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2Some

Important Points You Need To Know About Bitcoins?

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4In this post, we attempt to identify some Important Points about Bitcoins to give you a clearer understanding of what it is,
5what it does and how you can use it to buy products or services online.
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7This article was written in an attempt to create awareness to readers about this technology.
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91. What Are Bitcoins?
10The Bitcoin is a form of currency without notes and coins, it is a digital currency.
11In this era of Internet and digitization, weve moved from phone to VoIP calls, face-to-face meeting to video conferencing,
12fax to email, cable television to IP TV, and the list goes on.
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172. Who Developed The Idea Of Bitcoins?
18The concept of Bitcoins was developed by Satoshi Nakamoto, who resides in total anonymity. He is said to be from
19Japan but his mail ID was from Germany, plus the bitcoin software was not available in Japanese.
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21He developed the system and the Bitcoin software (that is used to run the system) in 2009 but disappeared into thin air in
222010. The other developers of the system stopped hearing from him in 2010, and plenty of speculation turned up about
23his real identity.
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25Some even suggested that his name was just a mash up of popular Japanese companies Samsung, Toshiba,
26Motorola. But what he created was definitely the fantasy of every tech guy in the world.

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283. What Is So Special About The Bitcoin System?
29The Bitcoin is a system which allows you to do anonymous currency transactions and no one will come to know about
30the payment or about all other info related to the payment, including who sent it, who received it, etc.
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32Satoshi did it by making the system a peer-to-peer network controlled by no central authority but run by a network of
33contributors and freedom enthusiasts, who donated their time and energy to this innovation. Essentially, people can do
34money transactions and no authority or organization will come to know about it.
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364. What Is Double Spending?
37We can make many copies of digital data, e.g. people copy software and sell it as counterfeit or pirated copies. We may
38face the same problem with digital currency one can copy the digital currency (lets suppose USD10) and use it as
39many time as he/she like (as many notes of USD10).
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41Satoshi solved this problem by showing all transactions in a public list. Whenever a new transaction is made, its validity is
42checked by confirming from the list that the digital currency was not used before. This way, no one can copy the currency
43and use it for more than one time. Its a simple but effective idea to stop double spending of the same bitcoin.
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455. How Does A Public Listing Make Things Anonymous?
46The public listing only shows the transaction ID and the amount of currency transferred. You will be anonymous in the
47system because you dont need to provide any of your personal details like your name, address, email, phone number,
48etc. In comparison, when you use payment gateways like Paypal you have to give up all these personal details.
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506. How Do You Use Bitcoins Then?
51Bitcoins are kept in a digital wallet which you can keep in your computer, or on a website online,which will manage and
52secure your wallet for you. You can have as many wallets and bitcoin addresses (where you receive money from others)
53as you like.
54Whats more, you can use Bitcoin software on top of Tor to prevent anyone from tracking your IP address total
55anonymity guaranteed!
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577. How Many People Are Using This?
58At this very moment, 10.71 million Bitcoins are in existence, which is like 207.929 million USD worth! In fact, the
59Canadian government is working on their own crypto-currency, named MintChip. (a glance:)
60In one day, more than 45,000 transactions of a total of BTC 2.5 million (worth of USD48.5 million) is handled by the
61bitcoin network.
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638. How Do I Acquire Bitcoins?

64Using and getting Bitcoins is really easy. There are various ways to get Bitcoins:
65i. Mining
66ii. Currency exchange (bitcoin in return for Dollars or Euros) via bitcoin provider services likeMt.Gox
67iii. Providing services to others in return of Bitcoins
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699. Whats Mining?
70Mining is a process of extracting Bitcoins currency. Bitcoin mining is a business most people mint Bitcoins to gain profit.
71Bitcoins are minted using a special software (known as Bitcoin Miner) which tries to find a new block in the chain of
72Bitcoin network.
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74Whenever a new block is found, its owner is gifted with 50 Bitcoins. Technically, a computer has to perform long and
75tough hash calculations to find a new block.
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7710. How Do You Spend A Bitcoin?
78Spending Bitcoins is a bit easier. You can send Bitcoins to a person, buy goods, or donate to non-profit foundations who
79accept it, such as Wikileaks, P2P Foundation, Operation Anonymous,Free Software Foundation, Archive.org.
80You can send Bitcoins to anyone once you know their bitcoin address.
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82Wrap Up
83The Bitcoin system is being quickly adopted. BTC1 having a worth of USD6 a year ago is now worth of USD19+.
84Security experts and digital freedom enthusiasts praise Bitcoin system for being a one-of-the-kind system that opens
85doors to possibilities.
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87Because of its guaranteed anonymity feature, its used by people who are concerned of their privacy. As no authority can
88trace the transactions, this also lead to misuse of the system for example, in illegal work.
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Current Affairs October 2014

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92 International
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Union
Carbide
ex-chief
Warren
Anderson
is
dead
Warren Anderson, who headed Union Carbide when a gas leak in its Bhopal
pesticide plant killed thousands, is dead, the New York Times reported.
Anderson died Sep 29 at a nursing home in Vero Beach, Florida, aged 92, the Times
said. His death, not announced by his family, was confirmed from public records.

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Anderson flew to Bhopal four days after the world's worst industrial disaster and was
arrested. But after paying bail he left India and never returned to face trial.

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Australia Govt lifted ban on facial coverings in Public areas


A move to force Muslim women who cover their faces to sit in a separate enclosed
public gallery at Australia's Parliament House has been reversed, media reported .
Earlier this month, Speaker Bronwyn Bishop and Senate President Stephen Parry
approved new rules applying to anyone wearing "facial coverings", ABC News
reported.

NASA
Tool
To
Help
Airlines
Reduce
Weather
Delays
NASA scientists have developed a tool that would help airlines minimise weather
delays
and
save
both
flight
time
and
fuel.
Known as Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR), this computer software tool is
programmed to constantly analyse air traffic throughout the National Airspace
System along with the ever-shifting movements of weather severe enough to require
an
airliner
to
effect
a
course
change.
When the DWR tool finds an opportunity for an airliner to fly more efficiently to its
destination, saving time and money, while also remaining at a safe distance from the
storm, the computer rings an alert to the airline flight dispatcher.

Australian
Richard
Flanagan
wins
2014
Man
Booker
prize
The first Man Booker prize to allow American nominees was won by an Australian,
with Richard Flanagan triumphing for a novel of love and war that tells the harrowing
stories of prisoners and captors on the infamous Burma railway.
Flanagan won for The Narrow Road to the Deep North, with philosopher AC Grayling,
who chaired the judges, describing the book as "an absolutely superb novel, a really
outstanding work of literature", the Guardian reported.

Jean
Tirole
awarded
2014
Nobel
Prize
for
Economics
French economist Jean Tirole has won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work on
market
power
and
regulation.
Tirole, 61, wins a prize of 8m Swedish krona (692,000). He is six years younger
than the average age of Nobel economics laureates.

French
Author
Gets
Nobel
Prize
For
Literature
This year's Nobel Prize for literature has been awarded to French author Patrick
Modiano,
it
was
announced
on
Oct
9,2014.
He has been awarded the prize "For the art of memory with which he has evoked the
most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation".

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Scientists behind 'inner GPS' awarded Nobel prize in medicine


John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser have shared the 2014 Nobel
Prize in physiology or medicine, the Nobel Committee announced on Oct -6 ,2014
(
Monday).
The Nobel assembly at the Karolinska Institute has decided to award one half of the
physiology or medicine prize to John O'Keefe and the other half jointly to May-Britt
Moser and Edvard Moser for their discovery of cells that constitute a positioning
system in the brain, Xinhua reported.

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List of 627 Foreign Account Holders Submitted to Supreme Court


The central government submitted to the Supreme Court names of the 627 Indians
who are holding accounts in foreign banks revealed to it by the French government
on
Oct
29,
2014
(Wednesday).
Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi handed over two sealed envelopes to the apex court
bench headed by Chief Justice H.L. Dattu.

India's Kailash Satyarthi shares Peace Prize with Pakistan's Malala


Indian child rights activist Kailash Satyarthi shared the Nobel Peace Prize with
Pakistani teenager Malala Yousufzai who stood up to the Taliban and survived a
near-fatal
shooting.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Peace Prize for 2014 to Satyarthi and
Malala Yousufzai "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young
people and for the right of all children to education," a statement said.

India, Vietnam To Ramp Up Oil Search In South China Sea, Defence Links
India and Vietnam ramped up cooperation in exploring for oil and gas in the
contested South China Sea, ignoring Chinese objections, as Prime Minister Narendra
Modi said Hanoi is at the forefront of his government's intensified engagement in Asia
Pacific after holding talks with his visiting Vietnamese counterpart Nguyen Tan Dung.
Both sides inked seven agreements, including between ONGC Videsh Limited and
PetroVietnam for exploration of two oil and gas blocks in Vietnam.

