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Homo Sapiens

vs.
Malus Domestica
By: Cameron Jensen
and Jordan Ockey

Introduction
Common Name:
Average Lifespan:
Auto vs Heterotroph:
Cells:

Anatomical Structure:

Homo Sapiens

Malus Domestica

Human

Apple Tree

71.66 years

100 years (about)

Heterotroph

Autotroph

Eukaryote
Multicellular
Animal Cell
(No cell wall or
chloroplasts)

Eukaryote
Multicellular
Plant Cell
(Cell Wall and
Chloroplasts)

Taxonomy
Human

Apple Tree

Domain

Eukarya

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Plantae

Phylum

Chordata

Magnoliophyta

Class

Mammalia

Magnoliopsida

Order

Primates

Rosales

Family

Hominidae

Rosaceae

Genus

Homo

Malus

Species

H. sapiens

M. Domestica

Green Plants

Phylogenetic Tree

Apple

Mammals

Green Plants
Mammals

Human

Integumentary System
Homo Sapiens
Purpose:
o Protect body from
environment
o First line of innate
immune system defense
o Keep everything inside
moist

Parts:
o Skin, hair, nails, sebaceous
glands, melanocytes,
capillaries, nerves

Skin

Epidermis - 5 layers
o Top layer (the one we see) made of dead keratinocyte cells called corneocytes
o Protect body from environment

Physical barrier- organisms are kept out by skin; water resistant

Dead cells shed - taking pathogens with it.

o Color

Human skin has a wide variety of colors

Several pigments (melanin, hemoglobin, and carotenes) in the melanocytes (in basal layer of
epidermis bottom layer) are responsible for skin color.

Dermis
o Cushion the body from strain and stress; provide elasticity to skin, and a sense of
touch, and heat.
o Contains blood vessels, nerves, and hair follicles

Nutrients are carried through blood vessels

o Collagen = gives skin strength

Elastin= gives skin elasticity

Hypodermis
o Layer of fat that insulates body and cushions internal structures

Grows from inside out


o New skin cells form at bottom of epidermis and move outwards

Integumentary System
Malus Domestica
Purpose:
o Protect tree from environment and elements (sun, wind, rain)
Ward off fungi, insects, animals

o Insulate and prevent water loss


o Transport sugars

Parts:
o Outer bark (Periderm) and
Inner bark (phloem)

Bark
Outer Bark (Periderm)
o Mostly dead tissues made of Cork Cells (a.k.a phellem)
o Protect tree from environment

Dead Cells: No nutritional value discourage bacteria and fungi

Cork Cells: Excellent for thermal insulation; indigestible discourage animals;


Fat and waxy water repellant and prevent water loss;

o Patterns/Color

Apple Tree bark is gray and scaly

Bark characteristics come from the periderms growth pattern and distribution

Inner Bark (Phloem)


o Made of living cells; live for only a short time
o Transports sugars from the leaves to the rest of the tree

Sugars travel from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration through
diffusion and osmosis.

Grows from inside out


o Cambium tissue divides and grows, pushing outside cells into phloem
o Cork Cambium tissue divides and grows, pushing outside cell into cork cells
(because they have a layer of suberin in their walls)

Fun Fact: An Apple Trees initial periderm lasts longer than most trees.

More Protection
Homo Sapien
Melanin, and other pigments
in melanocytes, act as a
defense against solar
radiation.
Hair
o Protect from solar radiation
o Heat insulator, and help
cool body

Malus Domestica
Flavonoids and Anthocyanin
(red pigment) help defend
against solar radiation
(specifically in fruit, not tree)
Leaves
o Can help shade tree and
protect from solar radiation
o Pruning and disease can
take away protective shade
leaves, causing sunscald;
common in apple trees

Why are there these differences between the two species?

