f 2 (x, y) = 2y3 + 12x2, f yx (x, y) = 6xy2
x

f xy (x, y) = 6xy 2 , f y2 (x, y) = 6x2y


Trong v d trn, ta nhn thy rng f xy (x, y) = , f yx (x, y). Liu iu c lun
lun ng khng? Ta tha nhn nh l quan trng sau y:
nh l (Schwarz). Nu trong mt ln cn no ca im M0(x0, y0), hm s f(x, y) c
cc o hm ring f xy , f yx v nu cc o hm y lin tc ti M0 th f xy (M0) =
f yx (M0).
Ch . nh l trn cng c m rng cho o hm ring cp cao hn v cho hm s n
bin s vi n 3. Tc l: i vi hm n bin, nu cc o hm ring hn hp cp k(k
2) ch khc nhau v th t o hm v cng lin tc ti im no th ti im chng
bng nhau.
* Vi phn ton phn cp cao
nh ngha: Vi phn ton phn ca f(x1, x2, , xn)
n

df = f ' x i dx i
i =1

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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

(nu c), cng l mt hm s ca cc bin xi. Vi phn ton phn ca df nu tn ti, c


gi l vi phn ton phn cp hai ca f v c k hiu l d2f. Vy
d2f = d(df)
Tng qut, ta nh ngha c vi phn cp m (m 2) ca hm s f nh sau:
dmf = d(dm-1)
By gi ta xt hm hai bin f(x, y). Gi s x, y l nhng bin s c lp, khi y dx
= x, dy = y, l nhng hng s khng ph thuc x, y. Gi s d2f tn ti. Ta c
d2f = d(df) = (fxdx + fydy)x .dx + (fxdx + fydy)y. dy
= f x 2 dx2 + (f yx + f xy )dxdy + f y2 dy 2
Nu f xy v f yx lin tc, khi chng bng nhau, v vy
d2f = f x 2 dx2 + 2 f xy dxdy + f y2 dy 2

2f 2
2f
2f 2
dx + 2
dxdy +
dy
=
x 2
xy
y 2
Tip tc tnh ton nh vy, ta c kt qu sau:
Nu cc o hm ring hn hp n cp m ca hm f(x, y) l lin tc th ta c
dm f =

Ckm
k =0

mf
dx m - k dy k
m -k
k
x y

V d 2. Tnh d f nu f(x, y) = sinxcosy


Gii. Ta c
fx = cosxcosy; fy = -sinxsiny; f

x2

= -sinxcosy;

f y2 = -sinxcosy; f xy = -cosxsiny; f (3)


= -cosxcosy;
x3
f (3)
= sinxsiny; f (3)
= sinxsiny; f (3)
= -cosxcosy;
y3
x2y
xy 2
Vy, theo cng thc trn ta c
d3f = -cosxcosydx3 + 3sinxsinydx2dy - 3cosxcosydxdy2 + sinxsinydy3
3) o hm ca hm hp
nh l. Nu hm w = f(u1, u2, , um) c cc o hm ring

f
(j = 1, m) ti im
u j

(u 10 , u 02 , , u 0m ), cc hm u1 = u1(x1, x2, , xn), , um(x1, x2, , xn) c o hm ring


ti im. M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) v u 10 = u1(M0), u 02 = u2(M0), , u 0m = um(M0), . Khi ,
hm hp (u1(x1,x2,...,xn), , um(x1, x2, , xn)) c cc o hm ring
M0 v ta c:

f
(M0) =
x i

f u j
(M0)
.
j x i

u
j=1

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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

f
(i = 1, n ) ti
x i

Cng thc trn cn c th vit di dng ma trn

f (M 0 ) f (M 0 )
f (M 0 )
f f
f
...
...

