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Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

CHAPTER 4: HEAT

4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Thermal equilibrium

:Keseimbangan terma

A

Hot

object

Equivalent to

Equivalent to

Cold

object

1.

The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the

temperature of B. In this situation, the two bodies are said to have reached thermal

equilibrium.

2.

When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is

(zero, equal)

3.

There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two

objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature.

4.

5.

(a)

Be easily seen

(b)

(c)

(a)

Opaque liquid

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

6.

( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy. It flows from a hot body to a cold body.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Upper fixed point( l 100)/steam point: the temperature of steam from water that is boiling

Temperature, =

l - l

x 1000C

l100 - l0

l0

l100

l

: length of mercury at steam point

: length of mercury at point

Exercise 4.1

Section A: Choose the best answer

1.

Which the following statement is

false?

B. P and Q are in thermal

equilibrium

C. Energy is transferred from P to Q

D. Energy is transferred from Q to P

2.

of hot tea cools?

A. It warms the surroundings

B. It warms the water of the tea

C. It turns into heat energy and

disappears.

3.

corresponds to zero on the Kelvin

scale?

A.

2730 C

B.

00C

C.

-2730 C

D.

1000 C

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Teachers Guide

4.

5.

Chapter 4: Heat

A.

Using a liquid which is a

better conductor of heat

B.

Using a capillary tube with a

narrower bore.

C.

Using a longer capillary tube

D.

Using a thinner-walked bulb

D.

6.

for measuring a rapidly changing

temperature?

A.

Alcohol-in

glass

thermometer

B.

Thermocouple

C.

Mercury-in-glass

thermometer

Platinum

thermometer

resistance

Kent Hui niticed that Anwars hand

was cold. However, Anwar felt that

Kent Hui hand was warm. Why did

Anwar and Kent Hui not feel the

same sensation?

A.

Both hands in contact are in

thermal equilibrium.

B.

Heat is flowing from Kent

Huis hand to Anawrs hand

C.

Heat is following from

Anwars hand to Kent Hui hand.

1.

The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are 5.0 cm and 40.0cm

respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid P, the length of the mercury

column is 23.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid P?

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 23 5 x 1000C

40 - 5

= 51.420C

2.

The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are 65.0 cm and

5.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid Q, the length of the

mercury column is 27.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid Q?

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 27 5 x 1000C

65 - 5

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

= 36.670C

3.

The distance between 00C and 1000C is 28.0 cm. When the thermometer is put into a

beaker of water, the length of mercury column is 24.5cm above the lower fixed point. What

is the temperature of the water?

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 24.5 0 x 1000C

28 - 0

= 87.50C

4.

The distance between 00C and 1000C is 25 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker

of water, the length of mercury column is 16cm above the lower fixed point. What is the

temperature of the water? What is the length of mercury column from the bulb at

temperatures i) 300C

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

= 16 0 x 1000C

25 - 0

= 64.00C

Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C

l100 l0

300C = x 0 x 1000C

25 - 0

x = 7.5cm

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

1.

Luqman uses an aluminium can, a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple

thermometer as shown in figure below. He pours a liquid with linear expansion into the

can.

Alkohol

.

(b) He chooses two fixed points of Celsius scale to calibrate his thermometer. State them

(2m)

Lower fixed point = freezing point of water.

(c) If the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower

fixed point and the upper fixed point are 5cm and 16 cm respectively, find the length of

the liquid at 82.50C.

100 = 82.5

16-5

x5

100x 500 = 907.5

x = 14.08cm

To increases the sensitivity of the thermometer

(e) What kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensitivity of his

thermometer?

Use a copper can instead of the aluminum can because it is a better thermal

conductor

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

2.

Heat

is the energy that transfers from one object to another object because of a

....

temperature

difference between them.

Temperature

is a measure of degree of hotness of a body.

4.2

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

1.

Heat capacity

Muatan haba

Specific heat capacity

Muatan haba tentu

The heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the

body to increase its temperature by 10C.

2.

(a)

(b)

(c)

3.

Temperature

of the body

.

Mass

of the body

.

Type

of material

The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be

kg-1 K-1

Specific heat capacity , c =

Q__

m

4.

5.

High specific heat capacity absorb a large amount of heat with only a small

temperature increase such as plastics.

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

6.