Modi Unveils Key Labour Reforms, Promises Better Work Culture


Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled some key labour reforms that relies on trust
and promotes ease of doing business and said these efforts will go a long way in
changing
India's
work
culture
on
Oct
16,
2014.
The prime minister also dedicated the Shram Suvidha portal, a Labour Inspection
Scheme, as also portability of social security through a Universal Account Number for
Employees Provident Fund at an event in Vigyan Bhavan conference complex here.

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Help
rural
students
dream
big:
PM
to
AIIMS
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has a novel idea to inspire children from rural
background to take up higher calling. He wants prestigious institutions like AIIMS to
invite
them
at
their
convocation
ceremonies.
Interacting with graduating medical students at the 42nd AIIMS convocation here, the
prime minister suggested a tradition be introduced of having special guests at the
convocation.

Government
bans
import
of
animal-tested
cosmetics
The ministry of health and family welfare banned the import of cosmetics which are
tested
on
animals
on
Oct
14,
2014.
The ban comes in the form of Rule 135-B that states: "Prohibition of import of
cosmetics tested on animals. No cosmetic that has been tested on animals after the
commencement of the Drugs and Cosmetics (Fifth Amendment) Rules, 2014, shall
be imported into the country."

India to launch electronic toll collection at 350 highway plazas: Minister


Launching an electronic toll collection (ETC) system for the Delhi-Mumbai highway,
Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari said such a facility will be extended to as many as
350
plazas
by
the
end
of
next
year.
"In the coming time, this system will get revolutionalised. This is our step towards a
digital India. I have given orders that before March, there should be over 350 such
tolls," the minister said at an event here to launch the project.

Sardar Patel's birth anniversary to be 'Rashtriya Ekta Divas'


The central government will commemorate Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel's birth
anniversary Oct 31 as "National Integration Day", Union Information and
Broadcasting
Minister
Prakash
Javadekar
announced.
The central government will create awareness about the contribution of Sardar Patel
during India's Independence movement and towards national integration, he said.
"Awareness about Sardar Patel's

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Sania-Cara
win
WTA
Finals
crown
The India-Zimbabwe tennis pairing of Sania Mirza and Cara Black clinched the
prestigious season-ending WTA Finals title here on Oct 27, 2014.
The third seeds, playing their last tournament together, took exactly an hour to thrash
second seeds Hsieh Su-wei (Chinese Taipei) and Peng Shuai (China) 6-1, 6-0 in the
women's double final, being played on the hard-courts of the Singapore Indoor
Stadium.

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Advani
emerges
World
billiards
champion
Pankaj Advani, the 29-year old from Bangalore, set a record of sorts when he
defeated Peter Gilchrist 6-2 in the final of the World billiards championship (points
format).
It was Advani's 10th individual World title and his third of the year in different formats
of the game, having won the World 6-Red Snooker and the World Team Billiards titles
earlier.

India
retain
Sultan
of
Johor
Cup
title
Drag-flicker Harmanpreet Singh's brace helped the Indian Under-21 hockey team
successfully defend their Sultan of Johor Cup title by defeating Great Britain 2-1 in
the
final
here
on
Oct
19,
2014.
Continuing his prime form, Harmanpreet scored in the 46th and 70th minutes while
Great Britain's solitary goal came from the stick of Samuel French (55th minute) at
the Taman Daya Hockey Stadium.

Boxer
Sarita
Devi,
Coaches
Suspended
By
AIBA
Indian woman boxer L. Sarita Devi, who refused to accept 2014 Asian Games bronze
after losing the semi-final bout over a controversial decision, has been provisionally
suspended
by
the
International
Boxing
Association
(AIBA).
Also suspended with her are her coaches Gurbaksh Singh Sandhu, B.I. Fernandes
and Sagar Mai Dhayal and India's chef-de-mission Adille Sumariwala to the Incheon
Asiad 2014.

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249 Business and Economy
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India's
GDP
to
grow
5.6
percent
this
fiscal:
World
Bank
The World Bank said India's GDP is likely to expand by 5.6 percent this fiscal.
The World Bank's "India Development Update" released here said: "India's economic
growth is expected to rise to 5.6 percent in FY15, followed by further acceleration to
6.4
percent
and
7
percent
in
FY
2016
and
FY
2017."
It said identifying the goods and services tax (GST) as the most important economic
reform that the new government should undertake for faster growth.

Arvind
Subramanian
new
chief
economic
advisor
The government appointed US-based economist Arvind Subramanian as the chief
economic advisor in the finance ministry on Oct 16, 2014, filling a key position that
has
been
lying
vacant
for
over
a
year.
Soon after assuming charge, Subramanian said he would focus on growth,
investment and creating opportunities for all sections of Indian society.

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Economy improving, 5.5 percent growth this year: RBI Governor


India's economy is improving and the country is hoping to achieve 5.5 percent, or
little more, growth rate this year, said Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor
Raghuram
Rajan.
"Next year we will go into sixes and hopefully sevens the year after," he said while
addressing students of Indian Business School (ISB) here Thursday.

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Defence ministry clears Israeli anti-tank missile, six submarines


The defence ministry cleared big ticket defence deals worth Rs.80,000 crore which
include
Israel's
guided
anti-tank
missile
Spike,
sources
said.
Spike missiles were chosen instead of the US' Javelin missiles, for which Washington
had
lobbied
hard.
India will be buying over 8,000 missiles worth Rs.32,000 crore.
The decision was taken at a meeting of the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) which
was headed by Defence Minister Arun Jaitley.

India
Ready
For
Nuclear
No-First-Use
Agreements
Reiterating its traditional policy of not using nuclear weapons first and not targeting
non-nuclear weapons nations, India has offered to enter into agreements
incorporating the two principles while ruling out joining the non-proliferation treaty.
"As a responsible nuclear power India has a policy of credible minimum deterrence
based on a No First Use posture and non-use of nuclear weapons against nonnuclear weapon states," Ambassador D.B. Venkatesh Varma said . "We are prepared
to convert these into bilateral or multilateral legally binding arrangements."

India
test-fires
sub-sonic
missile
Nirbhay
India successfully test-fired its indigenously-developed nuclear-capable, sub-sonic
long range cruise missile 'Nirbhay' on Oct 18, 2014 from the Integrated Test Range
(ITR)
at
Chandipur
in
Odisha's
Baleswar
district.
The sub-sonic missile, which has a capacity to hit targets at a distance of 1,500 km,
was successfully test fired at 10.03 a.m. Friday, said B.K. Das, additional director of
Chandipur Integrated Test Range.

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299Famous Cities associated with International Organizations
300WASHINGTON, D.C. [District of Columbia]
301CENTRE OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
302
303All three branches of the federal government, the executive, legislative, and judicial, reside in
304Washington, D.C. The United States Congress (the legislative branch) meets here in the Capitol
305building. Many of the citys residents work for the government.
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307The White House in Washington, D.C. has been home to every president except George Washington,
308whom the city is named after.
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310Major International financial Institutions in Washington include the

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World Bank; Estd. 1944 (IBRD: 188 Countries; IDA: 172 Countries)

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International Monetary Fund; Estd. 1945 (IMF: 188 Countries)

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Inter-American Development Bank; Estd. 1959 (IDB: 48 Countries)

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315NEW YORK CITY
316The centre of U.S. commerce and business is New York City.
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318People living here have a fast-paced lifestyle, and many travel by train or bus from the suburbs to
319work in the towering high-rise office buildings of Manhattan. People traveling by boat across the
320harbour pass the Statue of Liberty, a huge monument that represents freedom and opportunity to
321Americans.
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323New York is also famous for New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
324
325Major International Institutions in New York include
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United Nations Organization; Estd. 1945 (198 Members, 2 Observers)

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United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF); Estd. 1946

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United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA); Estd. 1969

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331PARIS
332Capital of France
333
334The streets of Paris are world famous. On the Left Bank rises the Eiffel Tower itself, an unclad metal
335truss tower designed by Gustave Eiffel. Tourists flock to Paris to visit its world-famous museums and
336art galleries, shop in its elegant stores, and soak up its vibrant atmosphere. Montmartre, which
337overlooks the city, is famous for its artists. Close by, in the Place du Tertre, visitors can have their
338portraits painted.
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340Major International Institutions in Paris are
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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Estd. 1946

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343GENEVA
344In Switzerland
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346Geneva lies on the shores of Lake Geneva, Europes largest Alpine lake. This orderly city is a global
347centre for banking and finance. It is also a base for many international organizations.
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349Major International Organizations includes
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World Health Organization (WHO); Estd. 1948

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World Trade Organization; Estd. 1995 (WTO: 160 Members)

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United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); Estd. 1964

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World Meteorological Organisation; Estd. 1950

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International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC); Estd. 1919 (188 Members)

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357ROME
358Capital of Italy
359
360One of Romes greatest sights is the Coliseum, which opened in 80 CE. Deadly Gladiatorial combats
361and animal fights were staged here before crowds of up to 55,000 people.
362
363Major International Organizations in Rome are
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Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO); Estd. 1945 (194 Countries + EU + 2 Associates)

