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Engineering Mechanics - Lecture note 1

Engineering mechanics or Applied mechanics is abranch of the


physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics.
Much of modern engineering mechanics is based on Isaac Newton's
laws of motion while the modern practice of their application can be
traced back toStephen Timoshenko, who is said to be the father of
modern engineering mechanics.

Engineering Mechanics is divided into two


parts Statics and Dynamics.
Statics- It is a branch of mechanics which studies the effects and
distribution of forces of rigid bodies which are and remain at rest. In
this area of mechanics, the body in which forces are acting is
assumed to be rigid.
The deformation of the body is treated in Mechanics in the name of

Solid Mechanics or Strength of Materials.


Force :

It may be defined as any action that tends to change the state of


rest of a body to which it is applied.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis
for classical mechanics.
Newton's First law
A body persists in a state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted
upon by an external force. Newton's first law is often referred to as
thelaw of inertia.
Newton's second law
Newton's second law states that the force applied to a body
produces a proportional acceleration; the relationship between the
two is
where F is the force applied, m is the mass of the body, and a is the
body's acceleration.
Newton's third law: Or law of reciprocal actions

For every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or


the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are
directed in opposite directions.
Coplanar Forces :
When a number of Forces lie in the plane they are said to be
Coplanar Forces.
Concurrent Forces:

The Forces whose lines of action pass through a common point as


said to be Concurrent Forces.

Components of a Force in XY Plane :


Forces acting at some angle from the the coordinate axes can be
resolved into mutually perpendicular forces called components. The
component of a force parallel to the x-axis is called the xcomponent, parallel to y-axis the y-component, and so on.

Fx=Fcos x=Fsin y
Fy=Fsin x=Fcos y
F=

Fx2+Fy2

tan x=FxFy
Problem:1
Determine the x and y components of the forces shown below
Solution :
Fx1=58cos30 =50.23 kN
Fy1=58sin30 =29 kN

Fx2=50cos45 =35.36 kN
Fy2=50sin45 =35 36 kN
Fx3=45 ( 5/13) =17 31 kN
Fy3=45 (12/ 13)=41 54 kN
Fx4=40 kN
Fy4=0

Problem 2:
The body on the 30 incline in Fig. is acted upon by a force P
inclined at 20 with the horizontal. If P is resolved into components
parallel and perpendicular to incline and the value of the parallel
component is 1800 kg, compute the value of the perpendicular
component and that of P.

Solution :
=20 +30
=50
Perpendicular component
Pn=1800tan
Pn=1800 tan50
Pn=2145.16 kg

answer

TheValue of P
P=cos 1800
P=1800cos50
P=2800.3 kg

answer

Resultant of a force system:

Resultant is a force or a couple that will have the same effect to the body,
both in translation and rotation, if all the forces are removed and replaced by
the resultant.
The equation involving the resultant of force system are the
following :
1.
Rx= Fx=Fx1+Fx2+Fx3+
The x-component of the resultant is equal to the summation of forces in the
x-direction.
2.
Ry= Fy=Fx1+Fx2+Fx3+
The y-component of the resultant is equal to the summation of forces in the
y-direction.

3.
Rz= Fz=Fx1+Fx2+Fx3+
The z-component of the resultant is equal to the summation of forces in the
z-direction.
Note that according to the type of force system, one or two or three of the
equations above will be used in finding the resultant.
Resultant of Coplanar Concurrent Force System
The line of action of each forces in coplanar concurrent force system are on
the same plane. All of these forces meet at a common point, thus concurrent.
In x-y plane, the resultant can be found by the following formulas:

Rx= Fx
Ry= Fy
R=

Rx2+Ry2

tan x = RxRy

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture note 2


Parallelogram Law :
If two coplanar forces, acting at a point be represented in
magnitude and direction by the adjacent sides of a
parallelogram, then their resultant is represented in

magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram


passing through that point.

Magnitude and Direction of the Resultant of Two Forces:


P and Q are two forces, the resultant of these forces R as shown in
fig.
Let OA and OB represent the
forces P and Q acting at a
point O and inclined to each
other at an angle a then the
resultant R and direction q
(shown in figure) will be given
by
R = P2+Q2+2PQcos
and

tan = Qsin/P+ Q cos

Case (i): If P = Q, then tano =


tan (/2) => = /2
Case (ii): If the forces act at
right angles, so that
= 90, we have R = P2+Q2
and
tan = Q/P

From this law, we have derived triangle law of forces.