=
x 2
x n
u m
x1
u1 u 2

u1
x
1
M

u m
x
1

u1
x n

O
M (M0)

u m
L
x n
K

Ma trn
u1
x
1
M

u m
x
1

u1
x n

O
M

u m
L
x n
K

c gi l ma trn Jacobi ca u1, u2, , um i vi x1, x2, , xn, cn nh thc ca ma


trn y c gi l nh thc Jacobi ca u1, u2, , um i vi x1, x2, , xn v c k
hiu l D(u1, u2 , ..., um ) .
D(x1 , x 2 , ..., x n )
V d 3. Tnh o hm ca hm s hp sau

f(u, v) = ln(u2 + v2), u = xy, v =

x
(x 0, y 0)
y

Gii. Theo cng thc o hm ca hm s hp, ta c

1
f
f u f v
2u
2v
=
.
+
.
= 2
y+ 2
. =
2
2
x u x v x u + v
u +v y
=

2xy
x 2y 2 +

x
y2

y+

x
y

x 2 y2 +

x
y2

1 2
=
y x

Tng t, ta c

x 2(y 4 - 1)
f
f u f v
2u
2v
=
+
=
x + 2
..
.
=
y u y v y u 2 + v 2
u + v 2 y 2 y(y 4 + 1)

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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

3. CC TR HM NHIU BIN
I. Cc tr khng c iu kin
1) nh ngha. Cho hm s f(x1, x2, , xn) xc nh trong mt min D no , M0 = (x 10 ,

x 02 , ..., x 0n ) l mt im trong ca D. Ta ni rng f(x1, x2, , xn) t cc tr ti M0 nu vi


mi im M trong mt ln cn no ca M0, hiu s f(M0) = f(M) f(M0) c du
khng i.
Nu f(M0) <0 vi mi M khc Mo th M0 c gi l im cc i v f(M0) c
gi l gi tr cc i.
Nu f(M0) > 0 vi mi M khc Mo th M0 c gi l im cc tiu v f(M0)
c gi l gi tr cc tiu.
2) iu kin cn tn ti cc tr:
nh l.
iu kin cn hm s f(x1, x2, , xn) t cc tr (cc i hoc cc tiu) ti im
M0=(x 10 ,x 02 ,...,x 0n ) D l ti im tt c cc o hm ring cp mt trit tiu:
f

0
0
0
0
f 'xi = ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ,..., x n ) = 0
x
( *)

i = 1, n

nh ngha. im M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) tho mn iu kin (*) c gi l im dng

ca hm s f(x1,x2, , xn).
im M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) c gi l im dng.ca hm s f(x1, x2, , xn),

nu ti im cc o hm ring cp mt u trit tiu:

f (M 0 ) f (M 0 )
f (M 0 )
=
==
=0
x1
x 2
x n
3) Cc bc tm cc tr ca hm nhiu bin w = f(x1, x2, , xn):
Bc 1: Tm min xc nh ca hm s w = f(M), M = (x1, x2, , xn),
Bc 2: Tm cc im dng M0,
Bc 3: Kho st xem nhng im dng no l im cc tr.
thc hin bc 3, ta c th s dng iu kin hm s c cc tr sau:
4) iu kin c cc tr:
a) Hm hai bin:
nh l. Gi s M0(x0, y0) l mt im dng ca hm f(x, y) v trong mt ln cn no
ca im ny hm f(x, y) c cc o hm ring n cp 2 lin tc v

D=

a11

a12

a 21

a22

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trong
a11 = f xx (M0); a12 = f xy (M0) = a21; a22 = f yy (M0);
nh l:
ii)
Nu D > 0 th im dng M0 l im cc tr ca hm s f(x, y):
+) M0 l im cc i nu a11 < 0.
+) M0 l im cc tiu nu a11 > 0.
ii) Nu D < 0 th im M0 khng phi l im cc tr ca hm f(x, y).
ii)
Nu D = 0 th M0 l im nghi vn, cn c nhng kho st b sung.
V d 1. Tm cc tr ca hm s f(x, y) = x2 + xy + y2 -2x 3y
Gii. Hm s cho xc nh khp ni trn mt phng Oxy.
Ta c fx = 2x + y -2; fy = x + 2y 3; fxx = 2; fxy = 1; fyy = 2

2x + y -2 = 0
x + 2y - 3 = 0

Gii h

1 4
). l im dng v l im dng duy nht.
3 3

H c nghim duy nht M0 = ( ,

V fx , fy xc nh khp ni.a11 = 2; a12 = 1; a22 = 2

1 4
) v
3 3

Do D = 3 > 0 v a11 >0 nn hm s cho c cc tiu ti im M0( ,

1 4
7
)=- .
3 3
3

fmin = f( ,

V d 2. Tm cc tr ca hm s f(x, y) = x4 + y4
Gii. Hm s xc nh vi mi (x, y) R2.
Hm c im dng l nghim ca h

