You are on page 1of 8

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022

RELIABLE POWER CONFIGURATIONS FOR ROCKET LAUNCH PAD


COMPLEX
V.Ramudu1, Pooja B.2, Srikanth B.V.3
Tech Assistant, SDSC-SHAR, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, vramudu@shar.gov.in 1
Sci/Engineer-SC,SDSC-SHAR, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, pooja.b@shar.gov.in 2
Sci/Engineer-SE, SDSC-SHAR, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, srikanth.bv@shar.gov.in 3

Abstract
The factors like reliability, availability, failure rate and cost are key
parameters in the selection of the appropriate power distribution system design.
This paper presents a relative comparison of reliability for different schemes of
power distribution systems and centralized or decentralized Alternate Current uninterrupted Power Supply (AC-UPS). It also examines the above networks for
brownouts and blackouts. To simplify the analysis, the alternative source is
assumed always available. The results for the normal supply with incoming
feeders from state board power supply corporation, Diesel Generator and Uninterrupted power supply system is given. The reliability of modified
configuration is calculated using minimal cut-set method and comparison of
results is presented. The advantages of the various topologies are described and
compared.
1. Introduction
The power distribution scheme of the launch complex and associated equipment
ensure continuous power to all the equipment. The power supply can be broadly
classified as:
Normal Power Supply: There are less critical loads, where loss of power is acceptable
for some considerable time. The loss of this type of power does not affect functioning of
the process. These are fed by Grid power of APTRANSCO through Distribution
Transformers. However, at the time of launch activities power is fed by 1MVA / 11KV DG
set through distribution transformers from Main Receiving Station. This supply also
stands as backup to UPS system.
Emergency Power Supply: There are critical loads, where loss of power is acceptable
for not more than two seconds, and further interruption may disturb flow of process and
its efficient execution. Such activities require continuous power supply during operation
for which DG sets of 1250KVA have been envisaged. This supply also stands as backup
to UPS system.

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022


Uninterrupted Power Supply: There are most critical and sensitive loads, where any
disturbance in power may lead to loss of important data and interruption in control. This
requires regulated and uninterrupted power.
The details of each configuration are described in detail in latter sections.
The power interruption is not acceptable during critical activities at launch pad
such as handling of rocket segments at assembly building, fuel servicing facilities and
tracking systems. The power failure even for a second may lead to catastrophic
situations, data and monetary losses. Hence the distribution system of launch pad
should be highly reliable and interruption free.
In order to evaluate the probability of power interruption to various facilities
during critical activities the reliability studies are performed. These studies are
necessary to evaluate the present system and accordingly necessary changes in
configuration of power system have to be made to reduce downtime.
The minimal cut-set method is adopted for evaluating the reliability of various
schemes. The information regarding assumptions and input data for calculations is
given in appendix.
The schematic diagrams and results are presented in further sections.
2. Normal Power Supply:

Fig.1 Normal Power Supply Configuration


The present configuration and reliability indices are given below with respect to a
single load at point G in Launch Pad.
Failure rate

Availability

Reliability

Down time
per year .r

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022


1.97794

0.5368

0.636697

0.4632

Table 1. Reliability indices of normal power supply


It is inferred from the data shown in above table 1 that reliability of normal power
supply is low. As the launch pad constitutes of sensitive equipments where continuous
data acquisition and control is required, alternate power source with high reliability and
power quality such as DG and UPS is incorporated.
3. Diesel Generator Power Supply

Fig. 2 Configuration of Diesel Generator Power Supply


The above configuration constitutes two DG sets of 1250KVA and operated
according to the requirement. The two chains of DG supply are laid for each facility. The
reliability indices are determined with respect to point G, as shown in above figure 2.
The reliability indices are given in the below table.2
Modified Configuration:
In the above design, irrespective of capacity of load a 1000KVA DG set is
operated even though the requirement is less than half the capacity of generator.
Hence, the utilization factor of generator is very less which leads to increase in cost
incurred per unit of power consumption.
In order to improve the utilization factor of the DG set the configuration is
modified with two sets of 1000KVA and two sets of 500KVA generators. The DG sets

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022


are operated according to load requirement. The modified design is triple redundant,
thereby the reliability is also improved.
The comparison of reliability indices of two configurations is given in table.2

Fig. 3 Modified Configuration of DG Power Supply


Description
Configuration
in Fig.2
Configuration
in Fig.3

Failure rate

0.1996

Availability

Reliability

0.96673

0.977461

Down time
per year .r
0.03327

0.021526

0.98695

0.998743

0.01305

Table 2. Reliability Indices of DG Power Supply


Advantages:
Utilization factor of DG Power Distribution system Increases.
Running Cost will decrease.
Reliability of system would be improved.
4. Un-interrupted Power Supply:
Although the reliability of DG Power Supply is improved compared to normal
power supply, the power quality is still unacceptable for sensitive electronic loads which
have a huge impact on Launch Vehicle systems and success of mission. In order to
provide clean power with zero failure UPS is installed as described in previous section.
The centralized UPS configuration is given in below figures. The reliability indices of this