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367LONDON
368Capital of United Kingdom
369
370The City of London is the U.K.s financial centre. Before the banking crash of 2008, more than 500
371banks had offices there. Lloyds Insurance Building is one of the citys most distinctive skyscrapers.
372Built of steel and glass, it has elevators on the outside.
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374Major Organizations in London are
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Commonwealth of Nations; Estd. 1949 (53 Countries)

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Amnesty International; Estd. 1961

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International Maritime Organisation; Estd. 1959 (IMO: 170 Countries)

378
379THE HAGUE
380A city in Netherland
381
382As a result of the international conferences (Hague Convention) held there in 1899 and 1907, The
383Hague became a permanent centre of international law.
384
385Major International Organizations in The Hague are
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International Court Of Justice; Estd. 1945

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388
389JAKARTA
390Largest City and Capital of Indonesia
391
392In 1966, when the city was declared a special capital district (daerahkhususibukota), it gained a status
393approximately equivalent to that of a state or province. The city has long been a major trade and
394financial centre. It has also become an important industrial city and a centre for education.
395
396Major International Organizations in Jakarta are
397

Association of South East Nations; Estd. 1967 (ASEAN: 10 Members, 2 Observers)

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399MANILA

400Capital of Philippines
401
402The people of the Philippines are called Filipinos and are mostly of Malay descent. It is estimated that
403more than 40 percent of the population lives in poverty. Because income is higher in the cities, many
404people move there in the hope of escaping poverty. However, lack of adequate housing means that
405many poorer families have to live in crowded slums.
406
407International Organization in Manila
408

Asian Development Bank; Estd. 1966 (ADB: 67 Countries)

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411SINGAPORE
412Known variously as the Lion City or Garden City, also been called instant Asia
413
414As the financial and industrial centre of Southeast Asia, Singapore is one of the wealthiest countries in
415this region. It has a thriving high-tech industry and a high standard of living. There are strictly enforced
416laws forbidding littering and other petty crimes. The death penalty is imposed for drug smuggling. The
417government also controls the press and restricts the Internet.
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419Major International Organizations in Singapore are
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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; Estd. 1989 (APEC: 21 Countries)

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423KATHMANDU
424Capital of Nepal
425
426The city has become the country's most important business and commercial centre through the efforts
427of its Newar merchant families. In the 1970s the construction of new roads and the expansion of air
428service were centred upon Kathmandu, making it the hub of the national transportation system, which
429for centuries was limited to footpaths. Kathmandu Valley, noted for its vast historic and cultural
430importance, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979.
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432International Organizations in Kathmandu
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South Asian Asso for Regional Co-operation; Estd. 1985 (SAARC: 8 Members, 9 Observers)

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435
436VIENNA
437Capital of Austria
438
439Vienna is a city of baroque buildings, palaces, and famous concert halls. Grand balls with traditional
440waltzes are still common. These are a reminder of when the city was the centre of the Austro441Hungarian Empire, which controlled large parts of east and central Europe.
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443International Organization in Vienna
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Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; Estd. 1960 (OPEC: 12 Members)

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization; Estd. 1966 (UNIDO: 171 Members)

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International Atomic Energy Agency; Estd. 1957 (IAEA: 162 Members)

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449BRUSSELS
450Capital of Belgium
451
452Belgium is renowned for its beautiful historic buildings and for its excellent food, especially chocolates.
453Belgians have been making top-quality chocolates for more than 100 years, and pralines, a type of
454filled chocolate, are a speciality. Brussels even boasts a chocolate museum.
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456Major International Organizations in Brussels are
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European Council (EC); Estd. 1961

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National Atlantic Treaty Organization; Estd. 1949 (NATO: 28 Members)

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World Customs Organization; Estd. 1952 (WCO: 179 Members + EU)

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India Achieved the near Impossible:


CONGRATULATIONS..!!

Its D-Day for MOM !!


The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is Indias history making first mission to the Red Planet and
she arrives today, Sept. 23/24 !!
ISRO's MOM is also the cheapest such mission till now. European, US and Russian probes
have managed to orbit or land on the planet, but after several attempts.

After a journey of over 10 months, Indias Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) arrived at Mars on
Wednesday, 24 September 2014 following an insertion burn that was confirmed at 7:30 am
India Standard Time (02:00 UTC; 20:00 EDT in the U.S. on Tuesday, 23 Sept.) to continue
what has so far been a successful technology demonstration mission to showcase Indias
entry in the realm of interplanetary research.
MOMs goal is to study Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy, and the Martian
atmosphere with five indigenous scientific instruments. Among other goals it will sniff for
methane.
Mars Orbiter Mission history:
Beginning as a feasibility study in 2010, the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was green lit by the
Indian government on 3 August 2012 following completion of a $21 million series of studies
surrounding the mission.

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With approval and appropriations in hand, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
undertook an expedited 15 month construction process on the spacecraft, aiming for a target
launch date of 28 October 2013.
The launch date was calculated to meet the trans-Mars injection requirements needed to
place MOM into the correct heliocentric Mars transfer orbit.
These calculations included the location of the launch facility in India, the desired orbital
insertion parameters at Mars, and the orbital positions of Earth and Mars vs. the location
where Mars would be at the time of MOMs arrival.
Construction on MOM was successfully completed on schedule on 2 October 2013, and the
spacecraft was shipped to its launch site in Sriharikota.
There, MOM was integrated on top of its PSLV-XL (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket
which had been under assembly since 5 August.
The use of the PSLV-XL rocket was a change from the original mission proposal which called
for the use of the more-powerful Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).
However, the GSLV had failed twice in 2010, and a fix to the root cause of the issue was not
available by the time MOM needed to launch in October 2013.
Not wanting to delay the mission until 2016 (when the next Mars launch window would open),
the ISRO decided to put MOM atop the less-powerful PSLV rocket in its XL variant six
stretched solid rocket motors using 12 tons of solid propellant instead of the 9 tons used in
the standard PSLV variant.
The switch in launch vehicle, however, meant that MOM could no longer be launched directly
into a Mars transfer orbit.
Rather, the craft would have to launch into Earth orbit and then perform a series of orbit
raising maneuvers designed to increasingly raise the its apogee while using Earths gravity to
sling-shot it into the correct Mars transfer orbit.
As launch preparations continued, MOMs launch date was realigned from 28 October to 5
November 2013 because of the delayed arrival of a necessary telemetry ship at the Fiji
Islands.
On 5 November 2013, the MOM mission lifted off right on time at 09:08 UTC from First
Launch Pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre. Over the next 42 minutes, the PSLV-XL
inserted MOM into Earth orbit, a process completed at 09:50 UTC.
With MOMs successful launch, India began its first interplanetary mission.
The day following launch, a series of four planned orbit raising maneuvers began, controlled
by spacecraft engineers from the Spacecraft Control Center at ISROs telemetry, tracking and
command network in Peenya, Bangalore.
Of the four planned maneuvers, the first was a 416 second firing of the spacecrafts liquid
engine, the second a 570.6 second burn, and the third a 707 seconds burn.
At this point, MOMs apogee was 71,636 km.
During the fourth burn, an under burn prevented the spacecrafts apogee from reaching the
planned 100,000 km. Instead, MOM was in a 78,276 km apogee orbit.
The resulting under burn mandated the addition of a fifth and sixth orbit raising maneuver to
boost the spacecraft to an apogee of 192,874 km.

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551

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583

With the needed apogee achieved, spaceflight controllers initiated a 23 minute engine firing
maneuver on 30 November 2013 at 19:19 UTC to place MOM into a heliocentric transfer orbit
to the red planet.

