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BIBLE ETHICS REVIEW GUIDE

6th Commandment

1. Identify the four types of killing.


- Murder: killing intentionally with premeditation (cold-blooded)
-Voluntary manslaughter: killing another intentionally but without premeditation
- Involuntary manslaughter: killing without intention or premeditation (recklessly)
- No malice or intention: killing on complete accident (i.e. friend with flying axe head)

2. What does it mean when we say humans are made in God’s image?
- We relate to God and rule with his authority
- We relate to others

3. In which covenant do we find God allowing shedding of blood as justice for murder? In which
book and chapter is this?
-The Noahic covenant
- Genesis 9

4. What is the Lex Talionis? Where do we find it? Does it encourage justice or revenge?
- Law of the Talon
- Exodus 21
- Justice

5. What two principles does God want to be upheld in capital punishment?


- Justice must be served
- Life must be protected and preserved

6. How many states have the death penalty?


- 37

7. What is the primary method of execution in those states?


- Lethal injection

8. What are the arguments against the death penalty?


-Undermines the dignity of humans made in the image of God and cheapens life
- Mistakes are irreversible
- You can’t reform a convict if he’s no longer alive
- Death sentences are expensive
- Death sentences are racially unequal
- Demand for ultimate judgment is inconsistent with Jesus’ ethic of forgiveness and
comparison

9. What are the arguments in favor of the death penalty?


- Expresses appropriate demand for justice in society
- It deters people from committing violent crimes
- It is not cruel and unusual

10. What can we safely say about the death penalty? When, by whom, and how is it used?
- Premeditated murder
- By the state
- The punishment fits the crime and it is not unjustly cruel (the criminal is still made in
God’s image

11. Who killed in the Bible and got off the hook without being put to death?
- David

12. What has to happen before capital punishment can be applied?


- Due process and a trial that presents evidence

13. Define Christian Pacifism (according to most Christian Pacifists).


- Christians should not participate in war

14. Define Just War.


- Participation in war can be morally acceptable under certain conditions

15. Give examples from Jesus, Paul, or Peter that pacifists use to justify their position.
Jesus:
a) “Do not resist an evil person” (Matthew 5:39).
b) “Turn the other cheek” (Matthew 5:39).
c) “Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Matthew 5:44).
d) “Do to others as you would have them do to you” (Luke 6:31)
e) “Be merciful, just as your father is merciful” (Luke 6:36)

Paul:
a) “Do not take revenge, my friends, but leave room for God’s wrath” (Romans 12:19).
b) “If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink”
(Romans 12:20).
c) “Do not be overcome with evil, but overcome evil with good” (Romans 12:21).

Peter:
a) “If you suffer for doing good and you endure it, this is commendable before God, to
this you were called” (1 Peter 2:20-21)
b) “When [Jesus] suffered, he made no threats” (1 Peter 2:23).

16. The Just War tradition goes back to which church leader?
- St. Augustine

17. What are the seven principles of the Just War theory? Be able to apply them to a hypothetical
situation.

1. The war in question must be promoted by a just cause


- No war of unprovoked aggression can ever be justified

2. The war in question must have a just intention


- It must intend to secure a lasting common environment for all parties involved

3. The war in question must be engaged as a last resort


- Exhaust all possible diplomatic efforts first

4. The war in question must be initiated with a formal declaration by legitimate


governments
- Not individuals or vigilante units

5. The war in question must have limited objectives


- Aim for peace, not the humiliation of another nation

6. The was in question must be executed with proportionate means


- The amount of force must be appropriate to the threat

7. The war in question must respect non-combatant immunity


- Civilians, wounded soldiers, and prisoners of war should not be attacked

18. What are the principles of self-defense?

1. There must be and imminent threat posed to the person and/or her property

2. The defendant must not have been at fault creating the peril

3. There must be no other reasonable alternative action

4. The defendant’s action must prevent an even greater harm (committing the lesser of
the two evils)

6. The level of force used should be no greater than equal to the perpetrator’s force

**Review Gill quiz questions


**Review Doing Right, pp. 202-210

19. Approximately how many deaths in the U.S. are attributed to suicide each year?
- 31,000

20. Do more men or more women commit suicide each year? Attempt?
- More men commit suicide
- More women attempt

21. What is the key question of suicide?


- Whose life is it?
- Two Perspectives:
- Life is mine (right-to-die)
- Life is God’s (right-to-life)