4x 3 = 0
M0 = (0, 0)
3
4y = 0
D dng thy rng fxx(0, 0) = fxy(0, 0) = fyy(0, 0) = 0 nn D = 0. iu ny c
ngha l M0 = (0, 0) l im nghi vn. Trong trng hp ny im M0 l im cc tiu
ca hm s v
f(0, 0) = f(x, y) f(0, 0) = x4 + y4 > 0, (x, y) (0, 0).
V d 3. Tm cc tr ca hm f(x, y) = x3 + y3
Gii. Hm xc nh (x, y) R2.
Hm c im dng l nghim ca h

3x 2 = 0
M0 = (0, 0)
2
3y = 0
Ti im M0, ta c f x 2 (M0) = f xy (M0) = f y2 (M0) = 0
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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

Do D = 0, tc l ta gp trng hp nghi vn
Xt f(0, 0) = f(x, y) f(0, 0) = x3 + y3
Khi chuyn t im M0 n im M(x, 0) thuc ln cn b ca im M0 ta thu
c: f(0, 0) = x3 v f > 0 nu x > 0, f < 0 nu x < 0 trong ln cn bt k ca
im M0 s gia f khng bo ton du. Vy hm s cho khng c cc tr.
V d 4. Tm cc tr ca hm s f(x, y) =1 x 2 + y 2

ii)

Hm n bin (n 3)

nh l. . Gi s M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) l mt im dng ca hm w = f(x1, x2, , xn) v

trong mt ln cn no ca im ny hm f(x1, x2, , xn) c cc o hm ring lin tc


ti cp 2 v
a11 a12 L a1n

Hn = a 21 a22 ... a2n (Ma trn Hess)


M M O M

an1 an2 ... ann


trong a ij = f xi x j (M0), I, j = 1, n
a11 a12 ... a1k

Hk = a 21 a22 ... a2k


.....................

a k1 ak2 ... akk

(ma trn to bi k dng u v k ct u ca ma trn H). Khi


ii)

Nu det(Hk) > 0, k = 1, n th M0 l im cc tiu ca hm s f(x1, x2, , xn).

ii) Nu (-1)kdet(Hk) > 0, k = 1, n th M0 l im cc i ca hm s f(x1, x2, , xn).


Ch . Vi gi thit v s tn ti cc o hm ring lin tc ti cp 2, ta lun c

a ij = a ji (i, j = 1, n , i j)

z2
2
y2
V d. Tm cc tr ca hm s sau f(x, y, z) = x +
+
+
4x
y
z
Gii. Trc ht ta tm cc im dng ca f(x, y, z)

'
y2
f
=
1
=0
1

x
2
4x
x = 2

y = 2x

'
y
z2
3
2

y
=
2xz

f
=
=
0

y = 1
y
2
2x
y
z = 1

y = z3

'
2z 2
- 2 =0

f z =
y z

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1
2

1
2

M1 = , 1, 1 , M2 = , -1, -1

1
2

* Ti im M1 , 1, 1

y
y2
f xx =
a11 = 4; f xy = f yx = - 2 a12 = a21 = -2; f xz = f zx = 0
3
2x
2x
1
2z 2
2z
a13 = a31 = 0; f yy =
+ 3 a22 = 3; f yz = f zy = - 2 a23 = a32 = -2
2x
y
y
f zz =

2
4
+ 3 a33 = 6
y z

4 -2 0
H3 3(M1) = -2 3 -2

0 -2 6

4 -2 0
4 -2
= 8 > 0; det(H3 )= -2 3 -2 = 32 > 0
det(H1 ) = |4| = 4 > 0; det(H2 ) =
-2 3
0 -2 6
1
2

* im M1 , 1, 1 l im cc tiu ca hm s cho v
f(M1) = 4.

1
2

* Ti im M2 - , -1, -1 : ta lm tng t nh trn.