Triangle law of forces:

If two forces acting on a body are represented one after another by


the sides of a triangle ,their resultant is represented by the closing
side of the triangle taken from first point to the last point.
Polygon of law of forces:
If a number of concurrent forces acting simultaneously on a body
are represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a
polygon, taken in a order, then the resultant is represented in
magnitude and direction by the closing side of the polygon, taken
from first point to last point.

Where A, B, C and D are the forces and R = Resultant force


Law of Equilibrium:
Two forces can be in equilibrium only if they are equal in magnitude,
opposite in direction and collinear in action.
Ex: If a resultant force acts on an object then that object can be
brought into equilibrium by applying an additional force that exactly
balances this resultant.
Such a force is called the equilibrant and is equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction to the original resultant force acting on the
object.
Law of Superposition:
The action of a given system of forces on a rigid body will in no way
be changed if we add to or subtract from them another system of
forces in equilibrium.
Law of Transmissibility of Force:
The point of application of a force may be transmitted along its line
of action

Problem :1
The magnitude of vertical force F shown in Fig. is 8000 N. Resolve F
into components parallel to the bars AB and AC.

Solution :1

By Sine Law:
FABsin20

FAB=4256.71 N
FACsin120

FAC=10778.37 N

= 8000sin40

answer
= 8000sin40

answer

Problem : 2
If the force F shown in Fig. is resolved into components parallel to
the bars AB and BC, the magnitude of the component parallel to bar
BC is 4 kN. What are the magnitudes of F and its component parallel
to AB?

Solution: 2
tan =1.01.5

= 56.31

tan =4.01.5
=20.56
=90 =90 56.31
=33.69
=90 =90 20.56
=69.44
=180

=180 33.69 69.44

=76.87
By Sine law
Fsin

= FBCsin

F=sin FBCsin
F=sin33.69 4sin76.87
F=7.02 kN
FABsin

answer
=FBCsin

FAB=sin FBCsin
FAB=sin33.69 4sin69.44
FAB=6.75 kN

answer

Engg.Mecanics-End Examination papers

June-2010
Click on Fig to Get Large Image.

June-2010

June-2010
Click on Fig to Get Large Image.

December -2010

Decenber -2010

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Friday, 6 May 2011
Dynamics -Key concepts 4

Direct Central Impact


A collision is an isolated event in which two or more moving bodies
(colliding bodies) exert forces on each other for a relatively short
time. A high force applied over a short time period when two or
more bodies collide is called as Impact.
Types of Impact
1.Elastic Impact
2.Plastic Impact or Inelastic Impact
If the two objects adhere and remain connected after the impact,
the impact is said to be perfectly plastic.
Coefficient of Restitution
During the impact, each object can lose energy This loss in energy
can be expressed as the difference in velocity after the collision
divided by the difference in velocity before the collision, or

The prime velocities, vB' and vA' are velocities after the collision. The
coefficient of restitution is a measure of the energy that is lost
during a collision.
For a perfectly elastic collision (e = 1), no energy is lost. The
Coefficient of Restitution for small rubber balls is very close to one,
which makes them very bouncy and fun to play with.
In a perfectly inelastic collision,The coefficient of restitution (e =
0) the colliding particles stick together. and move with same
velocity V
It is necessary to consider conservation of momentum:

where v is the final velocity, which is hence given by

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Tuesday, 3 May 2011
Dynamics - Key Concepts 3
Relation Between Torque and Angular Acceleration
Consider a mass m moving in a circle of radius r , acted on by
a tangential force Ft as shown in Fig.

Torque and angular acceleration


Using Newton's second law (F=ma),to relate Ft to the
tangential acceleration at = r ,
where is the angular acceleration:
Ft = mat = mr
and the fact that the torque about the center of rotation due
to Ft is:
mt = Ft r = mr

Xr

Thus, mt = mr 2 .
For a rotating rigid body made up of a collection of
masses m1,m2.... the total torque about the axis of rotation
is:

Mt

=
mt
=
(miri2)
The angular acceleration of all points in a rigid body is the
same, so that it can be taken outside the summation. The
mass moment of inertia, I , of a rigid body gives a measure of

the amount of resistance a body has to changing its state of


rotational motion, Mathematically,

I=

miri2.