22. How did the Greek, Romans, Jews, and Islamic view suicide?

Greek:
- An offense against the state which was deprived of contributions by potentially useful
citizens
- Considered suicide appropriate in cases of terminal illness and some instances of honor

Romans:
- Honorable, but against the law for people to take their own lives before criminal
conviction in order to insure their family’s inheritance

Jews:
- Disapproved of suicide and saw no distinction between suicide and martyrdom
- Rabbinic law regards persons committing suicide as most frequently being of unsound
mind, and so not responsible for their own actions
- Those who committed suicide could receive burial rites

Islamic:
- Joins suicide, but distinguishes between suicide and martyrdom

23. Deuteronomy 32:39- “See now that I myself am He! There is no god besides me. I put to
death and I bring to life. I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my hand.”

24. What were Augustine and Aquinas’ view on suicide?

Augustine:
- “Thou shall not kill” refers to the killing of a man… therefore, not even thyself. For he
who kills himself kills nothing else than a man.

Aquinas:
- Against suicide
- Said a man/woman ought to love himself/herself and seek one’s own good as a part of
understanding “love your neighbor as yourself.”
- Life is God’s gift to men and he decides when it ends

25. Identify the stories of the following biblical characters:

Abimelech:
- Had his armor bearer kill him after a woman dropped a millstone on his head

Samson:
- Collapsed a temple on top of hundreds of Philistines and dies with them
Saul:
- Fell on his sword rather than be finished off by the Philistines at Mount Gilboa

Ahithopel:
- Joined Absalom against King David, and when he saw his man took doomed advice, he
went home and hanged himself

Zimri:
- Reigned for seven days as a king of Israel. When surrounded by Omri forces, he set fire
to the palace and died inside.

Jonah:
- Offered to give himself up to be thrown into the raging ocean and stop the storm

Judas Iscariot:
- Overcome with guilt after betraying Christ, he killed himself

26. What did the following philosophers say about suicide?

Friedrich Nietzsche:
- “Free to die and free in death, able to say a holy ‘No’ when the time for ‘Yes’ has
passed: thus he know how to die and to live.”

Albert Camus:
- “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide. Judging
whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of
philosophy.”

Peter Singer:
- “Without the religious beliefs… the moral teachings just hang in the air, without
foundations.”
- Argues we need reflection and critical scrutiny to discuss the issue of suicide and
euthanasia

27. What are some myths and realities about suicide?

Myth:
- People who talk about suicide don’t commit it

Reality:
- More than 75% of all completed suicides did things in the time leading up to their
deaths indicating to others they were in deep despair
Myth:
- Anyone who tries to kill himself/herself must be crazy.
Reality:
- Only around 10% of all suicidal persons are psychotic or have delusional beliefs.
Although depressed, they can often function and adequately manage their daily affairs.

Myth:
- If someone is going to kill themselves, nothing can stop them

Reality:
- The fact that they are alive is sufficient proof that part of them wants to remain alive.
They don’t want to die as much as they want their pain to end.

28. What are some basic things to remember when helping somebody who’s considering suicide?
-

29. How many Californians does it take to screw in a light bulb?


- None, they only screw in hot tubs

30. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal in all U.S. states except ___________?


- Oregon

31. What happens in a physician assisted suicide?


-The physician administers a substance that painlessly kills a patient who is terminally ill
and most likely suffering

32. Distinguish between ordinary and extraordinary means of treatment. Give examples of each.

33. What is Francis Schaeffer’s question?


- Who controls the controllers if behaviorism is applied society-wide? Without an
adequate basis for morality (only found in the Bible), manipulation by authoritarian
governments will destroy personal freedom

34. When and where is the earliest reference of abortion? What was the Ancient Greek’s attitude
towards abortion?
- China, 2700 BC, in a document by Emperor Shen Nung which mentions abortion
- Ancient Greece:
- Hippocrates and his famous oath committed to do no physical harm to any
human being
- Plato wrote that ill-conceived embryos should not be brought to full term; if
born, his parents should dispose of him
- Aristotle held the view that deformed children should be left exposed to die
- Philo of Alexandria differed and wrote against abortion

35. What were some reactions of church leaders throughout history against abortion?
- The Didache:
- stated that “thou shalt do no murder… thou shalt not procure abortion, nor
commit infanticide.”
- Tertollian:
- Infant/ fetus= human
- John Calvin:
- Infant/fetus= human

