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CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

CHAPTER
CHAPTER 2
3

s1 s2 s 3 x .
(b) Find f x.
(c) Check your work in parts (a) and (b) by graphing f and f on the same screen.

CHAPTER
CHAPTER 34

1. Find the absolute maximum value of the function

f x

1
1

1 x
1 x2

2. (a) Let ABC be a triangle with right angle A and hypotenuse a BC . (See the

CD ( BC AC AB )
1
2

(b) If 12 C, express the radius r of the inscribed circle in terms of a and .

(c) If a is xed and varies, nd the maximum value of r.
A

3. A triangle with sides a, b, and c varies with time t, but its area never changes. Let be the

angle opposite the side of length a and suppose always remains acute.
(a) Express ddt in terms of b, c, , dbdt, and dcdt.
(b) Express dadt in terms of the quantities in part (a).

FIGURE FOR PROBLEM 2

4. Let a and b be positive numbers. Show that not both of the numbers a1 b and b1 a

(a) Express the length of the angle bisector AD in terms of x AB .

(b) Find the largest possible value of AD .

CHAPTER 5
4
CHAPTER

1. Show that

1
2
1
7
y
.
4 dx
1 1 x
17
24

2. Suppose the curve y f x passes through the origin and the point 1, 1. Find the value of

4.1 and 4.2

3. In Sections 5.1
5.2 we used the formulas for the sums of the k th powers of the rst n

integers when k 1, 2, and 3. (These formulas are proved in Appendix E.) In this problem we
derive formulas for any k. These formulas were rst published in 1713 by the Swiss mathematician James Bernoulli in his book Ars Conjectandi.
(a) The Bernoulli polynomials Bn are dened by B0x 1, Bnx Bn1x, and
x01 Bnx dx 0 for n 1, 2, 3, . . . . Find Bnx for n 1, 2, 3, and 4.
(b) Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to show that Bn0 Bn1 for n 2.

2 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

(c) If we introduce the Bernoulli numbers bn n! Bn0, then we can write

B0x b0
B2x

x2
b1 x
b2

2!
1! 1!
2!

B1x

x
b1

1!
1!

B3x

x3
b1 x 2
b2 x
b3

3!
1! 2!
2! 1!
3!

and, in general,
Bnx

1
n!

k0

n
bk x nk
k

where

n
k

n!
k! n k!

[The numbers ( nk ) are the binomial coefcients.] Use part (b) to show that, for n 2,
n

bn

k0

n
bk
k

and therefore
bn1

(d)
(e)

(f)
(g)
(h)

1
n

n
b0
0

n
b1
1

n
b2
2

n
bn2
n2

This gives an efcient way of computing the Bernoulli numbers and therefore the
Bernoulli polynomials.
Show that Bn1 x 1nBnx and deduce that b2n1 0 for n 0.
Use parts (c) and (d) to calculate b6 and b8 . Then calculate the polynomials B5 , B6 , B7 ,
B8 , and B9 .
Graph the Bernoulli polynomials B1, B2 , . . . , B9 for 0 x 1. What pattern do you
notice in the graphs?
Use mathematical induction to prove that Bk1x 1 Bk1x x kk! .
By putting x 0, 1, 2, . . . , n in part (g), prove that
1k 2 k 3 k n k k! Bk1n 1 Bk10 k! y

n1

Bkx dx

(i) Use part (h) with k 3 and the formula for B4 in part (a) to conrm the formula for
the sum of the rst n cubes in Section 4.2.
5.2.
(j) Show that the formula in part (h) can be written symbolically as
1
n 1 bk1 b k1
k1

where the expression n 1 bk1 is to be expanded formally using the Binomial

Theorem and each power b i is to be replaced by the Bernoulli number bi.
(k) Use part (j) to nd a formula for 15 2 5 3 5 n 5.equator that have exactly
the same temperature.

CHAPTER
CHAPTER 5
6

1. A solid is generated by rotating about the x-axis the region under the curve y f x, where

f is a positive function and x 0. The volume generated by the part of the curve from
x 0 to x b is b 2 for all b 0. Find the function f.

1k 2 k 3 k n k

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 3

CHAPTER
6
CHAPTER 8

(a) What are the domain and range of these functions?