Chapter 4: Heat

Conversion of energy

Electrical energy

Electrical

energy

Heater

Power = P

Potential energy

A high position

Kinetic energy

due to friction

Heat energy

Pt = mc

Heat energy

mgh= mc

Heat energy

mv2= mc

Power = P

7.

Faster increase

in temperature

Small value of c

Slower increase

in temperature

Two object of

equal mass

Big value of c

Equal rate of

heat supplied

(a)

(i)

Water is a good example of substance with a high specific capacity. It is used as a

cooling agent to prevent overheating of the engine .Therefore, water acts as a

heat reservoir as it can absorb a great amount of heat before it boils.

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

(b)

Chapter 4: Heat

...

...

...

...

(c)

Sea breeze

(d)

Land breeze

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Exercise 4.2

SECTION A : Choose the best answer

1.

an object does not depend on

A. the mass of the object

B. the type of substance the object is

made of

C. the shape of the object

D. the quantity of heat received

2.

the specific heat capacity of a substance

correctly?

A. The amount of heat energy required

to raise the temperature of 1kg of the

substance

B. The amount of heat energy

required to raise 1kg of the

substance by 10C.

C. The amount of heat energy required

to change 1kg of the substance from

the solid state to the liquid state.

3.

rises faster. This is because the ethanol..

A. is denser than water

B. is less dense than water

C. has a larger specific heat capacity

than water

D. has a smaller specific heat capacity

than water

4.

same rate to 250g of water and 250g of

the specific heat capacity of a metal

block, some oil is poured into the hole

containing thermometer. Why is this

done?

A. To ensure a better conduction of

heat

B. To reduce the consumption of

electrical energy

C. To ensure the thermometer is in an

upright position.

D. To reduce the friction between the

thermometer and the wall of the

block.

1.

How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from

320C to 520C? (Specific heat capacity of iron = 452 Jkg-1 0C-1).

Amount of heat energy required, Q = mc

= 4 x 452 x (52-32)

= 36 160J

2.

copper from 350C to 600C. (Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1).

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

= 0.8 x 400 x (60-35)

= 8 000J

3.

water from 320C to 820C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1).

Amount of heat required, Q = mc

= 2.5 x 4200 x (82-32)

= 525, 000J

4.

750g block of a aluminium at 1200C is cooled until 450C. Find the amount of

heat is released. . (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1).

Amount of heat released, Q = mc

= 0.75 x 900 x (120-45)

= 50 625J

5.

0.2 kg of water at 700C is mixed with 0.6 kg of water at 30 0C. Assuming that

no heat is lost, find the final temperature of the mixture. (Specific heat capacity of water

= 4200 J kg-1 C-1)

Amount of heat required, Q = Amount of heat released, Q

mc = mc

0.2 x 4200 x ( 70- ) = 0.6 x 4200 x ( - 30)

= 400C

1.

another block B of mass 2.25kg at temperature 200C.

5kg

2.25kg

A

B

1000C

200C

10

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

(a)

Given the specific heat capacity of A and B are 900 Jkg-1 C-1 and 400 Jkg-1 C-1

respectively.

Amount of heat released, Q = Amount of heat required, Q

mc = mc

5.0x 900 x ( 100- ) = 2.25 x 400 x ( - 20)

= 86.670C

(b)

Energy given = mc

= 5 x 900 x (100 86.67

= 60 000J

(c)

Put them in a sealed polystyrene box.

..

11

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

4.3

Chapter 4: Heat

State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in

temperature

Determine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation

1.

Gas

Boiling

Latent heat absorbed

Solid

2.

Solidification

Latent heat released

Condensation

Latent heat released

Liquid

The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of

phase is known as latent heat. Q= ml

3.

(a) Melting

Temperature

12

Time

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

(b) Boiling

Temperature

Time

(c) Solidification

Temperature

Time

(d) Condensation

Temperature

Time

13

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

4.

Chapter 4: Heat

is the heat absorbed by a melting solid. The specific

latent heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change 1kg of solid to a liquid at

temperature

its melting point without any increase in .. The S.I unit of the

specific latent heat of fusion is Jkg-1.

( melting)

water

ice

heat lost

( freezing)

5.

...

boiling. The specific latent heat of vaporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change 1kg

temperature

of liquid into gas or vapour of its boiling point without any change in

.. The S.I unit is Jkg-1.

Latent heat absorbed

( boiling)

gas

water

heat lost

( condensation)

14

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

6.