Cruise to Mars:
Since leaving Earth orbit, a total of three trajectory course maneuvers have been performed
to ensure that MOM is aligned into the proper trajectory for Martian arrival.
On 22 September at 09:00 UTC, spacecraft controllers successfully fired the 440N liquid
apogee motor for 3.9 seconds.
The test firing confirmed the engines viability for planned orbital insertion operations 41 hours
later.
Mars Orbital Insertion:
As MOM approached Mars for orbital insertion, the spacecraft reoriented itself to align its
thrust vector with the crafts line of travel.
Once in the proper orientation, MOM, already under the influence of Mars gravity, passed into
the shadow of Mars.
This entry into the Martian shadow occurred five minutes before the start of the Mars Orbit
Insertion (MOI) burn.
As the MOI burn began, MOMs main liquid engine and eight smaller thrusters fired to begin
reducing the vehicles velocity by 1,098.7 m/s.
As this burn began, the spacecraft moved behind Mars as viewed from the telemetry and
tracking stations on Earth, thereby severing the radio communications link between the
spacecraft and ground controllers.
The duration of the mission-critical MOI burn occured while communications with the
spacecraft were blocked.
After the MOI burn:

584
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621

622
623
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626
627

Once the MOI burn was completed, the spacecraft began reorienting itself to point its main
communications antenna toward the location where Earth will be when the spacecraft
emerged from the communications blackout period.
With MOI burn successfully accomplished, MOM, at 07:30 IST (02:00 UTC; and 20:00 EDT
on 23 Sept.), entered a highly elliptical orbit around the red planet.
This elliptical orbit will give MOM an orbital characteristic of 80,000 x 423 km and an orbital
period of 75.8 Earth hours.
Once a stable orbit is achieved, the bulk of the missions primary objectives will be realized.
Stemming from the notion that this is a technology demonstration flight, the core concepts of
the Mars Orbiter Mission are, according to ISRO: the design and realization of a Mars orbiter
with a capability to perform Earth-bound maneuvers, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit
insertion/capture, and on-orbit phase operations at Mars.
Furthermore, the mission is designed to demonstrate Indias capability to perform deep space
communication, navigation, mission planning, and management; and incorporate autonomous
features to categorize and handle contingency situations.
In fact, so much is this mission one of technical demonstration that actual scientific
observation of Mars is listed as a secondary objective.
Nonetheless, if all goes according to plan, once MOM enters orbit of Mars, the secondary
mission objectives will be realized, too, with MOM exploring the Martian morphology, surface
features, mineralogy, and atmosphere.
In fact, there is even the added benefit of working, after the fact, with NASAs newly arrived
MAVEN spacecraft in a post-data collection sharing of the information recorded by both
spacecraft over the same period of time.
We have achieved the near impossible: PM Modi
After successful launch PM Modi said, "India has become the first country to enter Mars orbit
on a maiden mission." "History has been created today with India reaching Mars. ISRO has
joined an elite group of just three countries to reach Mars," he said. " It was built indigenously,
in a pan-Indian effort, stretching from Bangalore to Bhubhaneshwar, and Faridabad to
Rajkot."

"Our budget is even lesser than a


Hollywood blockbuster. These will go down as landmarks in history," Modi added.

In all, the mission has already demonstrated Indias ability to perform in deep space; even
more so, with orbital insertion of MOM achieved, India became only the fourth nation/space

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636

637

program to reach Mars (behind the former Soviet Union, NASA, and the European Space
Agency).

BA Family wishes Team ISRO a heartfelt Congratulations and a great way ahead.. All
the very Best..!!
Jai Hind..!!

638Syllogism at its best - Part - II


639Hello Readers,
640
641Yet another marvellous post by Piscine Moliter (Pi) on "Possibility cases in Syllogism and solving
642them using Venn Diagrams". We couldn't thank you enough Pi!!
643
644Recall the previous article in which we had studied these basic things:
645
646
A statement has many conclusions (cases)
647
And thus, so many diagrams are possible!!
648
649In possibility questions, the examiner asks if there exists any such case (diagram) where this
650conclusion is valid. So, you job is to find out this case. If there exists at least one such case, then the
651conclusion holds true. If not, then the conclusion is false. As simple as that!
652
653Keeping this and also the previous Syllogism Post in mind, lets solve some possibility questions.
654
655Abbreviations that I used:
656Basic Diagram = BD
657Modified Diagram = MD
658
659Question 1:

660
661 Statements:
662A. All flowers are trees
663B. Some trees are houses
664C. All houses are wheels
665
666Lets first make a BD according to these statements.
667
668Conclusions:
6691. At least some wheels are trees
6702. Some trees are flowers
6713. All wheels are flower is a possibility

672
673
674Now, see the BD,
675Conclusion 1 clearly follows.
676Conclusion 2 also clearly follows.
677But, what about Conclusion 3?
678
679Lets make a MD and see if it follows or not!
680
681In the MD, we can clearly see that all the statements are still valid, and Conclusion 3 also is following.
682So, Conclusion 3 follows.
683

1? Follows

684

2? Follows

685

3? Follows

686
687Understood?
688
689Lets now solve another question!
690

691Question 2:

692
693
694Statements:
695A. Some desks are chairs
696B. Some chairs are pens
697C. Some pens are drawers
698
699First, make a BD according to these statements.
700
701Conclusions:
7021. At least some drawers are desks
7032. There is a possibility all drawers are chairs
7043. No drawer is a chair
705
706Now, see the BD
707Conclusion 1 clearly doesnt follow.

708
709
710But, what about Conclusion 2?
711
712Lets make a MD
713
714See the MD, Conclusion 2 follows in it.
715
716And if there is a possibility that All drawers are chairs, then how could No drawer is a chair follow?
717So, Conclusion 3 will not follow!
718

1? Doesnt follows

719

2? Follows

720

3? Doesnt follows

721Understood?
722
723Lets solve another one!
724
725Question 3:

726
727
728Statements:
729A. All politicians are corrupt
730B. Some politicians are honest
731C. No leader is honest
732
733First, make a BD according to these statements.
734
735Conclusions:
7361. Some politicians are not leader
7372. All honest being corrupt is a possibility

738
7393. Some leaders are not corrupt
740
741Now, see the BD,
742Some politicians, which are honest (Red Portion), cannot beleaders.
743So, Conclusion 1 clearly follows.
744
745But, what about Conclusion 2?
746
747Lets make a MD.
748
749See the MD, Conclusion 2 clearly follows!

750
751
752What about conclusion 3?
753
754Lets make another MD.
755
756See the last diagram, All leaders are corrupt could be a possibility! So, Conclusion 3 doesnt follow.
757

1? Follows

758

2? Follows

759

3? Doesnt follows

760Understood?
761
762Question 4:

763
764
765Statements:
766A. Some people are intelligent
767B. All intelligent are honest
768C. No intelligent is smart
769
770First, make a BD according to these statements.
771
772Conclusions:
7731. Some honest are not smart
7742. All people being honest is a possibility
7753. Some honest are people
776
777Now, see the BD,
778Some honest, which are intelligent (Red Portion), cannot be smart.
779So, Conclusion 1 follows.
780
781But, what about Conclusion 2?

782
783
784Lets make a MD.
785
786See the MD, Conclusion 2 clearly follows.
787
788Conclusion 3 also follows.
789

1? Follows

790

2? Follows

791

3? Follows

792Understood?
793
794Question 5:

795
796
797Statements:
798A. Some writers are poets
799B. All poets are singers
800C. Many singers are actors
801D. No singer is a dancer
802
803First, make a BD according to these statements.
804
805Conclusions:
8061. Some writers are singers
8072. Some actors are not dancers
8083. All poets being actor is a possibility
8094. No poet is a dancer
810
811See the BD,
812Conclusion 1 clearly follows.
813
814Also, some actors, which are singers (Red Portion), cannot be dancers.
815So, Conclusion 2 also follows.

816
817
818But, what about Conclusion 3?
819
820Lets make a MD.
821
822See the MD,
823Conclusion 3 clearly follows.
824
825Also, since no singer is a dancer, so, no poet is a dancer.
826Hence, Conclusion 4 is also following!
827

1? Follows

828

2? Follows

829

3? Follows

830

4? Follows

831Understood?
832
833PS: Try re-doing these questions again if you still feel confused. Confusions will be clear this
834way!
835Syllogism (Logical Deduction)
836Hello Readers,
837Prakash Guru again provided us one of his magnificent post on "Syllogism (Logical Deduction)". So,
838here we are providing you the same. Don't forget to thank him!!!
839
840I faced lots of problem in solving these problems until I went through the logic behind it.
841
842Trivia: It was introduced by Aristotle.
843
844One way to solve syllogism is the Venn-Diagram method. But the problem is that it is tedious, lengthy
845and complicated too. Hope everybody agrees with it.
846
847Hope the following note helps one and all!!
848
849Syllogism is a deductive argument in which conclusion has to be drawn from two propositions
850referred to as premises.
851
8521. Proposition/Premise = Quantifier+ Subject+ Copula+ Predicate.
853

Quantifier: All, No, Some, Atleast, Atmost etc.

854

All/No: Universal Quantifiers(as it refers to every object in a certain set)

855
856

Some/Atleast/Atmost: Particular Quantifiers(as it refers to atleast one existing object in a


certain set).

8572. Subject: The subject is that about which something is said.


858
8593. Predicate: The predicate is that part which is being affirmed /denied.
860
8614. Copula: it denotes the relation between the subject and the predicate.
862
863Example 864

All/Some etc. - Quantifier

865

Men - Subject

866

Are - Copula

867

Animals - Predicate

868Classification of Propositions:

869

Universal affirmative proposition or Type- A: ex. All Snakes are reptiles.

870

Universal Negative Proposition or Type-E: ex. No boy is Intelligent

871

Particular Affirmative or Type-I: ex. some men are foolish.