There fore,
Mt=I

which is the rotational analogue of Newton's second law.

Impulse and
Momentum

In classical mechanics, an impulse is defined as


the integral of a force with respect to time. When a force is
applied to a rigid body it changes the momentum of that
body. A small force applied for a long time can produce the
same momentum change as a large force applied briefly,
because it is the product of the force and the time for which
it is applied that is important.
The impulse is equal to the change of momentum.

If both sides of the above equation are multiplied by the


quantity t, a new equation results.

The quantity(Force X time) is known as impulse.

Impulse I produced from time t1 to t2 is defined to be

where F is the force applied from t1 to t2.


Momentum can be defined as "mass in motion." In terms
of an equation, the momentum of an object is equal to
the mass of the object times the velocity of the object.
Momentum = mass x velocity
=mxv
where m is the mass and v is the velocity.
And the quantity mXv is called the momentum,If initial
velocity of the particle is V1 and final velocity is V2 ,then
the quantity mXv must be the change in momentum.

change in momentum (mXv) = Final momentum - Initial


momentum
m( v2-v1) = mv2 - mv1
The equation really says that the

Impulse = Change in momentum

=
mv2 - mv1

Momentum Conservation Principle :

If the sum of Impulses due to external forces is zero the


momentum of the system remains constant or conserved.

mv2 - mv1 = 0

mv1 = mv2 = mv3 .........mvn = constant


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Saturday, 30 April 2011
Dynamics - Key Concepts 2

Jean le Rond dAlembert


DAlemberts principle

This principle, is alternative form of Newtons second


law of motion, stated by the 18th-century French
polymath Jean le Rond dAlembert.
In effect, the principle reduces a problem in dynamics to
a problem in statics.

The Newton's second law states that the force F acting on


a body is equal to the product of the mass m and
acceleration a of the body, or
F = ma

The above equation will be re write in DAlemberts form


is
F - ma = 0
In other words, the body is in equilibrium under the
action of the real force 'F' and
the fictitious force ( -ma).
The fictitious force is also called an 'inertial force' and a
reversed effective force.
Acceleration in rectangular components
The expressions for acceleration are very similar to those
for velocity.
Horizontal component of acceleration:

Vertical component of acceleration:

Magnitude of acceleration:

Direction of acceleration:

Acceleration of a Body in Curvilinear Motion

Components of total acceleration in normal and


tangential directions (t - n axis)
The tangential acceleration, tangent to trajectory and
parallel to velocity is,

The centripetal acceleration, or normal acceleration to


trajectory and directed to its center is,

Where,R is Radius of curvature of trajectory at time


The Radius of curvature of the curve is defined as the
radius of the approximating circle. This radius changes as
we move along the curve.
The formula for the radius of curvature at any point x for
the curve
y = f(x) is given by:

The Magnitude of total acceleration,

Centripetal Force:
Any motion in a curved path represents accelerated
motion, and requires a force directed towards the center
of curvature of the path. This force is called
thecentripetal force which means "center seeking" force.

The force has the magnitude, Fc = m an

Centrifugal force:
Centrifugal force is
a fictitious or inertial force and it
represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection
with rotation and which are experienced as an outward
force away from the center of rotation and equal to
centripetal force.
It is defined as the force that tends to make rotating
bodies move away from the center of rotation.

Rotation of Rigid Body about Fixed axis

Rotation is described in terms of angular displacement ,


time , angular velocity, and angular acceleration . Angular
velocity is the rate of change of angular displacement
and angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular
velocity.
The averages of velocity and acceleration are defined by
the relationships:

For an object rotating about an axis, every point on the object has
the same angular velocity. The tangential velocity of any point is
proportional to its distance from the axis of rotation. Angular
velocity has the units rad/s.