Chapter 4: Heat

:

(d)

Cooling of beverage

When ice melts, its large latent heat is absorbed from surroundings. This property

makes ice a suitable substance for use as a coolant to maintain other substance at a

low temperature. Beverage can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice. When the

ice melts a large amount of heat (latent heat) is absorbed and this lowers the

(e)

Preservation of Food

The freshness of foodstuff such as fish and meat can be maintain by placing

them in contact with ice. With its large latent heat, ice is able to absorb a large

quantity of heat from the foodstuff as its melts. Thus food can be kept at a low

(f)

Steaming Food

Food is cooked faster if steamed. When food is steamed, the condensed water

vapour releases a quantity of latent heat and heat capacity. This heat flows to the

(g)

Steam that releases a large quantity of heat is used in the autoclave to kill germs

15

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

EXERCISE 4.3

Section A:

1.

how the temperature of some wax

changes as it cools from liquid to solid.

Which section of the graph would the

wax be a mixture of solid and liquid?

melting ice

D. The temperature change of the ice.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

faster with a pressure cooker as shown

above. Why is it easier to cook food

using a pressure cooker?

PQ

QR

RS

ST

measuring the electrical energy to melt

some ice in an experiment. To find the

specific latent heat of fusion of ice, what

must be measured?

the pressure cooker

B. Heat loss from the pressure cooker

can be reduced.

C. Boiling point of water in the

pressure cooker is raised

D. Food absorbs more heat energy from

the high pressure steam

4.

B. The voltage of the electricity supply

16

characteristics of water that makes it

widely used as a cooling agent?

A. Water is readily available

B. Water does not react with many other

substance

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

capacity

D. Water has a large density

5.

B. ensuring that the ice does not melt

too fast.

C. determining the average value of the

specific latent heat of fusion of ice.

D. determining the mass of ice that

melts as a result of heat from the

surroundings

set up to determine the specific latent

heat of fusion of ice. A control of the

experiment is set up as shown in Figure

(a) with the aim of

6.

is less serious then by steam. This is

because

A. the boiling point of water is less than

the temperature of steam

B. the heat of boiling water is quickly

lost to the surroundings

C. steam has a high specific latent

heat.

D. Steam has a high specific heat

capacity.

300g of ice at 00C melts. How much energy is required for this

2.

Q = ml

= 99 000kJ

Question 2-7 are based on the following information

17

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

An immersion heater rated at 500 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 0 0C.

3.

Q = ml

Pt = 1.5 x 3.34 x 105

500 x t

t

= 501 000

= 1002s

300 g of water at 400C is mixed with x g of water at 800C. The final

4.

5.

water at 00C.

6.

300C.

Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.5 kg of ice at 15 0C into steam

7.

at 1000C

Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 0 0C into steam

8.

at 1000C.

18

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

9.

Chapter 4: Heat

The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2300 kJ kg-. How much

heat will be absorbed when 3.2 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point.

4.4

Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of the behavior of gas molecules.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas

1.

Property of gas

Volume,V

m3

Explanation

The molecules move freely in random motion and fill up

the whole space in the container.

container

Temperature,T

K (Kelvin)

an average kinetic energy which is proportional to the

temperature.

19

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Pressure,P

Pa(Pascal)

and bounces back, there is a change in momentum and a force

is exerted on the wall

2.

(a) The molecules in a gas move freely in random motion and posses kinetic energy

(b) The force of attraction between the molecules are negligible.

(c) The collisions of the molecules with each other and with the walls of the container are

elastic collisions

4.4.1

Boyles Law

P1

V

That is PV = constant

Or P V = P V

1

Small volume

molecules hit wall

more often, greater

pressure

1.

Boyles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely

proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant.

2.

P

20

1/V

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

3.

Chapter 4: Heat

The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m deep is 250cm 3. If the

atmospheric pressure is 10m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches

the surface of the sea.

P2= 10m

P1V1 = P2V2

60m (250 x 10 )m3 = 10m x V2

1.5 x 10-3 m3

= V2

-6

PI=50m + 10m

4.4.2

Charless Law

V1=250cm3

VT

that is V = constant

T

Relationship between

volume and temperature

Higher temperature,

faster molecules,

larger volume to keep

the pressure constant

Lower temperature

1.

Charles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly

proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant.

2.

The temperature -2730C is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the absolute

zero of temperature.

3.

Temperature

Absolute zero

Ice point

Steam point

Unknown point

-273

0

100

21

Kelvin Scale(K)

0

273

373

( + 273 )

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

4.