(b) We know that T0x 1 and T1x x. Express T2 explicitly as a quadratic polynomial
and T3 as a cubic polynomial.
(c) Show that, for n 1, Tn1x 2x Tnx Tn1x.
(d) Use part (c) to show that Tn is a polynomial of degree n.
(e) Use parts (b) and (c) to express T4 , T5 , T6 , and T7 explicitly as polynomials.
(f) What are the zeros of Tn ? At what numbers does Tn have local maximum and minimum
values?
(g) Graph T2 , T3 , T4 , and T5 on a common screen.
(h) Graph T5 , T6 , and T7 on a common screen.
(i) Based on your observations from parts (g) and (h), how are the zeros of Tn related to the
zeros of Tn1 ? What about the x-coordinates of the maximum and minimum values?
1
(j) Based on your graphs in parts (g) and (h), what can you say about x1
Tnx dx when n is
odd and when n is even?
(k) Use the substitution u arccos x to evaluate the integral in part (j).
(l) The family of functions f x cosc arccos x are dened even when c is not an integer
(but then f is not a polynomial). Describe how the graph of f changes as c increases.

CHAPTER
11
CHAPTER 9

1. A circle C of radius 2r has its center at the origin. A circle of radius r rolls without slipping in

the counterclockwise direction around C. A point P is located on a xed radius of the rolling
circle at a distance b from its center, 0 b r. [See parts (i) and (ii) of the gure.] Let L be
the line from the center of C to the center of the rolling circle and let be the angle that L
makes with the positive x-axis.
(a) Using as a parameter, show that parametric equations of the path traced out by P are
x b cos 3 3r cos , y b sin 3 3r sin . Note: If b 0, the path is a circle of
radius 3r; if b r, the path is an epicycloid. The path traced out by P for 0 b r is
called an epitrochoid.
(b) Graph the curve for various values of b between 0 and r .
(c) Show that an equilateral triangle can be inscribed in the epitrochoid and that its centroid is
on the circle of radius b centered at the origin.
Note: This is the principle of the Wankel rotary engine. When the equilateral triangle
rotates with its vertices on the epitrochoid, its centroid sweeps out a circle whose center is
at the center of the curve.
(d) In most rotary engines the sides of the equilateral triangles are replaced by arcs of circles
centered at the opposite vertices as in part (iii) of the gure. (Then the diameter of the
rotor is constant.) Show that the rotor will t in the epitrochoid if b 3(2 s3 )r2.

P
P=P
2r

r
b

(ii)

(i)
FIGURE FOR PROBLEM 1

(iii)

4 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

CHAPTER
10
CHAPTER 12
S

1. (a)

sin 2 n sin

2n
2
4
8
2

(b) Deduce that

sin
cos cos cos

2
4
8
The meaning of this innite product is that we take the product of the rst n factors and
then we take the limit of these partial products as n l .
(c) Show that
2
s2 s2 s2

2
2

s2 s2 s2
2

This innite product is due to the French mathematician Franc ois Vite (15401603).
Notice that it expresses in terms of just the number 2 and repeated square roots.
2. Suppose that a 1 cos , 2 2, b1 1, and

an1 2 an bn
1

Use Problem 1 to show that

lim an lim bn
nl

sin

nl

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 5

CHAPTER
Chapter 23

Solutions

1
(b)  t
s
s



8 1 2 3{ 2 3{ 3{

1. (a) [1> 2]

CHAPTER
Chapter 3
4

Solutions

1.

4
3


3. (a) tan 

{
,{A0
{2 + 1

5. (a) | =

CHAPTER
4
Chapter 5

1 gf
1 ge
+
f gw
e gw

e
(b)
(b)



gf
gf
ge
ge
+f
 e
+f
sec 
gw
gw
gw
gw

e2 + f2  2ef cos 

1
2

Solutions

3. (a) E1 ({) = {  12 , E2 ({) =

1 2
2{

 12 { +

1
12 ,

E3 ({) = 16 {3  14 {2 +

1
12 {,

E4 ({) =

1 4
24 {

1 3
12 {

1 2
24 {

1
e8 =  30
;

 6


1
1
1
{5  52 {4 + 53 {3  16 { , E6 ({) = 720
{  3{5 + 52 {4  12 {2 + 42
,
E5 ({) = 120



1
1
E7 ({) = 5040
{6  73 {4 + 23 {2 
{7  72 {6 + 72 {5  76 {3 + 16 { , E8 ({) = 40,320
{8  4{7 + 14
3
 9 9 8

5
3
1
3
{  2 { + 6{7  21
E9 ({) = 362,880
5 { + 2{  10 {

(e) e6 =

1
720

1
,
42

1
30


,

(f ) There are four basic shapes for the graphs of Eq (excluding E1 ), and as q increases, they repeat in a cycle of four.
For q = 4p, the shape resembles that of the graph of  cos 2{; for q = 4p + 1, that of  sin 2{;
for q = 4p + 2, that of cos 2{; and for q = 4p + 3, that of sin 2{.
(k)

