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PSI AP Physics B

Dynamics
Multiple-Choice questions
1. After firing a cannon ball a cannon moves in opposite direction from the ball. This an
example of
A. Newtons First law
B. Newtons Second Law
C. Newtons Third
Law
D. Newtons Law of Gravitation
E. None of the above
2. In the absence of an external force a moving object will
A. slow down and come to a stop
B. speed up
C. move with a constant speed in a long a straight line
D. turn to the right E. turn to the left
3. A passenger standing in a moving bus, facing forward suddenly falls forward. This can be
an indication which of the following?
A. The bus speeds
B. The bus slows down
C. The bus doesnt change its
velocity
D. The bus turns to the right
E. The bus turns to the left
4. A heavy box sits on a floor. Which of the following about the net force on the box is true?
A. Non-zero vector pointing up
B. Non-zero vector pointing down
C. Non-zero vector pointing left
D. Non-zero vector pointing right
E. It is zero
5.

A loaded truck collides with a car causing a huge damage to the car. Which of the
following is true about the collision?
A. The force on the truck is greater than the force
B. The force on the car is greater than the force on the truck
C. The force on the truck is the same in magnitude as the force on the car
D. During the collision the truck makes greater displacement than the car
E. During the collision the truck has greater acceleration than the car

6. The Earth pulls down on a railroad wagon with a


force of 200 kN. Which of the following is the
reaction force?
A. The wagon pulls up the Earth with 200 kN
B. The wagon pushes down the railroad with 200 kN
C. The railroad pushes up the wagon with 200 kN
D. The buoyant force pushes up the wagon with 200
kN
E. The wagon pushes down the Earth with 200 kN

7. A railroad wagon pushes down on a railroad with a


force of 200 kN. Which of the following is the
reaction force?
A. The wagon pulls up the Earth with 200 kN
B. The wagon pushes down the railroad with 200 kN
C. The railroad pushes up the wagon with 200 kN
D. The buoyant force pushes up the wagon with 200
kN
E. The wagon pushes down the Earth with 200 kN

8. Which of the following is true about an astronauts


weight on the surface of Moon compared to Earth?
A. Weight is the same, mass is less
B.
Weight is less, mass is the same
C. Weight is less, mass is less
D. Weight is less, mass is greater
E. Weight is greater, mass is the same
9. An object is thrown straight up. How do we compare the net force on the object to its
weight when it is at the highest point the path?
A. It is greater than the weight
B. It is slightly less than the weight
C. It is
zero
D. It is equal to the weight
E. It cant be determine
In the diagram below, a block of mass m slides down an inclined plane with a constant
speed at an angle with respect to the horizontal. Use this diagram for questions 10
through 14.
10. What is the x-component of the gravitational
force?
A. mg cos B. mg sin C. mg tan
D. mg
E. Zero
11.What is the y-component of the gravitational
force?
A. mg cos B. mg sin C. mg tan
D. mg
E. Zero
12.What is the normal force applied to the block?
A. mg cos B. mg sin C. mg tan
D. mg
E. Zero
13.What is the kinetic friction force applied to the
block?
A. mg cos B. mg sin C. mg tan D. mg

E. Zero

14.Which of the following is true about the coefficient on kinetic friction?


A. = cos B. = sin C. = tan D. = mg E. Zero

In the diagram to the right, a block with a mass m


= 5 kg slides down an inclined plane with an angle
= 37. The block maintains a constant
acceleration a = 5.6 m/s2. (sin37 = 0.6, cos37 =
0.8). The coefficient of kinetic friction between the
block and the inclined surface is 0.05. Use this
diagram to answer questions 15 through 17.
15. Which of the following diagrams best represents

the gravitational force W, the frictional force f, and


the normal force N that act on the block?

A.

B.

C.

D.

16.What is the normal force on the block?


A. 50 N
B. 40 N
C. 30 N

E.
D. 20 N

E. 10 N

17.What is the friction force between the block and inclined plane?
A. 2 N B. 5 N
C. 6 N
D. 30 N
E. 40 N

18.A system of two blocks is accelerated by an applied force of magnitude F on the


frictionless horizontal surface. The tension in the string between the blocks is:
A. 3F
B. 5F
C. 3/8 F
D. 1/3 F
E. 1/5 F

19.A student pulls a wooden box along a rough


horizontal floor at constant speed by means of a
force P as shown to the right. Which of the following
must be true?
A. P > f and N < W.
B. P > f and N = W.
C. P = f and N > W.
D. P = f and N = W.
E. P < f and N = W.