872

Particular Negative or Type-O : ex. some animals are not wild

873Table 1: Summarizing the above propositions (Memorize this)


874

Statement
form

Quantity

Quality

Distribution

All S is P

Universal

S only

No S is P

Universal

Affirmativ
e
Negative

Some S is P

Particula Affirmativ
r
e
Some S is not Particula
Negative
P
r
S: Subject; P= Predicate

Both S and P
Neither S nor
P
Only P

875
876Table 2: Rule of Conversion: (Memorize this)
877

Statement
form
All S is P

Valid
Conversion/
Conclusion
Some P is S

Examples

No S is P

No P is S

Some S is
P

Some P is S

Some S is
not P

No valid
Statement: Some men are not fools
Conversion
Valid Conclusion:---S: Subject; P= Predicate

Statement: All men are fools


Valid Conclusion: some fools are
men
Statement: No men are fools
Valid Conclusion: No fools are
men
Statement: Some men are fools
Valid Conclusion: Some fools are
men

878
879Syllogism is concerned with 3 terms:
880

Major Term: It is the predicate of the conclusion and is denoted by P.

881

Minor term: It is the subject of the conclusion and is denoted by S.

882

Middle term: It is the term common to both the premises and is denoted by M.

883An Example to make you clear about the terms:

884
885Premises:
8861. All dogs are animals
8872. All Tigers are dogs.
888
889Conclusion:
890All tigers are animals
891
892Here,
893Animals: is the predicate of the conclusion and hence the major term.
894Tigers: is the subject of the Conclusion and hence the minor term.
895Dogs: is common to both the premises and hence termed as the middle term
896
897Note: Of the two premises, the major premise is that in which the middle term is the subject and the
898minor premise is that in which the middle term is the predicate.
899
900SO GUESS YOURSELF IN THE ABOVE PREMISES WHICH IS THE MAJOR AND WHICH IS THE
901MINOR ??
902
903P.S: If you find the answer you have studied this well, if not read once again!!
904
905Rules for deriving the conclusion from 2 premises:
906
907(MAJOR PART-READ CAREFULLY AND MEMORIZE ALL THE CONDITIONS)
908
909a. The conclusion should not contain the middle term.
910Example 911Premises
9121. All mens are girls
9132. Some girls are students.
914
915Conclusion: Some girls are men ; all girls are men.
916Explanation: In the above example neither of the conclusion is valid, as the middle term i.e. girls is
917present in both the conclusions.
918
919b. No term can be distributed in the conclusion unless it is distributed in the premises.
920Example 921Premises:
9221. Some dogs are goats
9232. All goats are cows.
924
925Conclusions: All cows are dogs; some dogs are cows.
926Explanation - Here, in conclusion 1 the term Cow is distributed but it is not distributed in the
927premise i.e premise-2 since it is a A-type proposition and the term Cow to be distributed must be the
928subject (Refer table-1) of the proposition.
929
930c. The middle term (M) should be distributed at least once in the premises, otherwise no
931conclusion follows.
932
933

Statement
type
A

Distribution Condition

"M" must be Subject/Predicate

"M" must be predicate

"M" must be Subject

Cannot be distributed/Not
distributed

934Ex.:
935Premises:
9361. All fans are watches
9372. Some watches are black
938In the above premises the middle term is watches, since it is not distributed in both premises(refer
939above table for distribution conditions) no conclusion can be drawn except the conversions of the
940premises.
941
942d. No conclusion follows:
943
944If both premises are particular i.e I type.
945Ex.:
9461. Some balloons are flowers
9472. Some flowers are petals
948(No conclusion can arise from the above two premises other than the conversions).
949
950If both premises are negative i.e. E-type.
951Ex,
9521. No ship is a boat
9532. No boat is a vessel
954(No conclusion can be deducted from the above statements, other than their conversions).
955
956If major premise is particular and minor is negative
957Ex.
9581. Some dogs are bulls
9592. No tigers are dogs
960(Here dogs is the middle term and it is present in the subject part of the first premise which makes it
961the major premise, thus premise 2 is the minor and it is negative, thus as per the condition no
962conclusion can arise from the premises other than their conversions.)
963
964e. If the middle term is distributed twice, the conclusion cannot be Universal.
965Ex.
9661.All fans are chairs
9672. No tables are fans.
968( As the middle term fans is distributed twice in the above premises, the conclusion cannot be
969universal i.e No chairs are tables, rather the conclusion will be Some chairs are not tables i.e
970particular negative-O type)
971
972f. If one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative.
973Ex.
9741. All grasses are trees
9752. No tree is a shrub
976Conclusion: Here the conclusion that will arise from the above premises is No grass is a shrub as
977the middle term tree is only distributed in the second premise and one premise is negative).
978
979g. If one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular.
980Ex.
9811. Some boys are thieves
9822. All thieves are dacoits
983(Here the conclusion must be particular i.e some boys are dacoits, since the middle)
984
985h. If both premises are universal affirmative, the conclusion should be universal affirmative.
986Ex,
9871. All womens are mothers
9882. All mothers are sisters.
989(Here the conclusion must be All womens are sisters)
990The above conditions when applied on syllogism problems, makes the problems easy. Try it yourself.
991

992What is a complementary pair?


993Sometimes there is an option like either 1 or 2 follows. This is because of a complementary pair in
994the conclusions.
995
996The pairs that make a complementary pair are I-O type, A-O type or I-E type given that the subject
997and predicate remains same in both the statements.
998
999To explain this lets consider the following examples:
1000

Pair I: i.) All gardens are bulbs ii.) Some gardens are not bulbs

1001

Pair II: i.) Some gardens are bulbs ii.) Some gardens are not bulbs

1002

Pair III : i.) Some gardens are bulbs ii.) No gardens are bulbs.

1003

Pair IV: i.) All gardens are bulbs ii.) No gardens are bulbs

1004

Pair V: i.) All gardens are bulbs ii.) Some bulbs are not gardens.

1005Explanation: Pairs I, II and III make a complementary pair each while Pairs IV and V dont. In pair-I
1006the first statement is of type A and the second is of type O and thus an A-O type pair makes a
1007complementary pair.
1008
1009Similarly pair II and Pair III makes I-O and I-E type of pair respectively thus it makes a complementary
1010pair.
1011
1012Pair IV is an A-E type of pair and thus it do not make a complementary pair.
1013
1014Pair V is and A-O type pair but still do not make a complementary pair, since the subject and predicate
1015are jot same in both the statements.
1016
1017Some Important Tips:
1018
1019

Practice as many problems as possible and you will automatically remember the logics that I
have shared.

1020
1021

Remember always about the conversions, because maximum times the conclusions are in
the form of conversions only.

1022
1023

Try all possibilities, as from two conclusions or from one conclusion and another premise
another conclusion can be obtained.

1024

Refer books like BSC and Dr. R.S Aggarwal and practice problems

1025

Solve Quiz given by BA on syllogism, because they are really good.

1026
1027

Once you do a lot of problems I am sure you neednt even write the problems you will just
look at the premises/proposition and derive all the possible conclusions.

1028Now let us decipher the quiz put by BA on 17/9/2014


1029
10301. Statements:
1031All buckets are mugs.
1032All lunch boxes are pencil boxes.
1033Some pencil boxes are mugs.
1034Some buckets are not drums.

1035
1036Conclusions:
1037I. All mugs are lunchboxes.
1038II. All lunchboxes are buckets.
1039III. Some lunchboxes are mugs.
1040IV. Some drums are not mugs.
1041
1042(1) Only III follows
1043(2) Only I and III follow
1044(3) Only II and III follow
1045(4) None of these
1046(5) Only II follows
1047
1048Solution with explanation: Here, premise 2 and premise 3 have pencil boxes as the middle term,
1049but it is not distributed in any of the premises since premise 2 is A-type, so the middle term must be
1050the subject but it is in the predicate, and premise 3 is I-type, so middle term cannot be distributed,
1051thus no conclusion can arise from the statements. In premise 1 and premise 4 the middle term is
1052buckets and is also distributed in one premise that is premise 1 but the predicate if different, thus no
1053conclusion follows. So, now check the conclusions for a complementary pair or a conversion of the
1054any statements, and a careful analysis shows nothing such. Thus the answer is 4-None follows.
1055
10562. Statements:
1057Some chairs are tables.
1058Some desks are benches.
1059All benches are tables.
1060Some woods are not desks.
1061
1062Conclusions:
1063I. Some benches are desks.
1064II. Some tables are benches.
1065III. Some woods are not benches.
1066IV. Some desks are tables.
1067
1068(1) Only III follows
1069(2) Only I and III follow
1070(3) Only I, II and IV follow
1071(4) Only II and IV follow
1072(5) None of these
1073
1074Solution with explanation: Here we can only compare, premise 2 and premise 3. In the said
1075premises the middle term is benches and it is distributed in premise 3 and one premise is particular
1076so the conclusion shall be particular and without the middle term i.e Some desks are tables which
1077matches the conclusion IV and there is no complementary and conclusion I and II are conversions of
1078premise 2 and premise 3. Thus Only I,II and IV follows-that is option 3.
1079
10803. Statements:
1081No bank is a market.
1082Some markets are offices.
1083All restaurants are offices.
1084Some banks are rooms.
1085
1086Conclusions:
1087I. Some markets are not rooms.
1088II. Some offices are not banks.
1089III. Some restaurants are markets.
1090IV. Some rooms are restaurants.
1091
1092(1) Only I and II follow
1093(2) Only II follows
1094(3) Only I, II and III follow