CHAPTER6 5
Chapter

1 2
12 q (q

Solutions

1. i ({) =

CHAPTER7 6
Chapter

+ 1)2 (2q2 + 2q  1)

s
2{@

Solutions

(b) W2 ({) = 2{2  1, W3 ({) = 4{3  3{

(e) W4 ({) = 8{4  8{2 + 1, W5 ({) = 16{5  20{3 + 5{,
W6 ({) = 32{6  48{4 + 18{2  1, W7 ({) = 64{7  112{5 + 56{3  7{
(f ) { = cos

n +
q

2

, n an integer with 0  n ? q; { = cos(n@q), n an integer with 0 ? n ? q

6 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

(g)

(h)

(i) The zeros of Wq and Wq+1 alternate; the extrema also alternate
( j) When q is odd, and so

U1
1

Wq ({) g{ = 0; when q is even, the integral is negative, but decreases in absolute value

as q gets larger.
]

(k)
0

;
? 2
if q is even
q2  1
cos(qx) sin x gx =
=
0
if q is odd

(l ) As f increases through an integer, the graph of i gains a local extremum, which starts at { = 1 and moves
rightward, compressing the graph of i as f continues to increase.

Solutions

1. (b)

e = 15 u

e = 25 u

e = 35 u

e = 45 u

CHAPTER10
9
Chapter

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 7

SOLUTIONS

Exercises

Chapter 32
CHAPTER

t
s

1 2 3{ 
q
r
s


G = { | 3  {  0, 2  3  {  0, 1  2  3  {  0
r
q
s


= { | 3  {, 2  3  {, 1  2  3  {



= { | 3  {, 4  3  {, 1  2  3  { = { | {  3, {  1, 1  3  {

1. (a) i ({) =

= {{ | {  3, {  1, 1  3  { } = {{ | {  3, {  1, {  2 }
= {{ | 1  {  2 } = [1> 2]
(b) i ({) =

t
s

1 2 3{ 


s

1
g 
i 0 ({) = t
1 2 3{
s

g{
1 2 3{
=



g 
1
1
t
s
2 3{

s

g{
2
2

3

{
2 1 2 3{

1
= t
s
s



8 1 2 3{ 2 3{ 3{
Note that i is always decreasing and i 0 is always negative.

(c)

Exercises

CHAPTER4 3
Chapter

1
1
+
1 + |{|
1 + |{  2|
;
1
1
A
A
+
A
A
1

{
1

({
 2)
A
A
A
? 1
1
+
=
1+{
1  ({  2)
A
A
A
A
A
1
1
A
A
+
=
1+{
1 + ({  2)

1. i({) =

if { ? 0
if 0  { ? 2
if {  2

; 1
1
A
A
2 +
A
A
(1

{)
(3

{)2
A
A
A
? 1
1
i 0 ({) =
2 +
A
(1
+
{)
(3

{)2
A
A
A
A
1
1
A
A
=

(1 + {)2
({  1)2

if { ? 0
if 0 ? { ? 2
if { A 2

We see that i 0 ({) A 0 for { ? 0 and i 0 ({) ? 0 for { A 2. For 0 ? { ? 2, we have

 2
 

{ + 2{ + 1  {2  6{ + 9
1
1
8 ({  1)
i 0 ({) =

=
=
, so i 0 ({) ? 0 for
(3  {)2
({ + 1)2
(3  {)2 ({ + 1)2
(3  {)2 ({ + 1)2
0 ? { ? 1, i 0 (1) = 0 and i 0 ({) A 0 for 1 ? { ? 2. We have shown that i 0 ({) A 0 for { ? 0; i 0 ({) ? 0 for
0 ? { ? 1; i 0 ({) A 0 for 1 ? { ? 2; and i 0 ({) ? 0 for { A 2. Therefore, by the First Derivative Test, the local
maxima of i are at { = 0 and { = 2, where i takes the value 43 . Therefore,

4
3

is the absolute maximum value of i .