Skeletal System
Homo Sapiens
Purpose:
o Support the body
o Protect internal organs
o Allow movement (connected with
muscle)
o Store calcium
o Conduct hematopoiesis

Parts:
o Bone (spongy and compact), cartilage,
bone marrow, ligaments

Bones
o Provides support for body; protects organs; allow movement

Spine= In center of body; keeps body straight, stable, upright

Ribcage= cage of bones around many internal organs

Limbs, head, neck= connected to muscle which allows body to move

o Bone tissue is connective tissue consisting of widely separated cells surrounded by matrix.

o 4 types of cells in bone tissue: Osteoprogenitor, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, and Osteoclasts


o Calcium and Vitamin D

Used to provide healthy, dense and strong bones

Calcium is stored in bones

Vitamin D helps body store calcium

Used to grow bone

o Hematopoiesis

Formation of new blood cells

Takes place in bone marrow (in center of bone)

Joints and Ligaments


o Allows a wider range of motion
o 6 types of joints
o Cartilaginous caps on the epiphysis of the bone prevents bone to bone contact
o Ligaments: connective tissue that connects bone to bone

Growth
o Cartilage is formed at epiphyseal plates, the cartilage is then calcified and replaced by bone

Skeletal System
Malus Domestica
Purpose:
o Support the tree keep it standing upright

o Anchor the tree in ground

Parts:
o Heartwood, sapwood, roots, lignin

Heartwood
o Provides support for tree

In center of trunk and branches

o Made of dead Xylem cells

However, will not decay or lose strength; as strong as steel

Held together with lignin

o Lignin

Provides strength in tree; most trees would topple without it; prevents the xylem cell walls from
collapsing under pressure

Found within cells and cell walls, and between cells

Also responsible for controlling the transportation of liquid in the tree, giving vegetables their
crunch, fiber, and more

Second most abundant polymer on earth behind cellulose

Roots
o Anchors tree to ground - keep it straight and stable; absorbs water and nutrients from
soil; stores food
o Has several different layers, each with different cells; similar to rest of tree
o Occupy area 2 to 4 times the size of the crown of the tree

Growth
o Cambium tissue divides and grows, pushing inner cells into sapwood (xylem), which
then push old xylem cells become the heart wood making the tree grow thicker.

Grow taller when new cells are produced at the tips of twigs/branches

Roots grow out and down when the root tip experiences cell division.

Why are there these differences between the two species?

Glossary
Autotroph: An organism that makes its own food - plants
Heterotroph: An organism that uses other sources as food - animals
Keratinocytes: the predominant cell type in the epidermis; 95% of
epidermis cells
Suberin: a waxy and fatty substance that is found in cork cell walls
Hematopoiesis: the creation of new blood cells in the body
Cartilage: A tough, elastic, fibrous connective tissue that is found in
some parts of the body (nose, ear, joints)
Epiphyseal: The end of a long bone

Lignin: a complex organic polymer in the cell walls


of many plants, making them rigid and strong

References
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Baley, Anne. "Treating Sunscald How To Prevent Fruit Or Tree Sunscald." Gardening Know
How. June 29, 2013. Accessed July 18, 2016.
"Bark Features." Botgard. Accessed July 12, 2016.
Structure of the Skin: Epidermis. Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Boundless.May 26 2016.
Accessed July 18, 2016
"How a Tree Grows." Virginia Department of Forestry. March 2011. Accessed July 18, 2016.
Matt. "Bark!" In Defense of Plants. January 27, 2016. Accessed July 18, 2016.

"Plants: Essential Processes." SparkNotes. 2016. Accessed July 18, 2016.


Pulplett, Dan. "Tree Bark." Trees for Life. 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016.
Solovchenko, Alexei, and Michaela Shmitz-Eiberger. "Significance of Skin Flavonoids for UVB-Protection in Apple Fruits." Journal of Experimental Botany 54, no. 389 (August 2003):
1977-984. Accessed July 12, 2016.
"The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue." Suny Suffolk. Accessed July 18, 2016.
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18, 2016.
Whiting, David, Michael Roll, and Larry Vickerman. "Plant Structures: Roots." CMG
GardenNotes. January 14, 2016. Accessed July 18, 2016.
Wisse, Brent. "Calcium and Bones." MedlinePlus. July 7, 2016. Accessed July 18, 2016.
Worthington, Carlene. "Chapter 8 Organ Systems."