1095(4) Only I and III follow


1096(5) None of these
1097
1098Solution with explanations: See premise 1 is negative and premise 2 is particular and the middle
1099term markets is distributed in premise 1 thus the conclusion shall be particular negative without the
1100middle term i.e some offices are not banks, now premise 1 and premise 4 have the same conditions,
1101middle term being banks so conclusion shall be particular negative without the middle term i.e
1102some rooms are not market but conclusion 1 is some markets are not rooms which is not similar
1103as there is no valid conversion for a particular negative statement. So only conclusion II follows1104option 2.
1105
11064. Statements:
1107All ones are twos.
1108Some threes are fours.
1109All three are ones.
1110All fives are fours.
1111
1112Conclusions:
1113I. Some fives are threes.
1114II. Some ones are fives.
1115III. Some twos are fives.
1116IV. Some twos are fours.
1117
1118(1) Only I and IV follow
1119(2) Only IV follows
1120(3) Only II and IV follow
1121(4) None of these
1122(5) Only I follows
1123
1124Solution with explanation: From premise 2 and 3 we get some fours are ones now making this as
1125a premise and comparing with premise 1 i.e All one are twos we get some fours are twos, the
1126conversion being some twos are fours which is conclusion IV, thus only Conclusion IV follows-option
11272 is your answer.
11285. Statements:
1129Some ice-creams are cakes.
1130All cakes are biscuits.
1131Some biscuits are parles.
1132Some parles are toffees.
1133
1134Conclusions:
1135I. All ice-creams are biscuits.
1136II. Some ice-creams are biscuits.
1137III. Some toffees are biscuits.
1138IV. Some cakes are biscuits.
1139
1140(1) Only I and III follow
1141(2) Only I and II follow
1142(3) Only II follows
1143(4) Only II and IV follow
1144(5) None of these
1145
1146Solution with Explanation: Comparing Premise 1 and 2 we get the conclusion as Some ice-creams
1147are biscuits with is conclusion II. Now statement 1s conversion is Some biscuits are cakes, the
1148conversion of this conversion is Some cakes are biscuits which is conclusion IV thus only II and IV
1149follows.- option 4 is your answer.
1150International
11511. BRICS summit
1152

Organizations Summits - A brief insight

1153Country: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South-Africa.


1154- 6th BRICS Summit 2014: Fortaleza, Brazil
1155- Next 7th BRICS Summit to be held in Ufa, Russia
1156Note: Ufa is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic,
1157scientific and cultural
1158centre of the republic.
1159- The theme chosen for our discussions was "Inclusive Growth: Sustainable Solutions.
1160
1161
1162New BRICS Bank:
1163The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a
1164proposed multilateral
1165development bank operated by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) as an
1166alternative to the existing
1167World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
1168The New Development Bank headquarter will be in Shanghai, China.
1169The Bank will have a rotating chair and its first President will come from India for the first six years.
1170The first chair of the Board of Governors shall be from Russia.
1171The first chair of the Board of Directors shall be from Brazil.
1172The Bank will also have a regional office in Johannesburg, South Africa.
1173Participant leaders of the five nations are
1174 Brazil - Dilma Rousseff
1175 Russian - Vladimir Putin
1176 Indian - Narendra Modi
1177 China - Xi Jinping
1178 South Africa - Jacob Zuma
1179Development Capital: The member countries will also set up a $100 billion currency reserves pool to
1180help countries forestall short-term liquidity pressures.
1181Note: The bank will begin with a subscribed capital of $50 billion divided equally between its five
1182founders.
1183
11842. IBSA Summit: India will host the next summit of IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa) in New Delhi in
11852015.
1186
11873. Nuclear security summit:
1188 2nd Summit 2012 Seoul, South Korea.
1189 3rd Summit 2014 : Hague, Netherland
1190 4th Summit 2016: United States
1191
11924. G 8 Summit:
1193 G-8 Countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Britain and the US
1194 40th G-7 summit 2014 held at Brussels.
1195
1196Note: It was the first time that the EU hosted a G7 summit. The summit is jointly represented by the
1197European
1198Council President Herman van Rompuy and the European Commission President.
1199
12005. G 20 Summit:
1201 G-20 meeting (2014) of Finance ministers and central bank governors held in Sydney (Australia).
1202 G20 Leaders Summit (2014) will be held in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia, in November 2014.
1203
12046. SAARC Summit:
1205 18th SAARC Summit 2014- Kathmandu (Nepal)
1206
12077. NATO Summit: NATO Summit 2014 will be held in Britain. (Britain last hosted the summit in 1990,
1208when Margret Thatcher was Prime Minister).
1209
12108. BIMSTEC Summit:
1211 3rd BIMSTEC summit 2014: Nay Pyi Taw (Myanmar)
1212 4th BIMSTEC summit will be held in Nepal.

1213
1214Note: BIMSTEC (Bay of Bangal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation)
1215BIMSTEC includes 7 countries: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal
1216and aims to create cooperation in multiple sectors including trade, investment and energy.
1217New Member United Nation South Sudan new member country .
1218Total - 193 members
1220
OTHER SUMMITS:
1221
12221. 18th BASIC Ministerial Meeting held in New Delhi.
1223BASIC - (Brazil, South Africa, India and China)
1224Note: 17th BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change was held in Hanzghou, China
1225
12262. ASEAN foreign-minister-meeting held in Myanmar.
1227
12283. Fifth Indo-US Strategic Dialogue held in New Delhi during which the two sides
1229discussed transformative initiatives in key areas of security and energy.
1230
12314. 3rd India-Africa Summit will be held in New Delhi.
1232
12335. 6th International Nuclear Energy Forum ATOMEXPO-2014 held in Moscow.
1234
12356. World Economic Forum 2014: held in Abuja (Nigeria). Bharti Enterprises founder and Chairman
1236Sunil Bharti Mittal co - chair this years edition of the World Economic Forum on Africa.
1237
1238SOME NEW ENTRIES:
1239
1240
1241
1242WTO - Yemen new member country. Total - 160 members.
1243World Bank & IMF - South Sudan new member country. Total - 188 members
1244European Union - Croatia new member country. Total 28
1245Syllogism at its Best
1246Hello Readers,
1247Piscine Molitor (Pi) again provided us one of his magnificent post on "Syllogism at its Best". So, here
1248we are providing you the same. Don't forget to thank him!!!
1249
1250
1251Im sure most people would have tried to do these questions, with the wrong conclusions. What they
1252did are, they first made all the conclusions and then they headed on the conclusion, seeing if theyre
1253fitting in their circles or not. Then they ticked the right conclusions, crossed the wrong ones, and
1254whoosh, wrong answer!
1255
1256Now, in this post, Id like make you understand this trick of picking up the right conclusions!! The trick
1257is One statement has many conclusions!!
1258
1259Now, lets start from the basic statements
1260
1261Statement 1: All A are B

1262
1263
1264Now, lets try all these conclusions if they fit in this statement
1265
12661. Some A are B
12672. No A are B
12683. Some A are not B
12694. All B are A
12705. Some B are A
12716. No B are A
12727. Some B are not A
1273
1274Is conclusion 1 following?
1275Yes! Of course! All A are B, that means Some A are Definitely B
1276
1277Is conclusion 2 following?

1278
Of course not!
1279
1280What about 3rd?
1281Yes yes. Not following
1282
12834th?
1284Well, can follow, if A encircles B, i.e. All A are B and All B are A
1285
12865th?
1287Of course, some B are A
1288
12896th?
1290Bullshit conclusion. How can no B are A
1291
12927th?
1293Well, look at 4th conclusion. Its possible that All B are A if A also encircles B. In that case, Some B are
1294not A will not follow. So, theres a possibility that this 7th conclusion will follow. Understood?
1295
1296Statement 2: Some A are B
1297
1298Now, lets try all these conclusions if they fit in this statement
1299

1300
13012. No A are B
13023. Some A are not B
13034. All Bare A
13045. Some B are A
13056. No Bare A
13067. Some B are not A
1307

1. All A are B

1308
Is conclusion 1 following?
1309Could follow.
1310
13112nd?
1312Impossible.
1313
13143rd?
1315It wont follow in all the cases, but its possible.
1316
13174th?
1318Again, its possible.
1319
13205th?
1321Yes. Follow. In all cases.

1322
1323
13246th?
1325Impossible.Nahinahinahi!
1326
13277th?
1328It could be possible. Wont follow in all the cases, but yes, it also could be possible.
1329
1330
1331
1332Statement 3: No A are B
1333
1334Now, lets try all these conclusions if they fit in this statement
1335

1336
13372. Some A are B
13383. Some A are not B
13394. All Bare A
13405. Some B are A
13416. No Bare A

1342
1343
1344Conclusion 1 following?
1345Of course not!
1346
13472nd?
1348Haha..
1349
1350
13513rd?