8 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

3. (a) D =

1
ek
2

constant, so differentiating this equation with respect to w, we get



gD
1
g
gf
ge
=0=
ef cos 
+e
sin  +
f sin 

gw
2
gw
gw
gw




g
gf
ge
g
1 ge
1 gf
ef cos 
=  sin  e
+f

=  tan 
+
.
gw
gw
gw
gw
f gw
e gw
(b) We use the Law of Cosines to get the length of side d in terms of those of e and f, and then we differentiate
implicitly with respect to w: d2 = e2 + f2  2ef cos  


gd
ge
gf
g
gf
ge
2d
= 2e
+ 2f
 2 ef( sin )
+e
cos  +
f cos 

gw
gw
gw
gw
gw
gw


1
ge
gf
g
gf
ge
gd
=
e
+f
+ ef sin 
e
cos   f
cos  . Now we substitute our value of d from the Law
gw
d
gw
gw
gw
gw
gw
of Cosines and the value of g@gw from part (a), and simplify (primes signify differentiation by w):
ee0 + ff0 + ef sin  [ tan (f0@f + e0@e)]  (ef0 + fe0 )(cos )
gd

=
gw
e2 + f2  2ef cos 
=

ee0 + ff0  [sin2 (ef0 + fe0 ) + cos2 (ef0 + fe0 )]@ cos 
ee0 + ff0  (ef0 + fe0 )sec 


=
e2 + f2  2ef cos 
e2 + f2  2ef cos 

5. (a) Let | = |DG|, { = |DE|, and 1@{ = |DF|, so that |DE| |DF| = 1.

A=

1
2

3 =

1
2


3
2


3
4 .

Second,

=

1
2

1
2

Equating the two expressions for the area, we get


3
|
4

3
2

+ 12 |(1@{)



1
=
{+
{


3
4

3
2

3
4 |({

 |=

+ 1@{)

{
1
= 2
, { A 0.
{ + 1@{
{ +1

Another method: Use the Law of Sines on the triangles DEG and DEF. In 4DEG, we have
 60 +  + _G = 180

{
sin(120  )
sin 120 cos   cos 120 sin 
=
=
=
|
sin 
sin 
by a similar argument with 4DEF,
|=


3
2

 _G = 120  . Thus,


3
2

cos  + 12 sin 
sin 


{
= 23 cot  + 12 , and
|


{
cot  = {2 + 12 . Eliminating cot  gives = {2 + 12 + 12 
|

{
, { A 0.
{2 + 1

(b) We differentiate our expression for | with respect to { to nd the maximum:
 2

{ + 1  {(2{)
g|
1  {2
=
=
= 0 when { = 1. This indicates a maximum by the First Derivative Test,
2
2
g{
({ + 1)
({2 + 1)2
since | 0 ({) A 0 for 0 ? { ? 1 and | 0 ({) ? 0 for { A 1, so the maximum value of | is |(1) = 12 .

_D + _E + _G = 180

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 9

Exercises

CHAPTER5 4
Chapter

1
1
. Thus,

1 + {4
17
] 2
] 2
1
1
1
1
1
g{ 
? 4 and
g{ =
. Also 1 + {4 A {4 for 1  {  2, so
4
17
1 + {4
{
1 1+{
1 17
 3 2
] 2
] 2
{
1
1
1
7
4
g{
?
{
g{
=
= + =
. Thus, we have the estimate
4
3 1
24
3
24
1 1+{
1
] 2
7
1
1
g{ 

.
4
17
1
+
{
24
1

1. For 1  {  2, we have {4  24 = 16, so 1 + {4  17 and

3. (a) To nd E1 ({), we use the fact that E10 ({) = E0 ({)

1
.
2

E0 ({) g{ =

1 g{ = { + F. Now we
1 k l1
U1

U1
impose the condition that 0 E1 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 ({ + F) g{ = 12 {2 0 + F{ = 12 + F 
 12 .

 E1 ({) =

U

E1 ({) g{ =
{  12 g{ = 12 {2  12 { + G. But

So E1 ({) = {  Similarly E2 ({) =

F=
U1
U1

1
E2 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 12 {2  12 { + G g{ = 16  14 + G  G = 12
, so
0

U
U

1
1 2
1
1
g{ = 16 {3  14 {2 + 12
. E3 ({) = E2 ({) g{ =
{  12 { + 12
{ + H. But
E2 ({) = 12 {2  12 { + 12
2

U 1 1 3 1 2
U1
1
1
1
1
E3 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 6 {  4 { + 12
{ + H g{ = 24
 12
+ 24
+ H  H = 0. So
0


U
U
1
1 3
1
1 4
1 3
1 2
{. E4 ({) = E3 ({) g{ =
{  14 {2 + 12
{ g{ = 24
{  12
{ + 24
{ + I.
E3 ({) = 16 {3  14 {2 + 12
6
U1 1 4

U1
1 3
1 2
1
1
1
1
{  12
{ + 24
{ + I g{ = 120
 48
+ 72
+ I  I =  720
.
But 0 E4 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 24
So E4 ({) =

1 4
24 {

1 3
12 {

1 2
24 {

U1
0

1
720 .