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022


scheme is calculated based on normal and DG power supply indices in table 1 and 2
without modification.
Centralized UPS distribution scheme: In this scheme, the centralized UPS is located in
the substation and its sizing is finalized based on the maximum demand or diversity
factor of the distribution system. The power input to UPS system is through changeover
panel at substation, getting supply from mains (Normal Supply) as well as from local DG
set. The UPS power is extended from substation to each facility with dual feeder
arrangement.

Fig.4 Centralized Parallel Redundant UPS


Modified UPS distribution scheme (Decentralized): In this scheme, the small identical
capacity of UPS is located at various locations as per the facility load requirements. The
power input to UPS system is through changeover panel at substation, getting supply
from mains (Normal Supply) as well as from local DG set. The UPS power is extended
in the facility with dual feeder arrangement.
Advantages of Modified Configuration:

Increase in Reliability and reduction in single point failures


In the modified architecture the two parallel redundant UPS at two different
facilities are connected forming a four modular UPS parallel redundant
system. The data given in table.3 shows the improvement in reliability with
decentralized configuration.
Increase in efficiency of UPS

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022

In order to meet future load requirements often UPS is oversized. The system
runs more efficiently at its rated load. As the load drops from its rated capacity
the losses increase. In decentralized UPS the load requirements would be
nearer to its rated capacity, hence efficiency will be more.
Power Conditioning and Power Quality:
As the distance between UPS and protected equipment increases power
quality problems may rise. The noise would be less in decentralized UPS.

Fig.5 Decentralized Configuration of UPS


Description

Failure rate

Availability

Reliability

Configuratio
n in Fig.4
Configuratio
n in Fig.5

0.000087064

0.99999979

0.99998012

0.0000001016
7

0.99999999746

0.999999977

Down time
per year .r
0.000000207
6
0.000000002
5

Table.3 Reliability indices of Un-interrupted Power Supply


5. Conclusion
The reliability indices of existing configuration are evaluated for all three sources
of power at launch pad. In order to reduce the power interruption and to increase its
efficiency the possible modifications in the system is presented. The paper presented
the failure rate, availability and down time of configurations before and after
modifications. The proposed design of DG Supply improves the overall utilization factor

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022


which in turn reduces the running costs. The advantages of decentralized
interconnected UPS are presented in brief. The comparison between the present and
modified schemes is made based on the results obtained. The above study is based on
theoretical approach and data obtained from IEEE Standards Board. However,
reliability studies with real time data and cost-benefit analysis of proposed modifications
should be carried out to determine the optimum configuration of power distribution
system.
Appendix
Assumptions and Data for Reliability Calculations:
Sl.No

Component

Failure rate per


Year

1.

Circuit Breaker

0.0096

2.

Switchgear Bus
single breaker

3.

Bar

Repair time in
hour
r
8

for 0.0002

Protective Relay

0.0002

4.

Cable Terminations

0.0003

5.

Cable-1000ft
0-600V
601-15kV

0.004
0.006

6.

Transformer

0.0062

356.2

7.

Diesel Generator

0.1691

478

8.

Normal Power Source 2 1.644


assuming alternate source 2

9.

UPS

24

0.00002

0.52
72

References
[1]. W. Li, Risk Assessment of Power Systems, IEEE Press, 2005.
[2]. R. Billinton, Power-System Reliability Calculations, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 1973.
[3]. R.N. Allan and J.R. Ochoa, Modeling and Assessment of Station Originated
Outages for Composite Systems Reliability Evaluation, IEEE Transactions on
Power Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, February 1988.
[4]. ] J.J. Meeuwsen and W.L. Kling, Substation Reliability Evaluation including
Switching Actions with Redundant Components, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 4, October 1997.

UNIQUE PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (UPIN): E1-022


[5]. Design Guide for Rural Substations Design Guide for Rural Substations, Rural
Utilities Service, United States Department of Agriculture, June 2001.
[6]. R.E. Brown and T.M. Taylor, Modeling the Impact of Substations on Distribution
Reliability, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 14, No. 1, February 1999.
[7]. B. Retterath, A.A. Chowdury and S.S. Venkata, Decoupled Substation Reliability
Assessment, 8th International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to
Power Systems, Iowa State University, September 2004.
[8].IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and
Commercial Power System, IEEE Std 493-1990.