Chapter 4: Heat

-273

4.4.3

Pressures Law

PT

That is P = constant

T

and temperature

1.

/0C

100

Higher temperature

molecules move

faster, greater

pressure

The pressure law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly

proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant.

1.

A mixture of air and petrol vapour is injected into the cylinder of a car engine when

the cylinder volume is 100 cm3. Its pressure is then 1.0 atm. The valve closes and the

mixture is compressed to 20 cm3. Find the pressure now.

22

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

2.

Chapter 4: Heat

The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 in deep is 200 cm3. If the

atmospheric pressure is 10 in of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the

surface of the sea.

3.

The volume of an air bubble is 5 mm3 when it is at a depth of h in below the water

surface. Given that its volume is 15 mm3 when it is at a depth of 2 in, find the value of h.

(Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water)

4.

An air bubble has a volume of V cm3 when it is released at a depth of 45m from the

water surface. Find its volume (V) when it reaches the water surface. (Atmospheric pressure

= 10 m of water)

5.

A gas of volume 20m3 at 370C is heated until its temperature becomes 870C at

constant pressure. What is the increase in volume?

23

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

The air pressure in a container at 330C is 1.4 X 1O5 N m2. The container is heated

6.

until the temperature is 550C. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the container is

fixed?

7.

The volume of a gas is 1 cm3 at 150C. The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the

volume becomes triple the initial volume. Calculate the final temperature of the gas.

8.

pressure. The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to 98 0C. Find the new

pressure of the gas if the volume of the container is constant.(Atmospheric pressure = 1.0 X

105N rn2)

9.

The pressure of a gas decreases from 1.2 x 10 5 Pa to 9 x 105 Pa at 400C. If the volume

of the gas is constant, find the initial temperature of the gas.

24

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

PART A: CHAPTER 4

1.

500C is put in contact with a 1kg

copper sphere of temperature 273K

and they are put inside an insulated

box. Which of the following

statements is correct when they reach

thermal equilibrium?

D.

A iron sphere will have a

temperature of 273K

E.

The copper sphere will have

a temperature of 500C.

F.

Both the sphere have the

same temperature.

G.

The temperature of the iron

sphere will be lower than 500C

2.

one object to another object, which

of the following processes does not

involve a transfer to material?

A. Convection

B. Vaporisation

C. Radiation

D. Evaporation

3.

heat up some food in a lunch box, we

should open the lid slightly. Which

of the following explanations is

correct?

the lunch box

B. To allow the water vapors to go

out, otherwise the box will

explode

C. To allow microwave to reflect

more times inside the lunch box

D. To allow microwave to penetrate

deeper into the lunch box.

25

4.

fire. Which of the following

explanation is not correct?

A. Water has a high specific heat

capacity

B. Steam can cut off the supply of

oxygen

C. Water is easily available

D. Water can react with some

material

5.

certain sample is 5000 J0C-1. Which

of the following is correct?

A. The mass of this sample is 1kg.

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

the temperature of 1 kg of this

sample is 5000 J.

C. The energy needed to increase

the temperature of 0.5kg of this

sample is 2500J.

D. The temperature of this sample

will increase 10C when 5 000 J

energy is absorbed by this

sample.

6.

7.

8.

molecules in a container?

A. Gas molecules move randomly

B. Gas molecules collide elastically

with the walls of the container

C. Gas molecules move faster as

temperature increases

D. Gas

molecules

collide

inelastically with each other

9.

compressed at constant temperature

of the gas increase because

A. the average speed of gas

molecules increases

B. the number of gas molecules

increases

C. the average distance between the

gas molecules increases

D. the rate of collision between the

gas molecules and the walls

increases

10.

immersed in the boiling water as

shown in diagram below.

correct?

A. The total mass of the object is

kept constant when fusion

occurs.

B. The internal energy of the object

is increased when condensation

occurs

C. Energy is absorbed when

condensation occurs.

D. Energy is absorbed when

vaporization occurs.

between the liquid and gaseous states

A. only when water vapour is

saturated

B. at all times because evaporation

and condensation occur any time

C. only when the vapour molecules

produce a pressure as the same as

the atmospheric pressure

D. only when the water is boiling

false?

A.

The volume of the plastic bag

increases.

B.

The pressure of air molecules

increases

C.

The air molecules in the bag

move faster

D.

The repulsive force of boiling

water slows down the movement

of air molecule

which one of the following does not

26

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

PART B;

1.

