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Fluid mechanics

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1 Aim

To determine the pressure distribution on a circular cylinder and calculate the pressure

coefficient.

2 Theory

External flows past objects have been studied extensively because of their many practical

applications. For example, airfoils are made into streamline shapes in order to increase the

lift, and at the same time, reducing the aerodynamic drag exerted on the wings. Fluid flow

patterns (at very low Reynolds numbers) past a blunt body, such as circular cylinder

resembles an ideal fluid (inviscid, incompressible). The potential flow solution to this

problem results in a relation between coefficient of pressure cp, pressure on the surface of

cylinder pc, static pressure p and velocity of the fluid u which is

cp =

( pc p )

= 1 4 sin 2

1 2

u

2

The drag force calculated by this potential flow solution comes out to be zero which is known

as d'Alembert's paradox . The paradox arises because viscous influences are neglected.

The presence of the fluid viscosity slows down the fluid particles very close to the solid

surface and forms a thin slow-moving fluid layer called a boundary layer. The flow velocity

is zero when it is in contact with the solid body to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition.

Inside the boundary layer, flow momentum is quite low since it experiences a strong viscous

flow resistance. Therefore, the boundary layer flow is sensitive to the external pressure

gradient (as the form of a pressure force acting upon fluid particles). If the pressure decreases

in the direction of the flow, the pressure gradient is said to be favorable. In this case, the

pressure force can assist the fluid movement and there is no flow retardation. However, if the

pressure is increasing in the direction of the flow, an adverse pressure gradient is said to

exist. In addition to the presence of a strong viscous force, the fluid particles now have to

move against the increasing pressure force. Therefore, the fluid particles could be stopped or

reversed, causing the neighboring particles to move away from the surface. This phenomenon

is called the boundary layer separation.

At higher Reynolds numbers, the boundary layer remains laminar and symmetrical (about axis

of the cylinder parallel to the flow direction) up to the separation points. Beyond the point of

separation, the boundary layer separates and eddies are formed.

15

3 Experimental Set-up

3.1 APPARATUS

Wind tunnel, Prandtl manometer, Betz manometer , circular cylinder (25mm diameter)

.

3.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

Experiment is carried out on a suction type of wind tunnel with 0.6 m x 0.6 m test section. A

circular cylinder of 25mm diameter is placed in the test section of the wind tunnel. A total

pressure probe is attached on the surface of the cylinder and connected to Prandtl manometer.

A pressure tab is attached to the wall of the wind tunnel before the test section and connected

to Betz manometer and this gives static pressure reading. A description of experimental setup

is shown in Figure 1.The wind tunnel is switched on and the experiment is started after the

flows attains steady state (steady periodic state in the wake region). Initially the cylinder is

kept at 0o angle and the pressure readings from both the manometers are taken. The cylinder

is rotated in steps of 5o or 10o up to 70o , in steps of 1o or 2o from 70o to 80o (to be able to

capture the separation point accurately) and further rotated in steps of 5o or 10o from 80o to

180o pressure readings from both the manometers are taken at each station. Since, the flow is

assumed to be symmetrical about the axis of the cylinder parallel to the flow direction

experimental readings between 180o and 360o are not taken.

1 2

7

9

8

4

3

1 - Circular cylinder

4 - Betz manometer

7- Wall Pressure Tap

2 - Test section

5 - Honey comb

8 Diffuser

3 - Prandtl manometer

6 - Nylon screens

9 - Fan

16

4 Procedure

Record the following observations and perform relevant calculations to obtain experimentally

observed Cp vs distribution.

( in degrees)

PPrandtl

PBetz

CP

(hp in mm of (hb in mm of (experimental)

water)

water)

CP

(theoretical)

CALCULATIONS:

c p (therotical ) =

( pc p )

= 1 4sin 2

1 2

u

2

c p (exp erimental ) =

(hp hb )

( pc p )

=

( pc p ) =00 (hp hb ) =00

Plot actual Cp distribution (along with theoretical distribution) on the cylinder surface.

Identify the points of separation.

Briefly mention in your report on why measuring Cp distribution is important.

17

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