Eq0 ({) g{ =

U1
0

Eq (0) = Eq (1) for q  2.

(c) We know that Eq ({) =

q  
1 S
q
en {qn . If we set { = 1 in this expression, and use the fact that
q! n=0 n

q  
S
eq
q
e
for q  2, we get eq =
n n . Now if we expand the right-hand side, we get
q!
n=0
 
 
 q 
 q 
 
eq2 + q1
eq1 + q
e . We cancel the eq terms, move the eq1 term to
eq = q0 e0 + q1 e1 + + q2
q q
k
l
 
 q 
 
 q 
= q: eq1 =  q1 q0 e0 + q1 e1 + + q2
eq2 for q  2, as required.
the LHS and divide by  q1

Eq (1) = Eq (0) =

(d) We use mathematical induction. For q = 0: E0 (1  {) = 1 and (1)0 E0 ({) = 1, so the

equation holds for q = 0 since e0 = 1. Now if En (1  {) = (1)n En ({), then
since

g
g{ En+1 (1

g
g{ En+1 (1

0
g
 {) = En+1
(1  {) g{
(1  {) = En (1  {), we have

 {) = (1)(1)n En ({) = (1)n+1 En ({). Integrating, we get

En+1 (1  {) = (1)n+1 En+1 ({) + F. But the constant of integration must be 0, since if we substitute { = 0 in
the equation, we get En+1 (1) = (1)n+1 En+1 (0) + F, and if we substitute { = 1 we get
En+1 (0) = (1)n+1 En+1 (1) + F, and these two equations together imply that


En+1 (0) = (1)n+1 (1)n+1 En+1 (0) + F + F = En+1 (0) + 2F  F = 0.
So the equation holds for all q, by induction. Now if the power of 1 is odd, then we have

10 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

E2q+1 (1  {) = E2q+1 ({). In particular, E2q+1 (1) = E2q+1 (0). But from part (b), we know that
En (1) = En (0) for n A 1. The only possibility is that E2q+1 (0) = E2q+1 (1) = 0 for all q A 0, and this implies
that e2q+1 = (2q + 1)! E2q+1 (0) = 0 for q A 0.
1
(e) From part (a), we know that e0 = 0! E0 (0) = 1, and similarly e1 =  12 , e2 = 16 , e3 = 0 and e4 =  30
.

e6 = e71 = 

1
7

%# \$
# \$
# \$
# \$
# \$
# \$ &
7
7
7
7
7
7
e0 +
e1 +
e2 +
e3 +
e4 +
e5
0
1
2
3
4
5



Similarly,




 




1
1
76 1
765
1
1
7
7
7
1
1+7 
+
+

=
1 + 
=
7
2
21 6
321
30
7
2
2
6
42
%# \$
# \$
# \$
# \$
# \$ &
9
9
9
9
9
e0 +
e1 +
e2 +
e4 +
e6
0
1
2
4
6



 


 
1
1
98 1
9876
1
987 1
= 1+9 
+
+

+
9
2
21 6
4321
30
3 2 1 42


9
21
1
1
1 +6
+2 =
=
9
2
5
30

1
e8 = 
9

Now we can calculate

# \$
5
1 S
5
E5 ({) =
en {5n
5! n=0 n




 
 
1
1
54 1
1
5
4
3
=
{ +5 
{ +
{ +5 
{
120
2
21 6
30
 5 5 4 5 3 1 
1
{  2{ + 3{  6{
= 120


 




1
1
1
65 1
65
1
{6 + 6 
{5 +
{4 +

{2 +
720
2
21 6
21
30
42
 6

5
1
5 4
1 2
1
= 720 {  3{ + 2 {  2 { + 42


  


 


1
1
76 1
765
1
1
{7 + 7 
{6 +
{5 +

{3 + 7
{
5040
2
21 6
321
30
42
 7 7 6 7 5 7 3 1 
1
{  2{ + 2{  6{ + 6{
= 5040

E7 ({) =



 


 



1
1
1
87 1
8765
87 1
1
{8 + 8 
{7 +
{6 +

{4 +
{2 + 
40,320
2
21 6
4321
30
2 1 42
30
 8

7
1
14 6
7 4
2 2
1
= 40,320 {  4{ + 3 {  3 { + 3 {  30

E8 ({) =

E9 ({) =




 


1
1
98 1
9876
1
{9 + 9 
{8 +
{7 +

{5
362,880
2
21 6
4321
30

1
362,880

 9 9 8
{  2 { + 6{7 

21 5
{
5

+ 2{3 

987
+
321

1
42

 

1
{ +9 
{
30
3

3
{
10

E6 ({) =

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 11

(f )

q=1

q=2

q=3

q=4

q=5

q=6

q=7

q=8

q=9

There are four basic shapes for the graphs of Eq (excluding E1 ), and as q increases, they repeat in a cycle of four.
For q = 4p, the shape resembles that of the graph of  cos 2{; For q = 4p + 1, that of  sin 2{; for
q = 4p + 2, that of cos 2{; and for q = 4p + 3, that of sin 2{.