A research student wishes to carry out an investigation on the temperature change of the

substance in the temperature range -500C to 500C. The instrument used to measure the

temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer.

Thermometer

Liquid

Freezing point of liquid (0C)

Boiling point of liquid (0C)

Diameter of capillary tube

Cross section

A

Mercury

-39

360

Large

B

Mercury

-39

360

Small

C

Alcohol

-112

360

Large

D

Alcohol

-112

360

Small

Table 1

(a) (i) State the principle used in a liquid- in glass thermometer.(1m)

Principle of thermal equilibrium

........................................................................................................................................

(ii)

A system is in a state of thermal equilibrium if the net rate of heat flow between

.

the component of the system is zero. This means that the component of the system

.

are at the same temperature

.

(b) Table 1 shows the characteristic of 4 types of thermometer: A,B C and D. On the basis

of the information given in Table 1, explain the characteristics of, and suggest a suitable

thermometer for the experiment.(5 m)

27

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Alkohol freezing point is less than -50C, boiling point higher than 50C.Thus the

Capillary tube has small diameter will produce a large change in the length thus

..

(c) The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is 6.0cm and 18.5 cm at

00C and 1000C. respectively. When the thermometer is placed in a liquid, the length of

the mercury column is 14.0cm

(i)

The temperature of the liquid = 8.0 x 100

12.5

= 64 0C

(ii)

State two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer. (6m)

Change of electrical resistance with temperature

2.

Block P is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 300C in a polystyrene cup.

The mass of water in the polystyrene cup is 250 g. After 2 minutes, the water temperature

rises to 420C.

Figure 2

28

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the

surroundings are negligible.{Specific heat capacity of water 4 200 j kg-1 C-1)

Calculate

(a)

Q = mc

= 0.250 x 4200 x (42-30)

= 12 600J

(b)

Rate of heat supplied to the water = 12 600J

120s

= 105 Js-1

(c)

0.500 x c x(100 -42)

= 12 600J

c

3.

prepares a cardboard tube 50.0 cm long closed by a stopper at one end. Lead shot of

mass 500 g is placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper.

The height of the lead shot in the tube is 5.0 cm as shown in Figure 3.1. The student then

holds both ends of the tube and inverts it 100 times (Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

29

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

(a)

Chapter 4: Heat

Gravitational potential energy kinetic energy heat energy

..

..

(b)

What is the average distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is

inverted?

45.0 cm

(c)

Calculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the

bottom of the tube.

S = ut + at2

0.45 = 0 + (10)t2

t = 0.3s

(d)

After inverting the tube 100 times, the temperature of the lead shot is

found to have increased by 30C.

i.

Work done = (100) mgh

= 100 x 0.500 x 10 x 0.45

= 225 J

ii.

mc = 225 J

c =

225

(0.500 x 3)

= 150 Jkg-1 C-1

iii.

...

No heat loss to the surroundings/All the gravitational potential energy is converted

.

PART C: EXPERIMENT

30

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

1.

Chapter 4: Heat

Before travelling on a long journey, Luqman measured the air pressure the tyre of

his car as shown in Figure (a) He found that the air pressure of the tyre was 200 kPa.

After the journey, Luqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in Figure

(b) He found that the air pressure had increase to 245 kPa. Luqman also found that the

tyre was hotter after the journey although the size of the tyre did not change.

Using the information provided by Luqman and his observations on air pressure in the

tyre of his car:

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure (a)

[1 mark]

Figure (b)

Choose suitable apparatus such as pressure gauge, a round-bottomed flask and any other

apparatus that may he necessary. In your description, state clearly the following:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable,

vi.

vii. The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]

31

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Inference

Hypothesis

At constant volume, the air pressure increase as the temperature

Aim

increases

To investigate the relationship between the air pressure and the

Variable

Constant variable : Air temperature

Manipulate variable : Air pressure

Round-bottom flask, rubber tube, Bourdon gauge, beaker, stirrer,

thermometer, wire gauze, tripod stand and Bunsen burner.

Arrangement of

apparatus

Procedure

32

JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

completely immersed.

taken. The pressure reading from the bourdon gauge is also

taken.

temperature increases by 100C, the Bunsen burner is

removed and the stirring of water is continued. The

temperature and pressure readings of the trapped air are

recorded in the table

almost reaches boiling point.

Tabulation of Data

Analysis of Data

33

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