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Hopscotch
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Hopscotchisachildren'sgamethatcanbeplayedwithseveral
playersoralone.Hopscotchisapopularplaygroundgamein
whichplayerstossasmallobjectintonumberedspacesofa
patternofrectanglesoutlinedonthegroundandthenhopor
jumpthroughthespacestoretrievetheobject.

Contents
1 Courtandrules
1.1 Thecourt
1.2 Playingthegame
2 Origin
2.1 Etymology
3 Variations
3.1 Laylay(orKhanebazi)
3.2 PeeversorPeever
3.3 Escargot
3.4 HimmelundHlle
3.5 KithKith
3.6 Potsy
3.7 Amarelinha
3.8 AustralianHopScotch
4 Worldrecord
5 Popularculture
6 References
7 Externallinks

Primaryschoolgirlsandboyshopscotchingin
Cuba,wherethegameisknownas"pon"

Courtandrules
HopscotchCourts,c.1900.[1]

Thecourt
Toplayhopscotch,acourtisfirstlaidout
ontheground.Dependingontheavailable
surface,thecourtiseitherscratchedoutin
dirt,ordrawnwithchalkonpavement.
Courtsmaybepermanentlymarkedwhere
playgroundsarecommonlypaved,asin
elementaryschools.Designsvary,butthe
courtisusuallycomposedofaseriesof
linearsquaresinterspersedwithblocksof
twolateralsquares.Traditionallythecourt
endswitha"safe"or"home"baseinwhich

English

English(simple)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hopscotch

Modern
schoolyard
courtdesigns
vary.

American
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theplayermayturnbeforecompletingthereversetrip.Thehomebasemaybeasquare,arectangle,ora
semicircle.Thesquaresarethennumberedinthesequenceinwhichtheyaretobehopped.

Playingthegame
Thefirstplayertossesthemarker(typicallyastone,coinorbeanbag)intothefirstsquare.Themarkermustland
completelywithinthedesignatedsquareandwithouttouchingalineorbouncingout.Theplayerthenhopsthrough
thecourse,skippingthesquarewiththemarkerinit.Singlesquaresmustbehoppedononefoot.Forthefirst
singlesquare,eitherfootmaybeused.Sidebysidesquaresarestraddled,withtheleftfootlandingintheleft
square,andtherightfootlandingintherightsquare.Optionalsquaresmarked"Safe","Home",or"Rest"are
neutralsquares,andmaybehoppedthroughinanymannerwithoutpenalty.Afterhoppingintothe"Safe",
"Home",or"Rest"theplayermustthenturnaroundandreturnthroughthecourse(square9,thensquares8and7,
nextsquare6andsoforth)ononeortwolegsdependingonthesquareuntilheorshereachesthesquarewiththeir
marker.Theythenmustretrievetheirmarkerandcontinuethecourseasstatedwithouttouchingalineorstepping
intoasquarewithanotherplayer'smarker.
Uponsuccessfullycompletingthesequence,theplayercontinuestheturnbytossingthemarkerintosquare
numbertwo,andrepeatingthepattern.
If,whilehoppingthroughthecourtineitherdirection,theplayerstepsonaline,missesasquare,orlosesbalance,
theturnends.Playersbegintheirturnswheretheylastleftoff.Thefirstplayertocompleteonecourseforevery
numberedsquareonthecourtwinsthegame.
Althoughthemarkerismostoftenpickedupduringthegame,historically,intheboy'sgame,themarkerwas
kickedsequentiallybackthroughthecourseonthereturntripandthenkickedout.

Origin
ItisattestedthatanancientformofhopscotchwasplayedbyRoman
children,[2]butthefirstrecordedreferencestothegameinEnglish
speakingworlddatebacktothelate17thcentury,usuallyunderthename
"scotchhop"or"scotchhopper(s)".[3]AmanuscriptBookofGames
compiledbetween1635and1672byFrancisWillughbyrefersto'Scotch
Hopper.Theyplaywithapieceoftileoralittleflatpieceoflead,upona
boardedfloore,oranyareadividedintooblongfigureslikeboards'.[4]In
PoorRobinsAlmanackfor1677,thegameisreferredtoas"Scotch
hoppers".Theentrystates,"Thetimewhenschoolboysshouldplayat
Scotchhoppers."The1707editionofPoorRobinsAlmanackincludesthe
followingphrase"LawyersandPhysicianshavelittletodothismonth,
sotheymay(iftheywill)playatScotchhoppers."[5]In1828Webster'sAn
AmericanDictionaryoftheEnglishlanguagealsoreferredtothegameas
'Scotchhopper'...'aplayinwhichboyshopoverscotchesandlinesinthe
ground.'[6]
Sincethegamewasknownandpopularintheseventeenthcentury,itis
logicaltosupposeitmayhaveexistedatleastafewdecades(orperhaps
evenmanycenturies)beforeitsearliestliteraryreferencebutnoconclusive
evidencehasyetbeenpresentedtosupportthistheory.