(g) For n = 0: E1 ({ + 1)  E1 ({) = { + 1 

now assume that Eq ({ + 1)  Eq ({) =
]

]
[Eq ({ + 1)  Eq ({)] g{ =
Eq+1 ({) =

1
2



{0
 {  12 = 1, and
= 1, so the equation holds for n = 0. We
0!

{q1
. We integrate this equation with respect to {:
(q  1)!

{q1
g{. But we can evaluate the LHS using the denition
(q  1)!

Eq ({) g{, and the RHS is a simple integral. The equation becomes


1 q
1
1
{
= {q , since by part (b) Eq+1 (1)  Eq+1 (0) = 0, and so the
Eq+1 ({ + 1)  Eq+1 ({) =
(q  1)! q
q!
constant of integration must vanish. So the equation holds for all n, by induction.

(h) The result from part (g) implies that sn = n! [En+1 (s + 1)  En+1 (s)]. If we sum both sides of this equation from
s = 0 to s = q (note that n is xed in this process), we get

q
S
s=0

sn = n!

q
S
s=0

[En+1 (s + 1)  En+1 (s)]. But the

12 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

RHS is just a telescoping sum, so the equation becomes 1n + 2n + 3n + + qn = n! [En+1 (q + 1)  En+1 (0)].
But from the denition of Bernoulli polynomials (and using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus), the RHS is
U q+1
equal to n! 0
En ({) g{.
(i) If we let n = 3 and then substitute from part (a), the formula in part (h) becomes
13 + 23 + + q3 = 3! [E4 (q + 1)  E4 (0)]
1
1
= 6 24
(q + 1)4  12
(q + 1)3 +

1
(q
24

+ 1)2 

1
720

1
24

1
12

1
24

1
720




2
(q + 1)2 [1 + (q + 1)2  2(q + 1)]
(q + 1)2 [1  (q + 1)]2
q(q + 1)
=
=
=
4
4
2

(j) 1n + 2n + 3n + + qn = n!

q+1

En ({) g{ [by part (h)]

# \$
] q+1
] q+1 n # \$
n
S n
1 S
n
nm
em {
em {nm g{
= n!
g{ =
m
n! m=0 m
m=0
0
0
0

# \$
n
em {nm as ({ + e)n , as explained in the problem. Then
Now view
m
m=0
n
S

1 + 2 + 3 + + q =

U q+1
0

({ + e)n+1
({ + e) g{ =
n+1
n

q+1
=
0

(q + 1 + e)n+1  en+1
n+1

(k) We expand the RHS of the formula in (j), turning the el into el , and remembering that e2l+1 = 0 for l A 0:


15 + 25 + + q5 = 16 (q + 1)6  e6


= 16 (q + 1)6 + 6(q + 1)5 e1 + 62 51 (q + 1)4 e2 + 62 51 (q + 1)2 e4


= 16 (q + 1)6  3(q + 1)5 + 52 (q + 1)4  12 (q + 1)2


1
= 12
(q + 1)2 2(q + 1)4  6(q + 1)3 + 5(q + 1)2  1


1
(q + 1)2 [(q + 1)  1]2 2(q + 1)2  2(q + 1)  1
= 12
=

Exercises

+ 1)2 (2q2 + 2q  1)

CHAPTER
Chapter 65

Ue
0

[i({)]2 g{. Hence, we are given that e2 =

Ue
0

[i ({)]2 g{

for all e A 0. Differentiating both sides of this equation using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus gives
s
s
2e = [i (e)]2  i (e) = 2e@, since i is positive. Therefore, i({) = 2{@.

Exercises

CHAPTER
Chapter 86

1. (a) Wq ({) = cos(q arccos {). The domain of arccos is [1> 1], and the domain of cos is R, so the domain of Wq ({)

is [1> 1]. As for the range, W0 ({) = cos 0 = 1, so the range of W0 ({) is {1}. But since the range of q arccos { is
at least [0> ] for q A 0, and since cos | takes on all values in [1> 1] for |  [0> ], the range of Wq ({) is [1> 1]
for q A 0.