20.A boy pushes a sled of mass m across a


rough horizontal surface by applying a force
of magnitude F directed at angle . The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the
sled and the surface is . The normal force
on the sled is:
A. mg
B. mg sin
C. mg cos
D. mg + F sin
E. mg F sin
21.A boy pushes a sled of mass m across a rough horizontal surface by applying a force of
magnitude F directed at angle . The coefficient of kinetic friction between the sled and
the surface is .The frictional force on the sled is:
(A) (mg + Fsin)
(B) (mg-Fsin)
(C)
(mg+ Fcos) (D) (mg-Fcos)
(E) mg

22.A block of mass m is pulled along a horizontal


surface at constant speed v by a force Fapp ,
which acts at an angle of with the horizontal.
The coefficient of kinetic friction between the
block and the surface is .The normal force
exerted on the block by the surface is:
A. mg - Fapp cos
B. mg- Fapp sin
C. mg
D. mg + Fapp sin
E. mg + Fapp cos
23.A block of mass m is pulled along a horizontal
surface at constant speed v by a force Fapp , which
acts at an angle of with the horizontal. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the block
and the surface is .The friction force on the block is:
A. (mg - Fapp cos)
B. (mg- Fapp sin)
C. mg
D. (mg + Fapp sin)
E. (mg + Fapp cos)
24.An ideal spring obeys Hooke's law, F = -kx. A mass of 0.30 kg hung vertically from this
spring stretches the spring 0.015 meter. The value of the spring constant is nearly
A. 150 N/m
B. 200 N/m
C. 300 N/m
D. 250 N/m
E. 350 N/m

25.Two blocks are attached by a compressed spring and are initially held at rest on a
frictionless surface. The blocks are then released
simultaneously. If block I has four times the mass
of block II, which of the following quantities is the
same for both blocks as the spring pushes the
two blocks away from each other?

(A) Speed
block

(B) Velocity

(C) Acceleration

(D) Displacement

(E) Force on each

26.The two spheres have equal densities and are subject only
to their mutual gravitational attraction. Which of the
following quantities must have the same magnitude for
both spheres?
A. Acceleration
B. Velocity
C. Kinetic Energy
D. Displacement from the center of mass
E. Gravitational force

27.A block of mass 4m can move without friction on a


horizontal table. This block is attached to another block
of mass m by a string that passes over a frictionless
pulley. If the masses of the string and the pulley are
negligible, what is the magnitude of the acceleration of
the descending block?
A. g/5
B. g/4
C. g/3
D. 2g/3
E. g
28.Three forces act on an object. Which of the following is true in order to keep the object in
translational equilibrium?
I. The vector sum of the three forces must equal zero.
II. The magnitudes of the three forces must be equal.
III. All three forces must be parallel.
(A) I only
and III

(B) II only

(C) I and III only

(D) II and III only

(E) I, II,

29.Three objects can only move along a straight, level path. The graphs below show the
position d of each of the objects plotted as a
function of time t. The net force on the object is
zero in which of the cases?
A. II only
D. I and III only

B. III only

C. I and II only

E. I, II, and III

30.A locomotive is pulling an empty freight car with a constant acceleration on a horizontal
surface. The mass of the locomotive is five times the mass of the car. Which statement is
true about the force applied by the car on the locomotive?
A. 5 times greater than the force of the locomotive on the car
B. 5 times less than the force of the locomotive on the car
C. Zero since they move with a constant acceleration
D. Equal to the force of the locomotive on the car

E. More information is required


31.A block with initial velocity of 3 m/s slides 9 m across a rough horizontal surface before
coming to rest. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction?
A. 0.10
B. 0.50
C. 0.30 D. 0.05
E. 0.01

32.
A student performs an experiment on measuring friction forces in different
trials. The first time he pulls a wooden block across a horizontal surface with a
constant speed trial A. The second time he makes the same surface incline at
angle with respect to the horizontal line trial B. Which of the following is true
about friction force between the block and the surface?
A. The inclined case B has greater friction force
B. The inclined case B has less friction force
C. The friction force the same in both cases A and B
D. The friction force is not dependent from the incline angle
E. The friction force increases with angle
33.A bus driver makes an emergency stop by slamming the buss breaks. How far will the bus
skid if its speed is doubled?
A. The stopping distance stays the same
B. The stopping distance is doubled
C. The stopping distance is quadrupled
D. The stopping distance is tripled
E. The mass of the bus is required
In the diagram to the right, two blocks A and B
with masses m and 2m are in contact on a
horizontal frictionless surface. A force F is applied
to block A. Us this diagram to answer questions
34 and 35.
34.What is the acceleration of the system two blocks?
A. F/m
B. F/2m
C. F/3m
D. F/4m
E. F/5m
35.What is the force exerted by block A on block B?
A. F/2
B. F/3
C. 3F/2
D. 2F/3 E. F/5