II. Cc tr c iu kin
1) nh ngha. Ngi ta gi cc tr ca hm s
w = f(M) = f(x1, x2, , xn),
trong cc bin s x1, x2, , xn b rng buc bi h thc
g(x1, x2, , xn) = b
l cc tr c iu kin.
2) Phng php nhn t Lagrange tm cc tr c iu kin
Bi ton: Tm cc tr ca hm s
w = f(x1, x2, , xn)
vi iu kin
g(x1, x2, , xn) = b
Bi ton ny c gii quyt theo phng php Lagrange, gm cc bc sau:
Bc 1: Lp hm s Lagrange
L(x1, x2, , xn) = f(x1, x2, , xn) + [b - g(x1, x2, , xn)]
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Trng Khoa C bn Trng i hc Ngoi Thng H ni

(1)
(2)

(1)
(2)

(3)

Bin ph c gi l nhn t Lagrange.


Bc 2: Tm cc im M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) m ti hm s (1) c th c cc tr vi
iu kin rng buc (2) bng cch p dng iu kin cn sau
nh l. Gi s cc hm s f(x1, x2, , xn) v g(x1, x2, , xn) c cc o hm ring lin

tc trong mt ln cn ca im M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ) v ti im c t nht mt trong


cc o hm ring ca g(x1, x2, , xn) khc khng. Nu hm s (1) vi iu kin (2), t
cc tr ti im M0 = (x 10 , x 02 , ..., x 0n ), th tn ti gi tr = 0 sao cho M 0 (0, x 10 , x 02 , ...,
x 0n ) l nghim ca h phng trnh:

g(x1, x 2 , ..., x n ) = b

f
g
L
x = x - x = 0, i = 1, n
i
i
i

(4)

Bc 3: Kim tra xem im M0 c l im cc tr hay khng bng cch da vo iu


kin sau y:
n

i) Nu d L(M0) =

L(M 0 )
dxidxj > 0, vi mi dx1, dx2, , dxn khng ng thi bng
i, j=1 x i x j

0, th M0 l im cc tiu ca f(x1, x2, , xn).


n

ii) Nu d L(M0) =

L(M 0 )
dxidxj < 0, vi mi dx1, dx2, , dxn khng ng thi bng
i, j=1 x i x j

0, th M0 l im cc i ca f(x1, x2, , xn).


(1)
iii) Nu dx 1(1) , dx (1)
2 , , dx n khng ng thi bng khng sao cho
n

L(M 0 )
dx i(1) dx (1)
>0
j
i, j=1 x i x j

d2L(M0)=

2
(2)
v dx 1(2) , dx (2)
2 , , dx n khng ng thi bng khng sao cho d L(M0) =
n

L(M 0 )
dx i(2) dx (2)
< 0 th im M0 khng l im cc tr ca ca f(x1, x2, , xn).
j
i, j=1 x i x j

V d. Tm cc im cc tr ca hm s f(x, y) = 8x + 15y +30


vi iu kin
2x2 + 3y2 = 107.
Gii. Hm s Lagrange l
L = 8x + 15y +30 + (107 - 2x2 - 3y2)
H phng trnh iu kin cn l h

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2x 2 - 3y2 = 107
2x 2 + 3y 2 = 107
'

2
5
L x = 8 - 4x = 0
= x = 2y
'

L y = 15 - 6y = 0
Gii h ny, ta dc hai nghim

x = 4
x = -4

y = 5 v y = -5

1
1
=
=
2

2
1
1
Ta c M1 = (4, 5), ng vi 1 =
v M2 = (-4, -5) ng vi 2 = - .
2
2
L xx = -4, L xy = 0, L yy = -6.
+) Ti im M1 = (4, 5), ng vi 1 =

1
, ta c
2

L xx (M1) = -2, Lxy(M1) = 0, Lyy(M0) = -3


d2L(M1) = -2dx2 3dy2 < 0
im M1 = (4, 5) l im cc i ca hm s cho v fmax = 135.
+) Ti im M2 = (-4, -5), ng vi 2 = -

1
ta c
2

L xx (M2) = 2, Lxy(M1) = 0, Lyy(M0) = 3


d2L(M1) = 2dx2 + 3dy2 > 0
im M2 = (-4, -5) l im cc tiu ca hm s cho v fmin = -77.

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