1 2
q (q
12

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 13

(b) Using the usual trigonometric identities, W2 ({) = cos(2 arccos {) = 2 [cos(arccos {)]2  1 = 2{2  1, and
W3 ({) = cos(3 arccos {) = cos(arccos { + 2 arccos {)
= cos(arccos {) cos(2 arccos {)  sin(arccos {) sin(2 arccos {)


= { 2{2  1  sin(arccos {) [2 sin(arccos {) cos(arccos {)]




= 2{3  {  2 sin2 (arccos {) { = 2{3  {  2{ 1  cos2 (arccos {)


= 2{3  {  2{ 1  {2 = 4{3  3{
(c) Let | = arccos {. Then
Wq+1 ({) = cos[(q + 1)|] = cos(| + q|) = cos | cos q|  sin | sin q|
= 2 cos | cos q|  (cos | cos q| + sin | sin q|) = 2{Wq ({)  cos(q|  |)
= 2{Wq ({)  Wq1 ({)
(d) Here we use induction. W0 ({) = 1, a polynomial of degree 0. Now assume that Wn ({) is a polynomial of degree n.
Then Wn+1 ({) = 2{Wn ({)  Wn1 ({). By assumption, the leading term of Wn is dn {n , say, so the leading term of
Wn+1 is 2{dn {n = 2dn {n+1 , and so Wn+1 has degree n + 1.

 

(e) W4 ({) = 2{W3 ({)  W2 ({) = 2{ 4{3  3{  2{2  1 = 8{4  8{2 + 1,

 

W5 ({) = 2{W4 ({)  W3 ({) = 2{ 8{4  8{2 + 1  4{3  3{ = 16{5  20{3 + 5{,

 

W6 ({) = 2{W5 ({)  W4 ({) = 2{ 16{5  20{3 + 5{  8{4  8{2 + 1 = 32{6  48{4 + 18{2  1,

 

W7 ({) = 2{W6 ({)  W5 ({) = 2{ 32{6  48{4 + 18{2  1  16{5  20{3 + 5{
= 64{7  112{5 + 56{3  7{
(f ) The zeros of Wq ({) = cos(q arccos {) occur where q arccos { = n + 2 for some integer n, since then


cos(q arccos {) = cos n + 2 = 0. Note that there will be restrictions on n, since 0  arccos {  . We

continue: q arccos { = n +
0 ? n +

2

? q

2

 arccos { =

n +
q

2

. This only has solutions for 0 

n +
q

2



 0  n ? q. [This makes sense, because then Wq ({) has q zeros, and it is a polynomial of

degree q.] So, taking cosines of both sides of the last equation, we nd that the zeros of Wq ({) occur at
{ = cos

n +
q

2

, n an integer with 0  n ? q. To nd the values of { at which Wq ({) has local extrema, we set

q
q sin(q arccos {)

0 = Wq0 ({) =  sin(q arccos {) 
=
2
1{
1  {2

 sin(q arccos {) = 0 

q arccos { = n, n some integer  arccos { = n@q. This has solutions for 0  n  q, but we disallow the
cases n = 0 and n = q, since these give { = 1 and { = 1 respectively. So the local extrema of Wq ({) occur at
{ = cos(n@q), n an integer with 0 ? n ? q. [Again, this seems reasonable, since a polynomial of degree q has at

14 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

most (q  1) extrema.] By the First Derivative Test, the cases where n is even give maxima of Wq ({), since then
q arccos [cos(n@q)] = n is an even multiple of , so sin (q arccos {) goes from negative to positive at
{ = cos(n@q). Similarly, the cases where n is odd represent minima of Wq ({).
(g)

(h)

(i) From the graphs, it seems that the zeros of Wq and Wq+1 alternate; that is, between two adjacent zeros of Wq , there
is a zero of Wq+1 , and vice versa. The same is true of the {-coordinates of the extrema of Wq and Wq+1 : between the
{-coordinates of any two adjacent extrema of one, there is the {-coordinate of an extremum of the other.
( j) When q is odd, the function Wq ({) is odd, since all of its terms have odd degree, and so

U1
1

Wq ({) g{ = 0. When

q is even, Wq ({) is even, and it appears that the integral is negative, but decreases in absolute value as q gets larger.
(k)

U1
1

Wq ({) g{ =

U1
1

{ = 1  x = , and { = 1  x = 0. So the integral becomes

]
cos(qx) sin x gx =

1
[sin(x
2



1 cos[(1  q)x]
cos[(1 + q)x]
=

2
q1
q+1
0
; 
 

1
1
1
1
1
A
A



if q is even
A
? 2
q1
q+1
q1
q+1
=

 

A
1
1
1
1
1
A
A



if q is odd
=
2
q1
q+1
q1
q+1
;
? 2
if q is even
q2  1
=
=
0
if q is odd

(l ) From the graph, we see that as f increases through an

integer, the graph of i gains a local extremum, which
starts at { = 1 and moves rightward, compressing the
graph of i as f continues to increase.