36.A block with a mass m is placed on the top of identical


block m and the system of two blocks is at rest on a rough
horizontal surface. The top block is tied to the wall. The
coefficient of static friction between all surfaces is . What
maximum value does force F reach before the lower block
starts sliding to the left?
A. 3 mg
B. 2 mg
C. 4 mg
D. mg E.
mg
37.Three blocks connected with each other by two light strings. The blocks have different
masses m2 > m3 >m1. The heaviest of three blocks is placed on a frictionless table. The
system of three blocks is released from rest. What is the acceleration of block m 2?
A. (m2 - m3 - m1)g/(m1 + m2 + m3)
B. (m1 - m3 - m2)g/(m1 + m2 + m3)
C. (m3 - m1)g/(m1 + m2 + m3)
D. (m3 - m2- m1)g/(m1 + m2 + m3)
E. (m1 - m3 )g/(m1 + m2 + m3)
38.A lamp of mass m is suspended from two cables of unequal length as shown above.
Which of the following is true about the tensions T 1 and
T2 in the cables?
A. Tl > T2
D. Tl - T2 = mg

B. T1 = T2

C. T1 < T2

E. T1+T2 = mg

39. A heavy ball of mass m is suspended from two

massless strings of an equal length as shown above.


The tension force in each string is:
A. mgcos
B. 2mgcos
C. mgcos
D. mg/(cos)
E. mg/(2cos)

40.A wooden rod on a horizontal tabletop is


pivoted at one end and is free to rotate
without friction about a vertical axis, as shown
above. A force F is applied at the other end, at
an angle to the rod. If a new force is applied
perpendicular to the rod, at what distance
from the axis should it be applied in order to
produce the same torque?
A. d sin
d

B. d cos

C.

D. d tan

2
E.

41.A uniform rope of weight 30 N hangs from a hook as shown above.


box of mass 40 kg is suspended from the rope. What is the
tension in the rope?
A. 30 N throughout the rope
B. 400 N throughout the
rope
C. 100 N throughout the rope
D. 340 N throughout the
rope
E. It varies from 400 N at the bottom of the rope to 430 N at the top.

42.Two blocks of masses 2 and 3 kg are hung from the ends of a lever with negligible mass.
At which of the points should the lever be placed on the fulcrum in order to stay in
horizontal equilibrium?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E

Free-response Problems
1. A 2 kg block slides down a frictionless incline at an angle of 25 .
a. Draw a free body diagram.
b. Find its acceleration.
2. A 2 kg block slides down a rough incline at an angle of 25 with a constant speed.
a. Draw a free body diagram.
b. Find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline.
3. A 2 kg block remains stationary on an incline. The coefficients of static and kinetic
friction are 0.15 and 0.1.
a. Draw a free body diagram.
b. Determine the angle that the block will start to move.
4. A 2 kg block is pulled up an incline at an angle of 25 at a constant velocity. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is 0.15.
a. Draw a free body diagram.
b. Find the applied force.
5. A 2 kg block accelerates up an incline at an angle 0f 25 at a rate of 0.5 m/s 2. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is 0.15.
a. Draw a free body diagram.
b. Find the applied force.
6. A 0.3 kg block slides down a rough incline at an angle of 12 with a constant speed.
a. Draw a free body diagram.
b. Find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline.

7. Two blocks with masses m1 and m2, respectively, are connected by a light string.
Block 1 is placed on an inclined plane which makes an angle with the horizontal.
Block 2 is suspended from a pulley that is attached to the top on the inclined plane.
The coefficient of kinetic friction between block 1 and the incline is .
a.
Block 1 moves up the inclined plane with a constant velocity v. On the
diagram below show all the applied force on each block.

b.
Determine the mass of block 2 that allows block 1 to move up the
incline with a constant speed.
c.
Determine the mass of block 2 that will cause block 1 to accelerate up
the incline at a constant rate a.
d.
The string between the blocks is cut. Determine the acceleration of
block 1.

8. Two masses m1 = 400 g and m2 = 600 g are connected with a light string which
goes over a frictionless pulley of negligible mass. The system of two masses is
released from rest.
i) Calculate the acceleration of each mass
ii) Calculate the tension force in the string
iii) Calculate the support force in the pivot of the pulley.