1. All A are B

7. Some B are not A

1352
1353No A are B, then Some A are also Not B.. Yes, following!
1354
13554th?
1356Clearly, not following!
1357
13585th?
1359What the hell. Not following!
1360
13616th?
1362Now this is class. Yes, follows!
1363
13647th?
1365Of course will follow! No A are B only means, No B are A, which also means, Some B are not A
1366
1367Statement 4: Some A are not B

1368

1369Now, lets try all these conclusions if they fit in this statement
1370
13711. All A are B
13722. Some A are B
13733. No A are B
13744. AllB are A
13755. Some B are A

1376
6. No Bare A
13777. Some B are not A
1378
1379Is conclusion 1 following?
1380Of course not!
1381
13822nd?
1383It could be possible! Not in all cases, but it could be possible

1384
1385
13863rd?
1387Again, could be possible!
1388
13894th?
1390Yes, yes. Could be possible!
1391
13925th?
1393Not in all cases, but could be possible!
1394

1395
6th?
1396Again, it also could be possible!
1397
13987th?
1399Again, possible!
1400
1401
1402
1403Now, lets solve some basic questions based on all the things that weve just learned.
1404

1405
1406
1407Question 1:
1408Statements:
1409All buckets are mugs.
1410All lunch boxes are pencil boxes.
1411Some pencil boxes are mugs.
1412Some buckets are not drums.
1413

1414
Conclusions:
1415I. All mugs are lunchboxes.
1416II. All lunchboxes are buckets.
1417III. Some lunchboxes are mugs.
1418IV. Some drums are not mugs.
1419
14201? Not follows
14212? Not follows
14223? Not follows
14234? Not follows
1424
1425
1426Question 2:

1427
1428Statements:
1429Some chairs are tables.
1430Some desks are benches.
1431All benches are tables.
1432Some woods are not desks.
1433

1434Conclusions:
1435I. Some benches are desks.
1436II. Some tables are benches.
1437III. Some woods are not benches.
1438IV. Some desks are tables.

1439
14401? Yes
14412? Yes
14423? Not follows
14434? Yes
1444
1445
1446
1447Question 3:
1448Statements:
1449No bank is a market.
1450Some markets are offices.

1451
1452All restaurants are offices.
1453Some banks are rooms.
1454
1455Conclusions:
1456I. Some markets are not rooms.
1457II. Some offices are not banks.
1458III. Some restaurants are markets.
1459IV. Some rooms are restaurants.
1460
14611? Not Follows
14622? Yes. Some offices which are Market cannot be Banks
14633? Not follows
14644? Not follows
1465
1466
1467Question 4:
1468Statements:
1469All ones are twos.

1470

1471Some threes are fours.


1472All three are ones.
1473All five are fours.
1474
1475Conclusions:
1476I. Some fives are threes.
1477II. Some ones are fives.
1478III. Some twos are fives.
1479IV. Some twos are fours
1480
14811? Not follows
14822? Not follows
14833? Not follows
14844? Yes. Follows
1485
1486
1487Thanks Pi!!
1489You might also like:
1490
1491Syllogism at its best - Part - II

1492

1493Basics on Syllogism

1494

1495Syllogism (Logical Deduction)

1496

1497

Linkwithin

1498Asian Games 2014


1499The 2014 Asian Games, officially known as the XVII Asiad commences from September 19 - October
15004 in the port city of Incheon, South Korea. The opportunity to host the 17th edition of Asian Games,
1501the largest multi-sporting event in Asia governed by Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) was given to
1502Incheon after defeating Delhi, India with 35 is to 13 votes in bidding. Incheon with this notable
1503achievement becomes the third city in South Korea to host the Asian Games after Seoul (1986) and
1504Busan (2002).
1505
1506
1507
1508The 2014 Asian Games in Incheon is seen not just as sporting event but also as a festival that should
1509bring regional harmony by the organizing committee, The 2014 Incheon Asian Games Organizing
1510Committee (IAGOC). They also hope it is the best Asian Games till date and hope it helps in
1511enhancing a nations prestige. For the first time, the torch relay started outside the host country. It
1512marked it beginning from India after being lit at Dhyan Chand National Stadium in New Delhi, India on
1513August 9, 2014, marking the torch being lit outside the host country for the first time.
1514

1515
The Incheon 2014 Asian Games begins with the motto Diversity
1516Shines Here keeping the significance of Asias wonderful diversity in history, cultures, and religions

1517coming together on one platform during this mega occasion.


1518
1519The Official Mascot of the Asian Games 2014 is the Harbour Seal Siblings - Barame, Chumuro and
1520Vichuon means wind, dance and light in Korean language. They were chosen above the famous
1521landmark in South Korea because of they will act as the peace messengers between South and North
1522Korea.
1523
1524China set a new Asian Games record with 416 medals including 199 gold medals. They have been
1525defending table toppers for the eighth consecutive time with China leading the final medal tally with
1526South Korea (232) and Japan (216) were placed third in the medal table.
1527
1528Asian Games 2014 will official start on September 19 with the opening ceremony taking place at the
1529Incheon Asiad Main Stadium. With over 13,000 athletes and officials participating from 45 National
1530Olympic Committees (NOC), going way ahead the number of participants of 9, 704 from the
1531Guangzhou 2010 Asian Games.
1532
1533The number of events in the Asian Games 2014 is 439 in 36 sports and disciplines. They are Aquatics
1534(Diving, Swimming, Synchronized swimming, Water polo), Archery, Athletics, Badminton, Baseball
1535(Baseball, Softball), Basketball, Bowling, Boxing, Canoeing, Sprint, Slalom, Cricket, Cycling (BMX,
1536Mountain bike, Road, Track), Equestrian (Dressage, Eventing, Jumping), Fencing, Field hockey,
1537Football, Golf, Gymnastics (Artistic, Rhythmic, Trampoline), Handball, Judo, Kabaddi, Karate, Modern
1538pentathlon, Rowing, Rugby sevens, Sailing, Sepaktakraw, Shooting, Squash, Table tennis,
1539Taekwondo, Tennis (Tennis, Soft tennis), Triathlon, Volleyball (Beach volleyball, Volleyball),
1540Weightlifting, Wrestling, Wushu. In addition, eight non-Olympic sports will be featured: baseball, ten1541pin bowling, cricket, kabaddi, karate, sepak takraw, squash and wushu.

1543
1544Some important Government Schemes
1545Good Morning Readers..!!
1546Here we are posting some government schemes which are very important from the exam point
1547of view..
1548
1549

Scheme & Plan Launched by Union & State


Government:

1550
1551
15521. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Seenchayi Yojana: Pradhan Mantri Krishi Seenchayi Yojana was
1553announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
1554The Yojna has been announced to meet the irrigation needs of all farmers across the country. Sum of
15551000 crore rupees has been allocated for implementation of the scheme.
1556
15572. Karnataka, Kerala sign MoU for Rural Livelihood Mission: As per the MoU, Kerala
1558Governements Kudumbashree and Karnataka State Rural Livelihood Mission are to help train and
1559hand-hold rural Self Help Groups (SHGs) in Karnataka.
1560

15613. Govt re-launches Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana: The government has re-launched the
1562Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana, for the benefit of citizens aged 60 years and above.
1563Note: It will provide monthly pension ranging from 500 to 5,000 rupees per month to senior citizens of
1564the country.
1565ii. The Scheme will be administrated by the Life Insurance Corporation, LIC.
1566
15674. National rural scheme on PPP model launched: Rural Development Minister Nitin Gadkari launched
1568the Shyama Prasad Mukherjee National Rural Mission on PPP model with an allocation of 100
1569crore rupees.
1570Note: The scheme will be initially available in three districts of the country on pilot basis. The districts
1571are Warangal in Andhra Pradesh and two districts in Maharashtra.
1572ii. The scheme is intended to stop migration from rural areas to cities. The government wants to
1573create infrastructure in villages so that people can get employment there and do not migrate to cities.
1574
15755. Padho Pardesh scheme for minority community: Government has launched a scheme titled,
1576Padho Pardesh, for providing interest subsidy on educational loans for overseas studies for students
1577belonging to the notified minority communities like Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains and
1578Parsis.
1579Note: The objective of the scheme is to award interest subsidy to meritorious students belonging to
1580economically weaker sections of the notified minority communities so as to provide opportunities for
1581higher education abroad and enhance their employability.
1582
15836. Government has launched the Rashtriya Gokul Mission to promote conservation and
1584development of indigenous breeds in a focused and scientific manner.
1585The mission aims at enhancing milk production, upgrading non-descript cattle using elite indigenous
1586breeds and distribute disease free high genetic bulls.
1587
15887. National Mission of Food Processing: scheme to minimize wastage of fruits and vegetables.
1589
15908. Chief Minister's Social Assistance (CMSA): launched in Meghalaya for widows and pensioners.
1591