36. Describe the basis and outcome of the following trials:


- Roe vs. Wade (1973):
- Texan, Norma McCorvey, decided to fight the anti-abortion laws of her state.
She claimed rape but later admitted it was birth control failure. Texas law to that point
had permitted abortion only to save the mother’s life. The Supreme Court ruled the law
unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the 14th amendment. Thus,
ruled that the privacy of the mother overrides the right of the child to live.
- Doe vs. Bolton (1973):
- Made abortion on demand throughout pregnancy a reality. The court enlarged
the idea of health to include more that the physical life and health of the mother by
including psychological and emotional health. Abortion becomes available for virtually
any reason.
- Planned Parenthood vs. Danforth (1977):
- Challenged Missouri law that required the husband to give consent to abortion
and required a minor to get permission from her parents. Supreme Court rules that the
decision be left up to the woman and a pregnant teen is allowed to get an abortion
without parental consent.
- Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services (1989):
- A woman has a right to an abortion and the State may not hinder or place
obstacles in her way. However, she does not have the right to expect the State tax system
to pay for that abortion if she cannot afford to pay for it herself. It also prevented the use
of public medical facilities to provide non-therapeutic abortions.
- Planned Parenthood vs. Casey (1992):
- Law required a 24 hour waiting period, the woman must be given information
about the procedure/risks, and required woman’s husband to be informed. Court upheld
the concept of a 24 hour waiting period.

37. What are the four views on abortion? Explain each.


- Pro-Choice: a woman has the right to do with her body whatever she chooses. Abortion
should be safe, legal, and rare.
- Pro-Abortion: involves support for abortion on-demand throughout pregnancy
- Anti-Abortion: high passion and energy for unborn. Greatly limited to making abortion
illegal.
- Pro-Life: all life at all stages from womb to grave is sacred and must be defended and
enhanced.

38. What are the six views on “when the unborn child is human?”
- Viability- fetal sustained survival outside of womb
- Brain development- point at which brain begins to function (about 45 days)
- Sentience- the point at which the fetus has the capacity to experience sensations,
especially pain
- Quickening- the first time that the mother feels the baby in the womb
- Birth
- Implantation

7th Commandment

39. Define chastity.


- Sexual purity

40. What does Genesis 2:24 tell us about marriage?


- Marriage involves leaving home, holding fast to one’s spouse, and a one-flesh
relationship (procreation, intimacy, and pleasure)

41. What are the three purposes of marriage?


1. It fulfills God’s plan for creation. Husband and wife are meant to model the love God
has for people.
2. It is intended to lead to a family
3. It is intended for companionship (marriage is more than a sexual arena)

42. What are the five marriage exclusions? Why are they condemned?
1. Polygamy- God specifically says “a” man and “a” woman. The unity of husband and
wife does not work well with multiple spouses
2. Homosexuality- God’s model is a MAN and a WOMAN. A heterosexual partnership is
God’s intended pattern.
3. Divorce- marriage is intended to be a lifelong covenant
4. Extramarital sexuality- both adultery and premarital fornication are forbidden. Sex is
only lawful and beneficial within the marriage bond.
5. Pornography- sexual desire and love must take place within a relationship marked by
companionship. Pornography is a dangerous, highly-addictive shortcut.

43. What happened in the story with David, Bathsheba, and Uriah?
- David sinned against Bathsheba and her husband Uriah, whom David had murdered.

44. Which Old Testament book do we find a lot of specific condemnation of adultery?
- Leviticus

45. What was the penalty for adultery in the Old Testament?
- Death

46. How do the following passages teach us about adultery?


- Job 24:15- adultery is a sin that we desire to keep hidden
- Proverbs 6:32- adultery is a sin that lacks sense
- Ezekiel 23:37- adultery is idolatry of sex and a defacement of the good relationships
that God desires for us
- Matthew 5:28- Jesus expanded the issue of adultery to show us that lust was sinful
- I Corinthians 7:4- both men and women are full partners in the marriage covenant, and
so when one commits adultery, the other is sinned against.