9. In the system presented on the diagram, block 2m and block 3m are connected by a
light string passing over a frictionless pulley. Block 2m is placed on the surface of a
horizontal table with negligible friction. Present all answers in terms of m, l, and
fundamental constants.
a. Determine the acceleration of the system after it is released from rest.
b. Determine the velocity of 3m block just before it hits the floor.
c. Determine the velocity of 2m block at the edge of the table.
d. Determine the distance between the blocks after they landed on the floor.

10.Block M1 is connected to block M2 by a light string that passes over a frictionless


pulley. Block M1 is placed on a rough horizontal table. The coefficients of static and
kinetic friction between the surface and block M 1 are s and k respectively.
a. On the diagram below show all the applied force on each block.

b. Determine the minimum value of coefficient of static friction, which will prevent
the blocks from moving.
An extra mass m is placed on the top of block M 2, the extra mass causes the
system of two blocks to accelerate.
c. Determine the acceleration of the system.
D. Determine the tension force in the string.

11.A railroad wagon


accelerates from rest. A
small metallic sphere of
mass m is suspended at
the end of a light string
which attached to the
wagons ceiling and
makes an angle with
the vertical.

a. On the diagram to the right, draw a free-body diagram of the sphere.


The wagon accelerates for a total 30 s and reaches a velocity of 15 m/s.
b. Determine the acceleration of the wagon.
c. Determine the angle between the string and the vertical during the acceleration
of the wagon.

12.An 80 kg passenger stands on a measuring scale in an elevator. The scale reading


for the first 20 s are presented by the graph below. Use g = 10 m/s 2 in the following
calculations.

a.
Calculate the acceleration of the elevator for the following time intervals:
0 5 s;
5 10 s;
10 15 s;
15 20 s.
b.
Calculate the velocity of the elevator at the end of the following time
intervals:
0 5 s;
5 10 s;
10 15 s;
15 20 s.
c.
Calculate the displacement of the elevator from the starting point to the end
of the following time intervals: 0 5 s;
5 10 s;
10 15 s;
15 20 s.
d.
Draw the following graphs: a(t), v(t), x(t).
Answers
Multiple Choice
1. C
2. C
3. B
4. E
5. C
6. A
7. C
8. B
9. D
10.B
11.A
12.A
13.A
14.C
15.C
16.B
17.A

18.C
19.A
20.D
21.A
22.B
23.B
24.B
25.E
26.E
27.A
28.A
29.C
30.D
31.D
32.B
33.C
34.C
35.D
36.A
37.C
38.C
39.E
40.A
41.E
42.D
Free Response
1.

FN
mg
cos

a)

mg
sin

b) a = 4.23 m/s2
2.

m
g

f
FN
mg
cos

mg
sin

a)
b) = 0.47

m
g

3.

fs
FN
mg
cos

a)

m
g

mg
sin

b) = 8.5O
4.

FAPP
FN
mg
cos

a)

mg
sin

b) FAPP = 11.2 N

5.

FK
m
g

FAPP
FN
mg
cos

a)

FK
m
g

mg
sin

b) FAPP = 12.2 N
6.

f
FN
mg
cos

a)

mg
sin

b) = 0.21

7.

m
g

FN

FT

m2g

FT

mg
cos

FK
m1g

mg
sin

a)

b) m2 = m1 (sin + m1 cos )

c) m2

+ g cos +a
g sin

m1

d) a = g sin

g cos

or

a = g (sin
8.

a) a = 2 m/s2
b) T = 4.8 N
c) FSUPP = 9.6 N

9.
a)
b)
c)
d)

a = 3/5 g
v = (6gL/5)
v = (6gL/5)
x = 2L(6/5)

cos )

10.

FN

FT

Fs
FT

M2 g

M1 g
a)

b) s = M2/M1
c)

a=

g(M 2 + m M 1 )
M 1+ M 2 + m

d) FT = M1g (M +

g ( M 2 + m M 1 )
)
M 1+ M 2 + m

11.

T
T cos

mg

a)
b) a = .5 m/s2
c) = 2.9O

T sin

12.
a) a(0-5s) = 0 m/s2, a(5-10s) = 5 m/s2, a(10-15s) = 0 m/s2, a(15-20s) =-5 m/s2
b) v(0-5s) = 0 m/s, v(5-10s) = 25 m/s, v(10-15s) = 25 m/s, v(15-20s) =0 m/s
c) x(0-5s) = 0 m, x(5-10s) = 62.5 m, x(10-15s) = 187.5 m, x(15-20s) =250 m

d)