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 15

Exercises

CHAPTER
9
Chapter 11

1. (a) Since the smaller circle rolls without slipping around F, the amount of

arc traversed on F (2u in the gure) must equal the amount of arc of
the smaller circle that has been in contact with F. Since the smaller
circle has radius u, it must have turned through an angle of 2u@u = 2.
In addition to turning through an angle 2, the little circle has rolled
through an angle  against F. Thus, S has turned through an angle of
3 as shown in the gure. (If the little circle had turned through an angle
of 2 with its center pinned to the {-axis, then S would have turned only 2 instead of 3. The movement of the
little circle around F adds  to the angle.) From the gure, we see that the center of the small circle has coordinates
(3u cos > 3u sin ). Thus, S has coordinates ({> |), where { = 3u cos  + e cos 3 and | = 3u sin  + e sin 3.
(b)

e = 15 u

e = 25 u

e = 35 u

e = 45 u

(c) The diagram gives an alternate description of point S on the epitrochoid.

T moves around a circle of radius e, and S rotates one-third as fast with
respect to T at a distance of 3u. Place an equilateral triangle with sides of

length 3 3u so that its centroid is at T and one vertex is at S . (The
distance from the centroid to a vertex is

1
3

the equilateral triangle.)

As  increases by

2
,
3

the point T travels once around the circle of radius

e, returning to its original position. At the same time, S (and the rest of the

triangle) rotate through an angle of

2
3

about T, so S s position is

occupied by another vertex. In this way, we see that the epitrochoid traced
out by S is simultaneously traced out by the other two vertices as well.
The whole equilateral triangle sits inside the epitrochoid (touching it only with its vertices) and each vertex traces
out the curve once while the centroid moves around the circle three times.
(d) We view the epitrochoid as being traced out in the same way as in part (c), by a rotor for which the distance from its
center to each vertex is 3u, so it has radius 6u. To show that the rotor ts inside the epitrochoid, it sufces to show
that for any position of the tracing point S , there are no points on the opposite side of the rotor which are outside
the epitrochoid. But the most likely case of intersection is when S is on the |-axis, so as long as the diameter of the

rotor (which is 3 3u) is less than the distance between the |-intercepts, the rotor will t. The |-intercepts occur

16 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

when  =
t if 3

Exercises

or  =

3
2

 | = (3u  e), so the distance between the intercepts is 6u  2e, and the rotor will



3 (2  3 )
3u  6u  2e  e 
u.
2

CHAPTER
10
Chapter 12


 












cos = 2 2 sin cos
cos = 2 2 2 sin cos
cos
cos
2
2
4
4
2
8
8
4
2





    






cos
cos
= = 2 2 2 2 2 sin q cos q cos q1 cos
2
2
2
8
4
2

1. (a) sin  = 2 sin

= 2q sin






cos cos cos cos q
2q
2
4
8
2

(b) sin  = 2q sin






cos cos cos cos q
2q
2
4
8
2

@2q




sin 

= cos cos cos cos q .


sin (@2q )
2
4
8
2

sin {

= 1 with { = q :
{
2





sin 
@2q



cos


=
lim
cos
cos

cos
lim
q
q

sin (@2q )
2
4
8
2q
Now we let q
, using lim

{0

(c) If we take  =

2

sin 



= cos cos cos .

2
4
8

in the result from part (b) and use the half-angle formula cos { =

1
2 (1

+ cos 2{)

yy
xxu
xx
x x cos 4 + 1
yu
xw
x
+1

x
x cos 4 + 1
2
u
x
x
+1
+
1
w
cos 4 + 1 w
2
sin @2
2
= cos 4

@2
2
2
2
yv
x 
ys
x

2
x
v
x
x 2+ 2
2 +1
s



x
+
1
2
+1
w
2
2
2 2+ 2 w
2
2 +1
2
=
=

2
2
2
2
2
2
t
s

 s

2 2+ 2 2+ 2+ 2

=
2
2
2