Ahopscotchgamewithatraditional
magpierhymeinMorecambe,
England

Etymology
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AccordingtotheOxfordEnglishDictionarytheetymologyofhopscotchisaformationfromthewords"hop"and
"scotch",thelatterinthesenseof"anincisedlineorscratch"[7]ThejournaloftheBritishArchaeological
Association,Volume26(datedMarch9,1870)states,"ThesportofHopScotchorScotchHoppersiscalledin
Yorkshire'HopScore,'andinSuffolk'ScotchHobbiesorHobby,'fromtheboywhogetsontheplayer'sback
whilsthoppingor'hicking,'asitistheretermedandinNorthBritainitisknownas'Peevers,Peeverels,and
Pabats.'"InCzechandSlovakboth"hop"and"scotch"(sko)meantojump.

Variations
Therearemanyotherformsofhopscotchplayedacrosstheglobe.[8]In
IndiaitiscalledStapuorKithKith,inSpainandsomeLatinAmerican
countries,it'srayuela,althoughitmayalsobeknownasgolosaor
charranca.InTurkey,itisSeksek(theverb"sek"meanstojumpwithone
foot).InRussianitisknownas(diminutiveforthewordmeaning
classes).InPoland,itiscalledklasy,meaningclasses(rectangularshape,
withtheuseofnomarkerbutwithspeakingnamesofvariousitemsofa
givenclass,e.g.coloursorflowers,whilejumpingonsuccessivefields)or
pajac,meaningbuffoon(humanshape,withtheuseofathrownmarker,
e.g.apieceofglassorstone).Swedennamethegame"hoppahage".In
Italythegameisknownascampana(meaningbell),ormondo(meaning
world).IntheNetherlandsandFlanders,itiscalledHinkelen.InBosnia,
CroatiaandSerbiaitiscalledkolica,meaninglittleschool.InMalaysia
themostpopularvariantiscalledtengteng.InMexico,itiscalled
bebeleche(mamaleche)meaningdrinkmilkoravioncitomeaninglittle
plane("probablybecauseoftheshape").InCubaandinPuertoRicoitis
called"LaPeregrina"(meaning"PilgrimGirl")andthesquaresrepresent
Avariationintheentranceof
the9ringsthepilgrimtravelerhastopassinordertoreachHeavenfrom
CEFETMG,BeloHorizonte,Brazil.
PurgatoryaccordingtoDante'sInferno.InRomaniathegameiscalled
otronandiswidelyplayedbychildrenalloverthecountry.InBrazilitis
calledamarelinha.Thenameevolvedfrommarelle,theFrenchnameforthegame,butwasidentifiedtotheradical
amarelo(yellow)anditsdiminutiveininho/a.InBreton,thenameisregordelech.TheAlbanianvariantiscalled
rrasavi,whichiscomposedoftwowords:rrasa("theflatstone",anobjectusedtoplaythegame)andvi("line",a
referencetothelinesthatcomprisethediagramofthecourse).InPhilippines,hopscotchiscalled"piko"(peeko)
andsometimesalsocalledkiki(kiki).ItscommoncourtinthePhilippineshassixsquares.InIndia,hopscotchis
called"thikrya",becausebrokenstonescalled'thikrya'areslidacrossthegridasplayershoptonextsquares.

Laylay(orKhanebazi)
Thegame'sgenericnameinPersianisLaylay.ThemostcommonformofLaylayinIranresemblestheolder
Westerntypesandusessixormore(alwaysanevennumber)sidebysidesquaressuccessively(vertically)
numbered.Theplayerusesapegoraflatstonethattheplayermustkicktothenextsquareastheplayeris
hopping.Ifeitherthestoneoraplayer'sfootlandsonaline,theplayerforfeitsthegame(orlosesaturn).Although
somewhatlesscommon,thecontemporaryWesterntypeisalsoplayed.

PeeversorPeever
IntheGlasgowarea,thegameiscalled"beds"or"Peever(s)"."Peever"isalsothenameoftheobjectwhichisslid
acrossthegridtolandinasquare.Inthe1950sand1960sinGlasgow,itwascommonforthepeevertobeashoe
polishtinfilledwithstonesordirtandscrewedshut.[9][10]
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Escargot
AFrenchvariantofhopscotchisknownasescargot(snail)ormarelle
ronde(roundhopscotch).Itisplayedonaspiralcourse.Playersmusthop
ononefoottothecenterofthespiralandbackoutagain.
Iftheplayerreachesthecenterwithoutsteppingonalineorlosingbalance
heorshemarksonesquarewithhisorherinitials,andfromthenonmay
placetwofeetinthatsquare,whileallotherplayersmusthopoverit.The
gameendswhenallsquaresaremarkedornoonecanreachthecenter,and
thewinneristheplayerwho"owns"themostsquares.[11]

HimmelundHlle
InGermany,Austria,andSwitzerlandthegameiscalledHimmelundHlle
(HeavenandHell)althoughtherearealsosomeothernamesused,
Streetmosaicintheshapeof
dependingontheregion.Thesquarebelow1orthe1itselfarecalledErde
hopscotchgameinBoston,USA
(Earth)whilethesecondtolastsquareistheHlle(Hell)andthelastoneis
Himmel(Heaven).Thefirstplayerthrowsasmallstoneintothefirstsquare
andthenjumpstothesquareandmustkickthestonetothenextsquareandsoon,however,thestoneortheplayer
cannotstopinHellsotheytrytoskipthatsquare.