Angular velocity is the rate of change of angular displacement and


can be described by the relationship

Average angular acceleration:


Equations for constant angular acceleration

The Linear acceleration here is the tangential


acceleration. The relation between angular velocity and
radius of path with tangential acceleration at is,

In addition to any tangential acceleration, there is always


the centripetal acceleration:

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Wednesday, 27 April 2011
Dynamics - Key Concepts

In Engineering Mechanics the study of the causes of


motion and changes in motion is called as Dynamics.
For convenience, dynamics is divided into two
branches, Kinematics and Kinetics.
Kinematics :It is the branch of classical mechanics that
describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems
(groups of objects) without consideration of the forces
that cause the motion.
Kinetics:It is the branch of classical mechanics that
describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems
(groups of objects) by consideration of the forces that
cause the motion.
Types of Motion:
There are three types of motion,

Translatory motion

Rotatory motion

Vibratory motion
Translatory motion:
In translatory motion the particle moves from one point
in space to another. This motion may be along a straight
line or along a curved path.

Motion of a particle along a straight line is


called Rectilinear motion and
Motion along a curved path is called Curvilinear motion.

Curvilinear motion:
A car moving on a curved road.

Rectilinear motion :
A car moving in a straight road
Rotatory motion:
In rotatory motion the particles of the body describe
concentric circles about the axis of motion.

Rotatory motion: rotating Top

Vibratory motion:
In vibratory motion the particles move to and fro about a
fixed point.

Vibratory motion: Simple Pendulum


Distance and Displacement:
Distance and displacement are two quantities that may
seem to mean the same thing yet have distinctly different
definitions and meanings.
Displacement is a vector quantity, that refers to the
object's overall change in position.Displacement is a
measurement of change in position of the particle in
motion. Its magnitude and direction are measured by the
length and direction of the straight line joining initial and

final positions of the particle. Obviously, the length of the


straight line between the positions is the shortest
distance between the points.

Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much


ground an object has covered" during its motion.
Speed and Velocity:

Speed is the rate of change of distance with time,


and Velocity is the rate of change of displacement with
time.Speed is the first derivative of distance with respect
to time,and Velocity is the first derivative
of displacement with respect to time.
The average speed during the course of a motion is often
computed using the following formula:

In contrast, the average velocity is often computed using


this formula

Acceleration:
It is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.
The term acceleration is used in general for an increase
the magnitude of velocity wiht respect to time. a
decrease in velocity is called deceleration.

Acceleration shows the change in velocity in a unit time.


Velocity is measured in meters per second, m/s, so acceleration
is measured in (m/s)/s, or m/s2, which can be both positive and
negative.

Uniform acceleration
Uniform or constant acceleration is a type of motion in
which the velocity of an object changes by an equal
amount in every equal time period.
simple formulae that relate the following
quantities: displacement, initial velocity, final velocity,
acceleration, and time:

where
= displacement
= initial velocity
= final velocity
= uniform acceleration
t = time.
Motion with Variable acceleration
The equations derived for uniformly accelerated motion are
not applicable to the motion with variable acceleration.
The relation between,
displacement, initial velocity, final velocity, acceleration,
and time are,

Instantaneous velocity

Instantaneous acceleration

a = v. dv/dx
Relation between acceleration and velocity

Kinematic equation for motion

when one or more of the above quantities are


specified, the other can be obtained by process of
differentiation or integration, using the above
relationships.
In problems requiring integration, the constants of
integrations can be determined from specified
conditions of motion.
EXAMPLE
:
If the position of a particle along x axis varies in
time as :
x=2t23t+1
Then :
1. What is the velocity at t = 0 ?
2. When does velocity become zero?
3. What is the velocity at the origin ?
Solution :
We first need to find out an expression for velocity
by differentiating the given function of position with
respect to time as :
v=t(2t23t+1)=4t3

(i) The velocity at t = 0,


v=4x03=3m/s
(ii) When velocity becomes zero :
For v = 0,
4t3=0t=34=0.75 s.
(iii) The velocity at the origin :
At origin, x = 0,
x=2t23t+1=02t22tt+1=02t(t1)
(t1)=0t=0.5 s, 1 s.
This means that particle is twice at the origin at t =
0.5 s and t = 1 s. Now,
v(t=0.5 s)=4t-3=4x0.53=-1 m/s.
Negative sign indicates that velocity is directed in
the negative x direction.
v(t=1 s)=4t-3=4x13=1 m/s.