47. What are the three reasons that marriage is essential for the way that sex should be enjoyed?
1. The ongoing experience. Two people who have slept together never see each other
through the same eyes.
2. In extramarital sex, strong issues like jealousy, secrecy, and pain eventually surface as
a result
3. Sex is to be a living picture of the spiritual intimacy that God’s people should enjoy
with Christ

48. What are the big picture applications? Be a…


1. Covenant keeper: someone who is loyal, trustworthy, and committed
2. Vow keeper: stubbornly hold to your promises in both easy and hard times
3. Other-seeker: pursue the best for your partner so that they experience growth, healing,
hope, and pleasure
4. Communicate: with authenticity and vulnerability

**Review Gill quiz over pp. 216-226

49. What are the six different layers of homosexuality?


1. Same-sex orientation with resolve not to act upon urges
2. Same-sex orientation with possible desire to act upon attraction
3. Sporadic homosexual experiences
4. Bisexuality
5. Committed, monogamous, homosexual relationships
6. Promiscuous homosexual activity

50. What are some common Christian responses to homosexuality?


- Homosexuality is the worst of all sins
- Homosexual relationships are non-ideal but lesser of other experiences
- Homosexual relationships/orientation is God given
- Homosexual orientation is a result of being part of a broken world where ALL of our
sexuality is fallen

51. What are some possible causes we mentioned for homosexuality?


- Genes
- Environmental toxins
- Sexual abuse
- Bad heterosexual experience (failure)
- Distant/abusive/absent parent of same sex
-Over-involved/dominant parent of opposite sex
- Cultural acceptance
- Parental hormones
52. Does the Bible ever identify a cause for homosexuality?
No!

53. What do the following Bible versus have to say about homosexuality?
- Genesis 19- Sodom is destroyed and a homosexual mob surrounds Lot’s house
- Leviticus 18:22 & 20:13- Homosexuality is viewed as detestable and there is a penalty
for homosexual behavior
- Romans 1:26-27- Homosexual behavior is a result of a general rebellion against God
- I Corinthians 6:9-10- Homosexual behavior (active & passive) is listed with many other
sins that disqualify from eternal life
- I Timothy 1:10- Homosexual perversion is listed under “law-breaking”

54. If a homosexual seeks change, what are some things that make “success” more likely?
- A religiously-oriented approach
- Strong motivation
- He’s had heterosexual sexual experience
- Involvement in active homosexual experiences is minimal

55. What are four ways that Christians should approach homosexual individuals?
1. definition- you must clarify that you hate the sin, but just as much, love the sinner.
Homosexuality is wrong, but a homosexual is still human (our sexuality is NOT our
identity)
2. Confidence- speaking with or befriending a homosexual doesn’t mean that they’ll hit
on you
3. Humility- homosexuality is NOT the worst of all sins and it is wrong to assume so.
Confess that you too have sins
4. Jesus- organizational church has treated homosexuals very poorly and this must
change. Where else can homosexuals see Jesus except in Christians?

**Review Gill quiz on pp. 242-249 and any Gill quiz for 8th, 9th, and 10th commandment

8th Commandment

56. What were the Israelite laws on restitution for theft and killing someone’s animals?
- Ox stolen & slaughtered: 5x repayment
- Sheep stolen and slaughtered: 4x repayment
- Any animal stolen and still alive: 2x repayment
- Confess before getting caught: full amount + 1/5 value repayment

57. How were the poor paid and cared for? Widows? Orphans? Those in debt?
- Left the edges of the fields unharvested so that widows and the poor could eat
- Wages were paid daily to poor/needy laborers
- Tithes were made available every third year to priests, poor, aliens, orphans, and
widows
- Every seventh year, debts were cancelled
- Merchants were to use honest weights and scales
58. How were the following Bible characters involved in theft?
- Naaman: stole/kidnapped a girl as a slave
- Gehazi: Elisha’s servant, took gifts from Naaman when not allowed
- Achan: took dedicated items from Jericho and was stoned
- Judas: was the treasurer for the disciples and embezzled the money

9th Commandment

**Review the passages over the “Excurses on Truthfulness”

10th Commandment

59. How are the following belongings of a neighbor categorized?


- House: necessities
- Spouse: relationships
- Servant: livelihood
- Ox/donkey: possessions

60. How is coveting involved in the following Biblical situations?


- Genesis 3: Adam and Eve covet the fruit
- I Kings 21: King Ahab covets Naboth’s vineyard
- Proverbs 6: coveting sex leads to self-destruction
- Micah 2: coveting leads to theft