Other Important Government Schemes

1592
1593
1594BHARAT NIRMAN:
1595 It was implemented and extended in three phases i.e., from (2005 - 2009), (2009 - 2012), (201215962014)
1597 It is centrally sponsored scheme for the rural development of India started in September 2005.
1598 There are 6 objectives in this scheme:
15991. Road connectivity to the village.
16002. Irrigation: To Provide irrigation facility.
16013. Water Supply: To provide clean drinking water to all villages
16024. Electrification: To provide Electricity to all villages
16035. Housing: To construct Pakka houses for BPL house- holds under Indira Awas Yojana
16046. Telecommunication: To provide telephone connectivity to all villages
1605
1606JNNURM: Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission:
1607 i. It was implemented and extended in two phases i.e., (2005 - 2012), (2012 - 2014)
1608 ii. Started in the year 2005 to make million plus cities squatter (Slum area) free.
1609 There are 2 components
1610a) To construct pakka houses for urban poor dwelling in squatter under Rajiv Awas yojana.
1611b) To make transportation system faster and greener.
1612
1613NRHM: National Rural Health Mission
1614 It was started on 12th April 2005 to enhance the health facilities in rural areas.
1615 The appointment of ASHA workers (Accredited social health activist) in Angonwadi Kendra to provide
1616basic information
1617on health and hygiene conditions as well as to guide people regarding conservation of water.
1618
1619MGNREGA: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

1620 It was on started on 2nd Feb 2006 to provide minimum 150 days from 1st April 2013 (previously it
1621was of 100 days) of employment to BPL house hold.
1622 This scheme is both for Urban and Rural areas.
1623 The old name of this scheme is NREGA and it was changed to MGNREGA on 2nd Oct 2009.
1624 The wages under the scheme is fixed on the basis of CPI-AL (Consumer Price Index for Agricultural
1625Labourers) which is calculated by the state government on the basis of their Per capita Income.
1626
1627UIDAI: Unique Identification Authority of India.
1628 It was started in the year 2010 to provide multipurpose national identity card (MNIC) to every Citizen
1629aged above 5 years.
1630 Its name has been changed to Aadhar.
1631 Its model state was Karnataka (started)
1632 The retinal identification is taken from the age group of 14 and above.
1633 Scheme has 7 components like address, PAN no., Passport no., retinal identity etc, It consists of 12
1634digit number.
1635 Chairman: Nandan Nilkani
1636
1637NFSM: National Food Security Mission
1638 This scheme is to reduce the poverty in India under national social assistance programme.
1639 Under Public Distribution System (PDS), government will provide rice @ Rs. 3/kg, wheat @ Rs. 2/kg
1640to the BPL households.
1641
1642IGNOAPS: Indira Gandhi National Old age Pension Scheme
1643 This Scheme is for the people who aged above 65 years.
1644 The amount of Rs. 400 per month (Central govt + State govt = Rs. 200 + Rs. 200) will be provided
1645by both Central government and State government who aged between 65 80 years.
1646 Rs. 500 per month (Central govt + State govt = Rs. 250 + Rs. 250) for the people who aged more
1647than 80 years.
1648
1649IGNWPS: Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme
1650 The beneficiary is in between age group of 40-64 years in this scheme.
1651 Assistance of Rs. 400 per month (Central govt + State govt = Rs. 200 + Rs. 200) will be given to
1652particular person.
1653Important Points of Union Budget 2014-15
1654Dear readers,
1655
1656As you all know that in recent exams of SBI Clerk and IBPS RRB questions were continuously asked
1657from Union Budget 2014-15.
1658
1659So here we are presenting you Important points of Union Budget 2014-15 which will be helpful in your
1660upcoming exams.
1661
1662

Important Points of Union Budget 2014-15

1664
1665
1. Fiscal deficit target retained at 4.1% of GDP for current fiscal
1666
1667
2. Fiscal deficit target 3.6% forr 2015-16
1668
1669
1670
3. Fiscal deficit target 3% for 2016-17
1671
1672
4. Revenue Deficit seen at 2.9% for FY15
1673
1674
5. Aim to achieve 7-8 per cent economic growth rate in next 3-4 years
1675
1676
6. Target Agriculture growth rate at 4 %

1677
1678
7. Defence FDI cap raised to 49% from 26% at present
1679
1680
8. Insurance FDI cap raised to 49% from 26% at present
1681
1682
9. Exemption limit on income tax from Rs. 2 lakh to Rs. 2.5 lakh.
1683
1684
10. For senior citizens, the exemption on income has been raised to Rs. 3 lakh per annum.
1685
1686
11. Tax-free cap on home loan interest from Rs. 1.5 to Rs. 2 lakh.
1687
1688
12. Annual PPF ceiling to be improved to Rs 1.5 lakh from Rs 1 lakh
1689
1690
13. Women Safety:
1691i. Outlay of Rs. 50 crores for a pilot scheme on road safety
1692ii. Another 150 crores to be spent by MHA on safety on women in larger cities
1693iii. 'Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana' - 100 crores
1694
1695
14. Budget Allocate for National Rural Drinking Water - Rs 3600 cr
1696
1697
15. Budget Allocate for (Rural housing) national housing banking programme - Rs 8000 crore
1698
1699
16. Metro rails in PPP mode; for metro scheme in Ahmadabad and Lucknow - Rs. 100 cr
1700
1701
17. Budget Allocate to set up virtual classrooms - Rs 100 crores
1702
1703
18. Budget Allocate for setting up 5 more IIMs and IITs - Rs 500 crores
1704
1705
19. Budget Allocate for SC development - Rs 50,548 cr
1706
1707
20. Budget Allocate for Statue of Unity, a statue of Sardar Patel in Gujarat - Rs. 200 crore
1708
1709
21. Budget Allocate for irrigation plan named Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sichayin Yojana - Rs. 1000 cr
1710
1711
22. Budget Allocate for credit scheme for start-ups by those from scheduled castes and tribes - Rs 200
1712crores
1713
1714
23. Budget Allocate for creating Smart cities - Rs. 7060 cr
1715
1716
24. Budget Allocate for price stabilization fund - Rs. 500 crore
1717
171825. Budget Allocate for modernization of Madrasas - Rs. 100 crores
1719
1720
26. Budget allocated for Startup village to promote entrepreneurship among rural youth - Rs 100 crore
1721
1722
27. Budget allocated for PM Sadak Yojana - Rs. 14,389 crores
1723
1724
28. Budget allocated to set up six textiles cluster - Rs 200 crore
1725
1726
29. e-visa for nine cities to promote tourism
1727
1728
30. 15 Braille press to come up.
1729
1730
31. Currency note with Braille-like signs.
1731
1732
32. Minimum pension of Rs.1000 per month to all PP schemes.
1733
1734
33. Bharat Swach Yojna proposed for hygiene and cleanliness.
1735
1736
34. Skill India initiative to make youth employable and create more entrepreneurs.

1737
1738
35. Assam and Jharkhand to get Centre of Excellence on farming.
1739
1740
36. Senior Citizens Pension Plan Extended Till August 2015
1741
1742
37. 100 soil testing laboratories across the country.
1743
1744
38. Agriculture University in AP and Rajasthan, and Horticulture University in Haryana, Telangana; Rs.
1745200 cr
1746
1747
39. Crisis Management Centre for women at Delhi
1748
1749
40. PSU Banks to Raise Rs 2.40 Lakh Cr Capital by 2018
1750Banking Awareness - Budget Deficit
1751Hello Readers,
1752Here we are presenting a post on "Understanding Budget Deficit". Hope you like the post!!
1753
1754A budget deficit occurs when expenditures exceed revenue. The term "budget deficit" is most
1755commonly used to refer to government spending rather than business or individual spending. When
1756referring to accrued federal government deficits, the term "national debt is also used.
1757
1758The opposite of a budget deficit is a budget surplus, and when total expenditure equals total revenue,
1759the budget is considered balanced. When countries or businesses experience budget deficits, they
1760have to borrow money in order to avoid bankruptcy.
1761
1762Investors and analysts use budget deficits to measure the overall health of a business, local
1763government or country. While budget deficits are always a warning signal for analysts and investors, it
1764is important to understand why the country or business is experiencing a deficit. A country or business
1765experiencing budget deficits due to building infrastructure or making profitable investments that will
1766generate higher revenue or taxes in the future are often considered healthier than entities
1767experiencing deficits due to unsustainable expenses.
1768
1769Typical factors that contribute to a government budget deficit are: slower economic growth than
1770trading partners, high governmental spending, high unemployment rates, or a combination of these
1771factors.
1772
1773Typical factors that contribute to business budget deficits are: Capital expenditures due to
1774quarter losses, economic crisis, high operating costs, expansion and business opportunities.

1776
1777
1778