KithKith
InIndia,hopscotchisalsocalledKithKith,Stapu,intheHindispeaking
areas,orEkhatDuhatinBengal,ChirpiinMaharashtra,Kuntebillein
Karnataka,PaandiinTamilNadu,andTokkuduBillainAndhraPradesh
andTelangana.Thesegameshavesimilarprinciplesinthatplayersmust
hopononefootandmustthrowthemarkerintherightsquare.Thegameis
mostlycommonamonggirlsinIndia,thoughsomeboysplaytoo.

Potsy
Girlsplayinghopscotch,Jaora,
MadhyaPradesh,India.

Hopscotchwas/iscalledPotsyinNewYorkCity.(Thenameprobably
referstothe"potsherd"thatwasusedasamarker.)[12]

Amarelinha
InBrazil,thisgameiscalledAmarelinha.

AustralianHopScotch
InAustralia,hopscotchisplayedinstages.Firststageisplayedbyhoppingperthestandardrules.Oncethisstage
iscomplete,theplayerispromotedtothenextstagecalled"jumps"wheretheplayerjumpsintoeachsquarewith
twofeet.Finalstageisthemostdifficultstagecalled"sizzles",whichissimilartojumpsexceptthelegsare
crossed.Thefirstplayertocompleteallthreestageswins.Ifaplayertouchesaline,heisdemotedtothestartof
hiscurrentstage.Foryoungerplayers,"helps"canbeused.Thesearelinestypicallyextendedatthesidesbetween
squares2and3soyoungerplayerscanusethesetogetclosertothrowingthe"tor"intotherequiredsquare.

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Worldrecord
ThecurrentGuinnessBookofWorldRecordsholderforthefastesthopscotchgameisAshrita
Furman,at1minuteand8seconds.[13]

Popularculture
A2010PBSdocumentary,NewYorkStreetGames,includespotsy,whichisdescribedasa
"girl'sgame".[14]
JulioCortazarbasedhisnovelHopscotchonthisgame.

References
1.Beard,D.C.(1907).TheOutdoorHandyBook:ForthePlayground,Field,andForest.New
AHungarian
York:CharlesScribner'sSons.pp.356357.
hopscotch
2."HopscotchToysandGames".
version
3.ThomasShadwell(1668).TheSullenLovers.:'PlayatCatt,Stoolball,ScotchhoppandTrapball.'
CitedinOxfordEnglishDictionary,Thirdedition,June2011onlineversionMarch2012
4.Themanuscriptwaspublishedin2003:seeCram,David,Forgeng,JeffreyL.,andJohnston,
Dorothy,TheBookofGamesofFrancisWillughby(16351672).ASeventeenthcenturyTreatiseonSports,Games,and
Pastimes(Aldershot,2003)
5.ThejournaloftheBritishArchaeologicalAssociation,Volume26.
6.OxfordEnglishDictionary,Thirdedition,June2011onlineversionMarch2012
7.OEDOnline.March2012.OxfordUniversityPress.24April2012:'scotch:Anincision,acut,esp.alonggashmadein
thefleshascoreanotch.Obs.(arch.andEng.regional(E.Anglian)inlateruse).'
8.Lankford,MaryT.KarenDugan(1992).HopscotchAroundtheWorld.NewYork:WilliamMorrow.ISBN0688
147453.
9.[1](http://www.scotslanguage.com/articles/words/601)
10."Children'sGames:Beds(Peever)".OurGlasgowStory.20050117.Retrieved20150310.
11."ClosedforMaintenance".SuperCoolToyStore.Retrieved20150310.
12."TheBigApple:Potsy".Barrypopik.com.20050307.Retrieved20150310.
13.[2](http://www.ashrita.com/records/index.html)Archived(https://web.archive.org/web/20100413104156/http://www.ashr
ita.com/records/index.html)April13,2010,attheWaybackMachine.
14.HectorElizondo(Narrator)MattLevy(Director).NewYorkStreetGames(Motionpicture).NewYorkCity.Retrieved
14Nov2011.

Externallinks
MediarelatedtoHopscotchatWikimediaCommons
HowtoplayHopscotch(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBeiSs6yOlI)onYouTube
KidsinPuertoRicoplayingPeregrina(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T79NVh_46zA)onYouTube
MayaAngelou'spoem'HarlemHopscotch'(http://www.oprah.com/entertainment/MayaAngelousHarlemH
opscotchOfficialMusicVideo_1)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hopscotch&oldid=717671521"
Categories: Children'sgames Sindhigames

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